APPENDIX D
Wargame Gamebook

CONCEPT OF GAME PLAY

The second day of the Tactical Oceanography Symposium allows participants to examine the Mine Warfare force of 2005 as it evolves to include an organic force. This will be accomplished by conducting a seminar style Wargame. Seminar style wargames provide a background scenario and an opportunity to examine relevant courses of action. The seminar groups will be facilitated in their examination by an experienced operator/scientist. From this examination, participants will identify the principal tactical oceanography capabilities required for the fleet in the 2010 timeframe. Potential technologies to provide these capabilities will be proposed and discussed on the following day.

The following is a summarized sequence of events for 10 February 1999.

OFFICE of Naval intelligence (ONI) Threat Brief: A Secret-level brief to provide a look at the current and projected mining threat.

SCENARIO BRIEF: A brief to provide the scenario and a basic concept of operations in which a Joint Task Force (JTF) staff faces a projected mine threat in conducting expeditionary operations in a littoral region.

GROUP DISCUSSIONS:

• Organization: The players will be organized into four groups reflecting depths of mine threat. Personnel will be assigned to groups to leverage either fleet experience or current assignment dealing with these areas or professional expertise in technologies or programs most applicable to providing capabilities in that zone. Groups will be as follows:

  • Surf Zone (High-water mark to 10 feet)

  • Very Shallow Water (10 feet to 40 feet)

  • Shallow Water (40 feet to 200 feet)

  • Deep Water (200 feet and below)



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Oceanography and Mine Warfare APPENDIX D Wargame Gamebook CONCEPT OF GAME PLAY The second day of the Tactical Oceanography Symposium allows participants to examine the Mine Warfare force of 2005 as it evolves to include an organic force. This will be accomplished by conducting a seminar style Wargame. Seminar style wargames provide a background scenario and an opportunity to examine relevant courses of action. The seminar groups will be facilitated in their examination by an experienced operator/scientist. From this examination, participants will identify the principal tactical oceanography capabilities required for the fleet in the 2010 timeframe. Potential technologies to provide these capabilities will be proposed and discussed on the following day. The following is a summarized sequence of events for 10 February 1999. OFFICE of Naval intelligence (ONI) Threat Brief: A Secret-level brief to provide a look at the current and projected mining threat. SCENARIO BRIEF: A brief to provide the scenario and a basic concept of operations in which a Joint Task Force (JTF) staff faces a projected mine threat in conducting expeditionary operations in a littoral region. GROUP DISCUSSIONS: • Organization: The players will be organized into four groups reflecting depths of mine threat. Personnel will be assigned to groups to leverage either fleet experience or current assignment dealing with these areas or professional expertise in technologies or programs most applicable to providing capabilities in that zone. Groups will be as follows: Surf Zone (High-water mark to 10 feet) Very Shallow Water (10 feet to 40 feet) Shallow Water (40 feet to 200 feet) Deep Water (200 feet and below)

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Oceanography and Mine Warfare TASKING: • During day two the players are acting as members of a Mine Counter Measures (MCM) Commanders staff. Their mission is to commence planning to enable the JTF Commander to place forces ashore. In working through the planning process, each group will concentrate on their assigned depth zone. At the end of the day each group will present a brief highlighting the impact of 2005 METOC capabilities on the MCM mission and proposing those capabilities necessary for the warfighter to better carry out his mission. These required capabilities would be the focus of day three discussions investigating technologies to meet them. SCENARIO Introduction The Island of Nordica is located in the northwest Atlantic Ocean off the coast of Canada and southwest of Greenland. It is compromised of two sovereign states: the Popular Republic of Nordica in the northern half of the island and the Sasenaci Federation in the southern half. The latter federation is essentially defunct, and two regional states remain; Vestenland in the southwest portion of the island, and Estmark in the southeastern area. A civil war erupted between factions in Estmark and Vestenland in 2003. The United Nations brokered a cease-fire in 2004 and inserted an observer force and other agencies into Stephenville, Vestenland to facilitate a program of normalization and rehabilitation (social and economic) in both regions. Following elections in July 2004, however, considerable strain has developed. In late August, a UN report on the situation to the Secretary General, in which she assessed that Nordica and Estmark intend to use force to coerce Vestenland authorities into revoking permission for UN presence, thus ruining the rehabilitation program. If necessary, force may be used to replace Vestenland authorities with puppets controlled by Estmark criminal interests. A Security Council resolution followed in early October, requesting NATO assistance and concurring in the preparation of a contingency operation to be activated at the UN's request. In mid-October, 2004, the North Atlantic Treaty Organization responded positively to the UN request and commenced planning. The United States agreed to lead the military effort. On 7 December 2004, Joint Chief's issued a warning order designating the Commander of the Joint Task Force, the forces, and direction to commence operational level planning for Operation Rockhound. Joint Task Force Commander Campaign Plan The following information is extracted from the Joint Task Force Commander's Campaign plan for Operation Rockhound to facilitate planning. Friendly Forces Task Force 301 (Carrier Battle Group) USS Washington (CVN-73) (flag) USS Vicksburg (CG-69) USS Philippine Sea (CG-58) USS Carney (DDG-64) USS Zerr (DDG-84) USS Ross (DDG-71) USS Connecticut (SSN-22) USS Springfield (SSN-761) Task Force 302 (Mine Counter Measure Force) USS Inchon (Flag)(Commander, MCM Squadron 2) USS Ardent

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Oceanography and Mine Warfare USS Warrior HM-14 USN EOD DET USN VSW DET Task Force 303 (Amphibious Task Force) USS Iwo Jima (Flag) USS New Orleans USS Shreveport USS Gunston Hall USS The Sullivans Task Force 306 (Landing Force) (MEF)) II Marine Expeditionary Force (MEF) Forward Task Group 306.2 (Ground Combat Forces) 2D MARINE REGT (-) Task Group 306.3 (Combat Service Support Element) Task Group 306.4 (Air Combat Element) Marine Medium Helicopter Squadron 266 (Reinforced) Mission On order, OP ROCKHOUND forces will deploy to theater of operations and protect Vestenland from external interference to enable the UN to achieve its legal mandate. Course of Action The belligerents' most dangerous course of action to counter the UN mission would be a preemptive invasion of Vestenland by Nordica. Although this would involve high risk for Nordica, the JTF must plan for this contingency. Our course of action will be to to establish sea and air control and to commit a landing force to conduct extended operations ashore. Commander's Intent My intention is to plan and prepare to establish sea and air control and commit a landing force to conduct operations ashore. The extent of external interference expected in Vestenland is unknown. OP Rockhound forces shall initially deploy into theater with maritime forces as the main effort to aggressively demonstrate resolve and force capabilities. The Amphibious Commander shall be prepared to conduct an amphibious assault through St. Georges Bay to establish the landing force ashore, securing the port facilities and airfield in Stephenville. The Land Component Commander, once ashore, will constitute the main effort. Belligerent Situation Nordica maintains the only viable military force on the island. It possesses a comprehensive arms industry, which is capable of sustaining the national inventory of spare parts and ammunition. The armed forces are well equipped and efficient. Composition: Army-Field force consists of a brigade group of 7000 personnel in four battalions (one air mobile, one amphibious, two motorized infantry). This force can be split into a second brigade. Primary brigade group is

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Oceanography and Mine Warfare dispersed and normally operates in smaller battle groups. Air lift and sealift is limited. Tactical helicopters are adequate for the air mobile battalion. Navy-12 CG/DD/FF plus two diesel electric submarines. Nordica has been acquiring limited quantities of modern mines from the international market. Air Force-Modern reconnaissance, strike, and bomber aircraft. Capable of a strong first strike capability in the littoral but limited in ability to sustain an air campaign. Locations: Maritime-Naval bases are at St. John's, Placentia Bay and on the northern tip of Nordica at St. Anthony. All are approximately 300 nm from St. George's Bay. Air-Gander and St. John's are capable of handling fast jet traffic. Joint Task Force Mine Counter Measures Forces Organic Three Airborne Mine Counter Measures (AMCM) configured H-60 helicopters. Embarked on USS Vicksburg, USS Philipine Sea, and USS The Sullivans. Each can be configured to carry the Shallow Water Influence Minesweep System (SWIMS), the Airborne Mine Neutralization System (AMNS), the AQS-20/X Advanced AMCM Sonar, the Airborne Laser Mine Detection System (ALMDS), or the Rapid Airborne Mine Clearance System (RAMICS.) One Long-Term Mine Reconnaissance System (LMRS) unit embarked on USS Connecticut. Three Remote Mine System (RMS) systems embarked on USS Carney, USS Zerr, and USS Ross. Shallow water Assault Breaching Explosive and Distributed Explosive Technology systems embarked on amphibious ships. Dedicated USS Ardent and USS Warrior with AN/AQS-32 Minehunting sonar and AN/SLQ-48(V) Mine Neutralization systems. HM-14 embarked on USS Inchon with MH-53E helicopters carrying AN/AQS-14A Minehunting sonar. Nordican Mine Threats Up to 1400 sea mines of varying types are in the Nordican inventory. These include mostly KMD, MYAM, and KRAB moored variants. There are also known to be small numbers of modern bottom mines (MANTA/SIGEEL, ROKAN) landing/invasion mines (PDM-1, PDM-2, PDM-3Ya), and limpet mines. The KMD is a mine resting on the ocean bottom which detonates upon influence of a passing target. It is laid in waters from 4 to 200 meters. The MyaM and KRAB are mines moored to the bottom which detonate upon contact. They are laid in waters from 3 to 50 meters. ROCKAN bottom mines are produced in Sweden and may be laid in waters from 5 to 100 meters. The Italian MANTA mine, along with the Iranian reproduction SIGEEL is a bottom mine which can be laid in waters from 2.5 to 100 meters. The Nordicans train to employ former Soviet mining tactics likely to employ the following tactics: A perimeter mine barrier of bottom and moored mines would extend across St. George's Bay from Cape St. George on the north to 5000 m west of St. David's on the south. This minefield would be to disrupt amphibious task force shipping formations and to delay the start of the amphibious assault. A main minefield of ROCKAN mines would be seeded by small patrol craft 5000 to 6000 m seaward of the Stephenville beach area. The mission of this minefield would be to deny maneuver room for naval gunfire support and the ship to landing craft evolution. A continuous barrier of PDM type mines and obstacles would be placed in the very shallow water and surf zones immediately in front of the airfield and beaches to deny the landing force access to the beach. Russian made amphibious transports are available to assist in laying these fields.

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Oceanography and Mine Warfare ISSUES FOR DISCUSSION (FACILITATORS) During the discussions, players in each group should consider the role played by METOC in the following issues. Some thoughts for discussion include, but are not limited to: Battlespace Preparation and information management Are we projected to have the capability to determine how many different bottom classifications are required? What capabilities are required to support environmentally adaptive sensors? In-stride implication. What capabilities are required to rapidly build awareness of METOC factors critical to effective mission planning and execution? Information/Data sharing capabilities. What capabilities are required to collect data after entering the battlespace or remotely (in-stride). NETCENTRIC implications in building a common tactical picture Mine Detection Given a progression of sea mine threats from deep to shallow water identify capabilities that will enable avoidance or neutralization of the threat. Discuss potential impacts of environmentally adaptive sensors and dynamic conditions driven search capabilities. Mine Classification Do projected fleet systems have the capability to enable a high Search rate, low false alarm rate Identification What capabilities will enable high-confidence level identification of mines in the broadest range of METOC conditions? Neutralization - For Neutralization systems, are there any capabilities that will be adversely or favorably influenced by variable METOC conditions? Self Protection - Identify technological implications and required new capabilities to protect platforms against projected new sea mines which might be acoustically transparent, mobile, or otherwise novel. GLOSSARY ABS - Assault Breaching System ALMDS - Airborne Laser Mine Detection System. For several years, the U.S. Navy has been evaluating electro-optics as a method of locating sea mines. Lasers have become more powerful and compact and their wavelengths more tunable. The use of a blue-green laser, which has a frequency compatible with seawater, allows a Light Detection and Ranging (LIDAR) system to provide accurate information on the characteristics of targets at various water depths. This technology will provide the Fleet self-protection when travelling through choke points and confined straits, as well as rapid reconnaissance of minefields in support of amphibious operations. The Airborne Laser Mine Detection System (ALMDS) is an electro-optics-based mine reconnaissance system that detects and localizes drifting/floating and shallow water moored mines from tactical helicopter platforms. AMCM - Airborne Mine Countermeasures AMNS - Airborne Mine Neutralization System. The Airborne Mine Neutralization System (AMNS) is an expend-

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Oceanography and Mine Warfare able, remotely-operated device that will be employed by H-60 helicopters to explosively neutralize proud (unburied) bottom, close-tethered moored, and volume sea mines that are impractical or unsafe to counter using existing minesweeping techniques. The system will have a day or night, shallow- and deep water capability. Prior to the neutralization mission, a minehunting sonar or electro-optic system will have accomplished mine detection, localization, and classification. The AMNS will be flown to the mine location where it will deploy its expendable neutralization device to reacquire and neutralize the threat mine. AN/AQS-14 and AN/AQS-14A (Aviation Systems) The AN/AQS-14, an active-controlled, helicopter-towed minehunting sonar, is currently used in MH-53E Sea Dragon helicopters. It is a multi-beam, side-looking sonar with electronic beam forming, all-range focusing, and an adaptive processor. The system consists of three parts: a stabilized underwater vehicle, electro-mechanical tow cable, and airborne electronic console. The 10.7-foot long underwater vehicle can be maintained at a fixed depth above the seafloor or below the surface, and the thin, coaxial cable is armored and non-magnetic. Sonar information is presented on two continuous waterfall displays. An upgrade to the AN/AQS-14 system, the AN/AQS-14A, modifies the airborne electronics from an analog to a digital system and increases the size of the operator's monitor. A Post Mission Analysis (PMA) station has been incorporated into the system for use with the contact tapes after the mission is complete to identify and classify mine-like contacts. AN/AQS-20 The AN/AQS-20 is a helicopter-towed minehunting sonar consisting of a Mission Control Display Subsystem, an AMCM Console Subsystem located in the helicopter, and a Towed Body Subsystem. The towed body includes side-looking, gap-filling, volume-searching, and forward-looking sonars. The AQS-20 will be effective against bottom and moored mines in both deep and shallow waters. It will provide an increase in area coverage rate in comparison to the current AQS-14 system and can provide single-pass detection of both bottom and moored mines. AN/AQS-20/X Advanced AMCM Sonar The AN/AQS-20/X will be a helicopter-towed minehunting sonar system containing an integrated electro-optic identification (EOID) device. An outgrowth of the AN/AQS-20 developmental minehunting sonar program, AQS-20/X will be compatible and fully integrated into the H-60 helicopter. The system will provide Aircraft Carrier Battle Groups (CVBGs) and Amphibious Ready Groups (ARGs) an organic capability for rapid detection, classification, localization, and identification of bottom, close-tethered, and volume mines. This capability will enable CVBGs and ARGs to transit or avoid mined areas in choke points and littoral areas with a high degree of self-protection. AN/SLQ-48(V) Mine Neutralization System (MNS) (Surface Ship System) an unmanned minehunting submersible, is standard on both the MCM 1 and MHC 51 classes. The vehicle obtains its power and guidance commands from the launching ship through a 3,500-foot umbilical cable. After a target is detected and classified by the ship's sonar, the MNS, which is initially directed by ship's sonar data, proceeds to the target at speeds up to six knots. The vehicle carries a small, high-definition sonar and an acoustic transponder that enables the vehicle to be tracked by the shipboard sonar. There is also a low-light-level television for examining the target, with illumination provided by on-board floodlights. Propulsion is provided by two 15-hp hydraulic motors and there are two horizontal and two vertical hydraulic thrusters for the exact positioning of ordnance to the target. Two consoles on-board the ship monitor and control the vehicle's operation. The MNS can destroy bottom mines by placing an explosive charge near the mine or by cutting the cable of moored mines, causing them to rise to the surface for subsequent neutralization or exploitation. AN/SQQ-32 (Surface Ship System) The AN/SQQ-32 is a variable-depth mine detection and classification sonar. It is standard on all of the Osprey (MHC 51)-class ships and is being backfitted in MCM 2-9. An upgrade to the SQQ-30, is better at discriminating between genuine mines and other objects, and is able to identify objects with near-picture quality. The SQQ-32 displays search and classification information simultaneously and indepen-

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Oceanography and Mine Warfare dently, using separate search and classification transducers in a stable, variable-depth body. Multi-beam operation increases the sonar's search rate. The SQQ-32 can also be used from the hull in shallow water. C4I Command, Control, Communications, Computers, Intelligence DP - Deterrence and Prevention DW - Deep Water DET - Distributed Explosive Technology. Distributed Explosive Technology is a 180-by-180-foot distributed explosive net system with a 200-foot standoff range that is launched from an LCAC by two Mk 22 Rocket Motors. The system is designed to provide a wide swath of clearance in the zero-to-three-foot deep portion of the Surf Zone. The system is designed for operation with SABRE in graduated clearing of an approach lane from the sea for amphibious landing craft. Explosive effectiveness tests have shown DET to be very capable of defeating mines in water depths from three to ten feet. EOD - Explosive Ordnance Disposal Explosive neutralization - The Explosive Neutralization program will incorporate enhanced explosive technologies, delivery systems deployable from LCACs, and advanced delivery systems deployable from unmanned, fixedwing aircraft to provide for in-stride clearance of mines in the surf, craft-landing, and beach zones of the Amphibious Objective Area. The system will eliminate the need for time consuming manned clearance operations in hostile environments. The goal of the program is to maximize the effectiveness of wide area clearance against a defended beach, eliminating the need for lengthy manned clearance operations, thereby minimizing the loss of personnel and surface landing craft. The program has designed, fabricated, and demonstrated extended standoff line charges and nets. Also, an LCAC auto-pilot, known as SKIPPER, has been developed to increase system deployment accuracy and decrease mission time, thereby enhancing the capability of the basic SABRE and DET explosive systems. LLSS - Laser Line Scan System. Currently, sonar minehunting systems cannot distinguish between actual mines and mine-like objects. Therefore, every mine-like contact must be investigated, resulting in very slow rates of identification and neutralization. The Laser Line Scan System (LLSS) program will provide a means of positively identifying actual mines, resulting in a projected mine neutralization phase only one-fifth as long as is currently required. This program will integrate the Northrop Grumman SM-2000 laser line scan sensor into the existing AN/ AQS-14A sonar minehunting towed body. LMRS - Long-term Mine Reconnaissance System (Organic System) The Long-term Mine Reconnaissance System ultimately will replace the Near-term Mine Reconnaissance System. The LMRS will operate from and interface with Los Angeles (SSN 688)-class submarines and the New Attack Submarine (NSSN). Like NMRS, LMRS will detect, classify, and localize mine-like objects. However, LMRS will provide improvements in areas where NMRS is limited, such as the overall number of systems, as well as its endurance and search rate. MCM - Mine Countermeasures MDA - Mine Danger Area METOC - Meteorology and Oceanography MIW - Mine Warfare Mines - Quickstrike (US). The Quickstrike family of aircraft-laid, shallow water bottom mines is closely related

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Oceanography and Mine Warfare to an earlier family of mines named Destructors. Quickstrike can use two variable-influence target detection devices to detect submarines and surface ships. The Target Detection Device (TDD) Mk 57 uses a magnetic/ seismic sensor. The Target Detection Device Mk 58 uses a magnetic/ seismic/pressure sensor. Both detection devices were approved for production in the early 1980s. The Quickstrike design emphasizes ease of maintenance, preparation, and use. The mines will either sterilize or self-destruct at the end of life. The Target Detection Device Mk 71 was approved for production in 1995 and uses a magnetic/seismic/pressure sensor. While the earlier devices use hard-wired algorithms with programmable sensitivities, this device is fully programmable for algorithms and sensitivities. Mines - Quickstrike (US) Mine Mk 62 and Mine Mk 63. The Quickstrike Mine Mk 62 and Mk 63 are air-delivered bottom mines that use General Purpose Low-Drag Bombs Mk 82 and Mk 83 (500 and 1,000 pounds, respectively) as the explosive payload. Because a specialized kit is used to convert bombs into mines, demand for magazine space on aircraft carriers is dramatically reduced. These mines use either the Target Detection Device Mk 57 or, when available, the Target Detection Device Mk 71. Arming takes place at a pre-set time after the mine enters the water. Mines - Quickstrike (US) Mine Mk 65. The Quickstrike Mine Mk 65 is a thin-wall, 2,000-pound air-delivered bottom mine. The mine may use either the Target Detection Device Mk 57, Target Detection Device Mk 58, or, when available, the Target Detection Device Mk 71. Arming takes place at a pre-set time after the mine enters the water. Mines - