Bridging Boundaries through Regional Marine Research

COMMITTEE ON THE ASSESSMENT OF REGIONAL MARINE RESEARCH PROGRAMS

OCEAN STUDIES BOARD

COMMISSION ON GEOSCIENCES, ENVIRONMENT, AND RESOURCES

NATIONAL RESEARCH COUNCIL

NATIONAL ACADEMY PRESS
Washington, D.C.



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Bridging Boundaries through Regional Marine Research Bridging Boundaries through Regional Marine Research COMMITTEE ON THE ASSESSMENT OF REGIONAL MARINE RESEARCH PROGRAMS OCEAN STUDIES BOARD COMMISSION ON GEOSCIENCES, ENVIRONMENT, AND RESOURCES NATIONAL RESEARCH COUNCIL NATIONAL ACADEMY PRESS Washington, D.C.

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Bridging Boundaries through Regional Marine Research NATIONAL ACADEMY PRESS 2101 Constitution Avenue, NW Washington, DC 20418 NOTICE: The project that is the subject of this report was approved by the Governing Board of the National Research Council, whose members are drawn from the councils of the National Academy of Sciences, the National Academy of Engineering, and the Institute of Medicine. The members of the committee responsible for the report were chosen for their special competencies and with regard for appropriate balance. This report and the committee were supported by a grant from the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration and the Sea Grant College of Maine. The views expressed herein are those of the authors and do not necessarily reflect the views of the sponsors. International Standard Book Number 0-309-06832-0 Additional copies are available from the National Academy Press, 2101 Constitution Ave., NW, Lockbox 285, Washington, DC 20055: (800) 624-6242 or (202) 334-3313 (in the Washington metropolitan area); Internet <http://www.nap.edu>. Copyright 2000 by the National Academy of Sciences. All rights reserved. Printed in the United States of America

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Bridging Boundaries through Regional Marine Research THE NATIONAL ACADEMIES National Academy of Sciences National Academy of Engineering Institute of Medicine National Research Council The National Academy of Sciences is a private, nonprofit, self-perpetuating society of distinguished scholars engaged in scientific and engineering research, dedicated to the furtherance of science and technology and to their use for the general welfare. Upon the authority of the charter granted to it by the Congress in 1863, the Academy has a mandate that requires it to advise the federal government on scientific and technical matters. Dr. Bruce M. Alberts is president of the National Academy of Sciences. The National Academy of Engineering was established in 1964, under the charter of the National Academy of Sciences, as a parallel organization of outstanding engineers. It is autonomous in its administration and in the selection of its members, sharing with the National Academy of Sciences the responsibility for advising the federal government. The National Academy of Engineering also sponsors engineering programs aimed at meeting national needs, encourages education and research, and recognizes the superior achievements of engineers. Dr. William A. Wulf is president of the National Academy of Engineering. The Institute of Medicine was established in 1970 by the National Academy of Sciences to secure the services of eminent members of appropriate professions in the examination of policy matters pertaining to the health of the public. The Institute acts under the responsibility given to the National Academy of Sciences by its congressional charter to be an adviser to the federal government and, upon its own initiative, to identify issues of medical care, research, and education. Dr. Kenneth I. Shine is president of the Institute of Medicine. The National Research Council was organized by the National Academy of Sciences in 1916 to associate the broad community of science and technology with the Academy's purposes of furthering knowledge and advising the federal government. Functioning in accordance with general policies determined by the Academy, the Council has become the principal operating agency of both the National Academy of Sciences and the National Academy of Engineering in providing services to the government, the public, and the scientific and engineering communities. The Council is administered jointly by both Academies and the Institute of Medicine. Dr. Bruce M. Alberts and Dr. William A. Wulf are chairman and vice chairman, respectively, of the National Research Council.

