OCEANOGRAPHY AND MINE WARFARE

Ocean Studies Board

Commission on Geosciences, Environment, and Resources

National Research Council

NATIONAL ACADEMY PRESS
Washington, D.C.



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Oceanography and Mine Warfare OCEANOGRAPHY AND MINE WARFARE Ocean Studies Board Commission on Geosciences, Environment, and Resources National Research Council NATIONAL ACADEMY PRESS Washington, D.C.

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Oceanography and Mine Warfare NATIONAL ACADEMY PRESS 2101 Constitution Avenue, N.W. Washington, DC 20418 NOTICE: The project that is the subject of this report was approved by the Governing Board of the National Research Council, whose members are drawn from the councils of the National Academy of Sciences, the National Academy of Engineering, and the Institute of Medicine. The members of the committee responsible for the report were chosen for their special competencies and with regard for appropriate balance. This report and the committee were supported by a grant from the Office of Naval Research and the Oceanographer of the Navy. The views expressed herein are those of the authors and do not necessarily reflect the views of the sponsors. International Standard Book Number 0-309-06798-7 Additional copies are available from the National Academy Press, 2101 Constitution Avenue, NW, Lockbox 285, Washington, DC 20055; (800) 624-6242 or (202) 334-3313 (in the Washington metropolitan area); Internet: http://www.nap.edu. Copyright 2000 by the National Academy of Sciences. All rights reserved. Printed in the United States of America.

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Oceanography and Mine Warfare THE NATIONAL ACADEMIES National Academy of Sciences National Academy of Engineering Institute of Medicine National Research Council The National Academy of Sciences is a private, nonprofit, self-perpetuating society of distinguished scholars engaged in scientific and engineering research, dedicated to the furtherance of science and technology and to their use for the general welfare. Upon the authority of the charter granted to it by the Congress in 1863, the Academy has a mandate that requires it to advise the federal government on scientific and technical matters. Dr. Bruce M. Alberts is president of the National Academy of Sciences. The National Academy of Engineering was established in 1964, under the charter of the National Academy of Sciences, as a parallel organization of outstanding engineers. It is autonomous in its administration and in the selection of its members, sharing with the National Academy of Sciences the responsibility for advising the federal government. The National Academy of Engineering also sponsors engineering programs aimed at meeting national needs, encourages education and research, and recognizes the superior achievements of engineers. Dr. William A. Wulf is president of the National Academy of Engineering. The Institute of Medicine was established in 1970 by the National Academy of Sciences to secure the services of eminent members of appropriate professions in the examination of policy matters pertaining to the health of the public. The Institute acts under the responsibility given to the National Academy of Sciences by its congressional charter to be an adviser to the federal government and, upon its own initiative, to identify issues of medical care, research, and education. Dr. Kenneth I. Shine is president of the Institute of Medicine. The National Research Council was organized by the National Academy of Sciences in 1916 to associate the broad community of science and technology with the Academy's purposes of furthering knowledge and advising the federal government. Functioning in accordance with general policies determined by the Academy, the Council has become the principal operating agency of both the National Academy of Sciences and the National Academy of Engineering in providing services to the government, the public, and the scientific and engineering communities. The Council is administered jointly by both Academies and the Institute of Medicine. Dr. Bruce M. Alberts and Dr. William A. Wulf are chairman and vice chairman, respectively, of the National Research Council.

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Oceanography and Mine Warfare SYMPOSIUM STEERING COMMITTEE DAVID BRADLEY, Chair, Pennsylvania State University, State College TONY CLARK, North Carolina State University, Raleigh ROBERT HOLMAN, Oregon State University, Corvallis MARY JANE PERRY, University of Maine, Orono Federal Agency Liaisons MELBOURNE BRISCOE, Office of Naval Research, Arlington, Virginia LINDA GLOVER, Office of the Oceanographer of the Navy, Washington, D.C. KATHY SHANEBROOK, Chief of Naval Operations, Washington, D.C. NRC Staff ALEXANDRA ISERN, Study Director DAN WALKER, Symposium Manager and Study Director SHARI MAGUIRE, Research Assistant JENNIFER WRIGHT, Senior Project Assistant

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Oceanography and Mine Warfare OCEAN STUDIES BOARD KENNETH BRINK, Chair, Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution, Massachusetts ALICE ALLDREDGE, University of California, Santa Barbara DAVID BRADLEY, Pennsylvania State University, State College DAN BROMLEY, University of Wisconsin, Madison OTIS BROWN, University of Miami, Florida JAMES COLEMAN, Louisiana State University, Baton Rouge CORTIS COOPER, Chevron Petroleum Technology, San Ramon, California CARL FRIEHE, University of California, Irvine RAY HILBORN, University of Washington, Seattle EDWARD HOUDE, University of Maryland, Solomons JOHN KNAUSS, University of Rhode Island, Narragansett ROBERT KNOX, University of California, San Diego RAY KRONE, University of California, Davis CINDY LEE, State University of New York, Stony Brook ROGER LUKAS, University of Hawaii, Manoa NANCY MARCUS, Florida State University, Tallahassee NEIL OPDYKE, University of Florida, Gainesville MICHAEL ORBACH, Duke University Marine Laboratory, Beaufort, North Carolina WALTER SCHMIDT, Florida Geological Survey, Tallahassee GEORGE SOMERO, Stanford University, Pacific Grove, California KARL TUREKIAN, Yale University, New Haven, Connecticut Staff MORGAN GOPNIK, Director EDWARD R. URBAN, JR., Senior Program Officer DAN WALKER, Senior Program Officer ALEXANDRA ISERN, Program Officer SUSAN ROBERTS, Program Officer ROBIN MORRIS, Financial Associate LORA TAYLOR, Office Manager SHARI MAGUIRE, Research Assistant ANN CARLISLE, Senior Project Assistant JODI BACHIM, Project Assistant MEGAN KELLY, Project Assistant

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Oceanography and Mine Warfare COMMISSION ON GEOSCIENCES, ENVIRONMENT, AND RESOURCES GEORGE M. HORNBERGER, Chair, University of Virginia, Charlottesville RICHARD A. CONWAY, Union Carbide Corporation (retired), S. Charleston, West Virginia THOMAS E. GRAEDEL, Yale University, New Haven, Connecticut THOMAS J. GRAFF, Environmental Defense Fund, Oakland, California EUGENIA KALNAY, University of Oklahoma, Norman DEBRA KNOPMAN, Progressive Policy Institute, Washington, D.C. KAI N. LEE, Williams College, Williamstown, Massachusetts BRAD MOONEY, J. Brad Mooney Associates, Ltd., Arlington, Virginia HUGH C. MORRIS, El Dorado Gold Corporation, Vancouver, British Columbia H. RONALD PULLIAM, University of Georgia, Athens MILTON RUSSELL, Joint Institute for Energy and Environment and University of Tennessee (Emeritus), Knoxville THOMAS C. SCHELLING, University of Maryland, College Park ANDREW R. SOLOW, Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution, Massachusetts VICTORIA J. TSCHINKEL, Landers and Parsons, Tallahassee, Florida E-AN ZEN, University of Maryland, College Park MARY LOU ZOBACK, U.S. Geological Survey, Menlo Park, California Staff ROBERT M. HAMILTON, Executive Director GREGORY H. SYMMES, Associate Executive Director JEANETTE SPOON, Administrative and Financial Officer DAVID FEARY, Scientific Reports Officer SANDI FITZPATRICK, Administrative Associate MARQUITA SMITH, Administrative Assistant/Technology Analyst

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Oceanography and Mine Warfare Preface Naval mines present significant challenges for the operational Navy. Between 1950 and 1994, ship casualties caused by mines greatly outnumbered those from all other sources. Mines can essentially halt operations in shallow water, are easily deployed, and are relatively inexpensive to produce. As such, sea mines are rapidly becoming the weapon of choice for many developing countries. Since 1986 the number of mining-capable nations has greatly increased. These increases, along with the low cost and historical success of naval mines, guarantee that these weapons will continue to challenge U.S. Naval forces in the future. As a result, it is important that the warfighter has the tools and training needed to control the battlefield. The majority of mine warfare occurs in nearshore environments, so an accurate, in-depth knowledge of the oceanographic setting is essential for mission planning and battlefield preparation. As coastal environments are characterized by short-term spatial and temporal variability, the capacity of the warfighter to control the battlefield and ensure mission success is dependent on the ability to understand local oceanography. This ability is greatly enhanced by continued dialogue between the academic community and naval operators to ensure research advances meet the needs of the mine warfighter. Recently, there has been rapid progress in techniques for oceanographic data collection and interpretation. Incorporation of these and future research developments into mine warfare operations will help guarantee the mine warfare community's ability to dominate nearshore operations. KENNETH H. BRINK OCEAN STUDIES BOARD, CHAIR

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Oceanography and Mine Warfare Acknowledgments The highly successful Symposium on Oceanography for Mine Warfare was a collaborative effort of many individuals from both the Navy and academia. Thus, the content of this report reflects input from a number of individuals, not just the steering committee. In particular, the steering committee would like to acknowledge the assistance of those persons who led working group discussions: R. Beach and L. Frailey (surf zone), A. Fuller (very shallow water), and C. Gunderson (deep water) and those persons who recorded session notes: C. Weilert (surf zone), L. Fry (very shallow water), T. Yoder (shallow water), and C. A. Blain (deep water). The steering committee is also grateful for the assistance of the attendees and experts who prepared background materials that helped to set the stage for later symposium discussions: CDR J. Brown, CDR F. Garcia, LCDR M. Null, and D. Todoroff. The steering committee would also like to recognize the persons involved with the organization and development of the war game: CDR F. Garcia (NO96), CDR T. Hodgson (Naval War College), and CDR M. Shumaker (Office of Naval Intelligence). In addition to the support and contribution of the many attendees, experts, and individuals listed above, the steering committee would like to acknowledge the efforts of Rear Admiral D. R. Conley, as well as the officers, enlisted personnel, and civilian staff of the Ingleside Mine Warfare Facility and Corpus Christi Naval Air Station, the Office of Naval Research, the Office of the Oceanographer of the Navy, and the Naval Oceanographic Office. Without the help and support of these individuals and groups, this symposium and the resulting report would not have been possible. For her assistance in data and information gathering, the steering committee would also like to extend its thanks to Constance Carter at the Library of Congress. This report has been reviewed in draft form by individuals chosen for their diverse perspectives and technical expertise, in accordance with procedures approved by the NRC's Report Review Committee. The purpose of this independent review is to provide candid and critical comments that will assist the institution in making the published report as sound as possible and to ensure that the report meets institutional standards for objectivity, evidence, and responsiveness to the study charge. The review comments and draft manuscript remain confidential to protect the integrity of the deliberative process. We wish to thank the following individuals for their participation in the review of this report: Stephen Boss (University of Arkansas), Peter Howd (University of South Florida), Jules Jaffe (Scripps Institution of Oceanography), Brad Mooney (J. Brad Mooney Associates, Ltd.), Richard Stemberg (University of Washington), and Glen Wheless (Old Dominion University). While the individuals listed above have provided constructive comments and suggestions, it must be emphasized that responsibility for the final content of this report rests entirely with the authoring committee and the institution.

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Oceanography and Mine Warfare Contents     Executive Summary   1 1   Introduction   5     The Impact of Oceanography on Mine Warfare   6     Setting and Description of the Symposium   8     Report Structure and Scope,   9 2   Mine Warfare: An Overview   11     History of Mine Warfare   13     Mine Classification   15     Mine Countermeasures   16     Structure of Mine Countermeasure Forces   17     Mine Warfare Doctrine   22     Future Trends in Mine Warfare   23 3   Oceanography and Mine Warfare   27     Oceanography of the Nearshore Environment: The Challenge for Mine Warfare   29     The Role of Oceanography in Mission Planning, Battlefield Preparation, and Mission Success   29     Support for Mine Warfare: Information and Systems   31     Support for Mine Warfare: Environmental Science Programs Within the Office of Naval Research   35

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Oceanography and Mine Warfare 4   Mine Warfare and the Ocean Environment: Mission Influence, Research Issues, and Future Exploitation   37     Oceanographic Equivalence of Naval Depth Ranges   37     Atmospheric and Meteorological Variability   38     Bathymetry   39     Currents and Tides   41     Optical Properties   43     Acoustics   46     Seafloor Bottom Type   48     Surf Zone   51 5   Discussion and Summary   55     Role of the Scientific Community in Mine Warfare   55     Environmental Parameters and Their Importance to Mine Warfare   55     Training Issues   56     Doctrine   57     Challenges for Mine Warfare   57     Summary of Outcomes   58     References   59     Appendixes   61     A. Steering Committee and Staff Biographies   63     B. Symposium Program   65     C. Symposium Participants   73     D. Wargame Gamebook   75     E. Environmental Science Programs Within the Office of Naval Research That Support Mine Warfare   89     F. Office of Naval Research Programs To Encourage Research in Areas of Interest to Naval Operations   95     G. Office of Naval Research Program Contact Information   107     H. Acronyms   113