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Bridging Boundaries through Regional Marine Research COMMITTEE ON THE ASSESSMENT OF REGIONAL MARINE RESEARCH PROGRAMS THOMAS MALONE, Chair, University of Maryland Center for Environmental Sciences, Cambridge BRIAN BAIRD, California Resources Agency, Sacramento MARGARET MARY BRADY, Massachusetts Department of Environmental Protection, Boston ROBERT DEAN, University of Florida, Gainesville D. JAY GRIMES, The University of Southern Mississippi, Ocean Springs SUSAN HENRICHS, University of Alaska, Fairbanks JOHN KNAUSS, University of Rhode Island, Narragansett JOHN BRADFORD MOONEY, JR., J. Brad Mooney Associates, Ltd., Arlington, Virginia MICHAEL MULLIN, University of California, San Diego ROBERT O'BOYLE, Bedford Institute of Oceanography, Nova Scotia, Canada ROBERT PAINE, University of Washington, Seattle LESLIE ROSENFELD, Naval Postgraduate School, Monterey, California Staff SUSAN ROBERTS, Study Director SHARI MAGUIRE, Research Assistant

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Bridging Boundaries through Regional Marine Research OCEAN STUDIES BOARD KENNETH BRINK, Chair, Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution, Massachusetts ALICE ALLDREDGE, University of California, Santa Barbara DAVID BRADLEY, Pennsylvania State University, State College DAN BROMLEY, University of Wisconsin, Madison OTIS BROWN, University of Miami, Florida JAMES COLEMAN, Louisiana State University, Baton Rouge CORT COOPER, Chevron Petroleum Technology, San Ramon, California CARL FRIEHE, University of California, Irvine RAY HILBORN, University of Washington, Seattle EDWARD HOUDE, University of Maryland, Solomons JOHN KNAUSS, University of California, San Diego ROBERT KNOX, University of California, San Diego RAY KRONE, University of California, Davis CINDY LEE, State University of New York, Stony Brook ROGER LUKAS, University of Hawaii, Manoa NANCY MARCUS, Florida State University, Tallahassee NEIL OPDYKE, University of Florida, Gainesville MICHAEL ORBACH, Duke University Marine Laboratory, Beaufort, North Carolina WALTER SCHMIDT, Florida Geological Survey, Tallahassee GEORGE SOMERO, Stanford University, Pacific Grove, California KARL TUREKIAN, Yale University, New Haven, Connecticut Staff MORGAN GOPNIK, Director EDWARD R. URBAN, JR., Senior Program Officer DAN WALKER, Senior Program Officer ALEXANDRA ISERN, Program Officer SUSAN ROBERTS, Program Officer ROBIN MORRIS, Financial Associate LORA TAYLOR, Office Manager SHARI MAGUIRE, Research Assistant ANN CARLISLE, Senior Project Assistant JODI BACHIM, Project Assistant MEGAN KELLY, Project Assistant

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Bridging Boundaries through Regional Marine Research COMMISSION ON GEOSCIENCES, ENVIRONMENT, AND RESOURCES GEORGE M. HORNBERGER, Chair, University of Virginia, Charlottesville RICHARD A. CONWAY, Union Carbide Corporation (Retired), S. Charleston, West Virginia THOMAS E. GRAEDEL, Yale University, New Haven, Connecticut THOMAS J. GRAFF, Environmental Defense Fund, Oakland, California EUGEENIA KALNAY, University of Oklahoma, Norman DEBRA KNOPMAN, Progressive Policy Institute, Washington, DC KAI N. LEE, Williams College, Williamstown, Massachusetts JOHN B. MOONEY, JR., J. Brad Mooney Associates, Ltd., Arlington, Virginia HUGH C. MORRIS, El Dorado Gold Corporation, Vancouver, British Columbia H. RONALD PULLIAM, University of Georgia, Athens MILTON RUSSELL, Joint Institute for Energy and Environment and University of Tennessee (Emeritus), Knoxville THOMAS C. SCHELLING, University of Maryland, College Park ANDREW R. SOLOW, Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution, Massachusetts VICTORIA J. TSCHINKEL, Landers and Parsons, Tallahassee, Florida E-AN ZEN, University of Maryland, College Park MARY LOU ZOBACK, U.S. Geological Survey, Menlo Park, California Staff ROBERT M. HAMILTON, Executive Director GREGORY H. SYMMES, Associate Executive Director JEANETTE SPOON, Administrative and Financial Officer DAVID FEARY, Scientific Reports Officer SANDI FITZPATRICK, Administrative Associate MARQUITA SMITH, Administrative Assistant/Technology Analyst

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Bridging Boundaries through Regional Marine Research Acknowledgments The Committee for the Assessment of Regional Marine Research Programs is very grateful to the many individuals who played a significant role in the completion of this study. The committee met three times, and extends its gratitude to the following individuals who appeared before the full committee or otherwise provided background information and discussed pertinent issues: Donald Anderson, Ronald Baird, Wendell Brown, George Crozier, Michael Dagg, Gregory Ducote, Paul Howard, Terry Howey, Lewis Incze, David Johnson, Matt Liebman, Alexis Lugo-Fernandez, Gene Meier, Judy Pederson, Donald Scavia, Peter Shelley, David Townsend, Robert Wall, Gordon Wallace, and Dolores Wesson. This report has been reviewed in draft form by individuals chosen for their diverse perspectives and technical expertise, in accordance with procedures approved by the National Research Council's (NRC) Report Review Committee. The purpose of this independent review is to provide candid and critical comments that will assist the institution in making the published report as sound as possible and to ensure that the report meets institutional standards for objectivity, evidence, and responsiveness to the study charge. The review comments and draft manuscript remain confidential to protect the integrity of the deliberative process. We wish to thank the following individuals for their participation in the review of this report: Robert Bailey (Oregon Department of Land Conservation and Development), Donald F. Boesch (University of Maryland System), B.J. Copeland (North Carolina State University), Robert Dalrymple (University of Delaware), Barbara Hickey (University of Washington), Richard Jahnke (Skidaway Institution of Oceanography), and Andrew R. Solow (Woods Hole

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Bridging Boundaries through Regional Marine Research Oceanographic Institution). While the individuals listed above provided constructive comments and suggestions, it must be emphasized that responsibility for the final content of this report rests entirely with the authoring committee and the institution. The committee gratefully acknowledges the efforts of the Ocean Studies Board (OSB) staff who helped produce this report, particularly the study director, Susan Roberts, and the research assistant, Shari Maguire. For their advice and efforts in bringing this activity to fruition the committee wishes to thank Morgan Gopnik, OSB Director and Ed Urban, OSB Senior Program Officer. The committee is also grateful for the assistance provided by the following individuals who provided additional background material, data, publication lists, and figures for consideration and use by the committee: William Balch, Eugenia Braasch, Leon Cammen, Philip Gschwend, Lewis Incze, Maureen Keller, Joseph Kelley, Dennis Leigh, S. Bradley Moran, Vijay Panchang, Neal Pettigrew, Cynthia Pilskaln, Nancy Rabalais, Sandra Shumway, Robert Talbot, and Huijie Xue. For her assistance in data gathering, preparation, and consultation the committee extends its thanks to Constance Carter (Library of Congress).

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Bridging Boundaries through Regional Marine Research Contents     EXECUTIVE SUMMARY   1 1   INTRODUCTION   9     The Nature of Environmental Problems in Coastal Ecosystems,   11     Resource and Environmental Management in the Coastal Zone,   13 2   REGIONAL MARINE RESEARCH, WHY DO IT?   15     Linking Local and Global Scales,   16     Research in the Context of Sustained Observations,   17     State and Federal Collaboration in Response to Environmental Crises and Events,   19     Problems Transcend Geopolitical Boundaries, Agencies, and Disciplines,   21     Data Management,   23 3   PROCESSES BY WHICH REGIONAL MARINE RESEARCH NEEDS AND PRIORITIES ARE DEFINED   25     Community Plans,   26     Scientists' Plans,   31     Agency Plans,   35     Legislative Mandates,   41

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Bridging Boundaries through Regional Marine Research 4   REGIONAL MARINE RESEARCH PROGRAMS   44     Nutrient Enhanced Coastal Ocean Productivity Case Study,   44     Gulf of Maine Regional Marine Research Program Case Study,   50     Other Selected Regional Marine Research Projects,   57 5   BARRIERS TO AND CONSTRAINTS ON REGIONAL MARINE RESEARCH   63 6   CONCLUSIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS   67     Conclusions,   67     Recommendations,   70     REFERENCES   76     APPENDIXES         A Steering Committee and Staff Biographies   83     B Public Meeting Speakers and Presentation Topics   87     C Gulf of Maine Regional Marine Research Program (GOM-RMRP) and Nutrient Enhanced Coastal Ocean Productivity (NECOP) Program Funding Spreadsheets   91     D Acronyms and Abbreviations   96     E Gulf of Maine RMRP and NECOP Publications   99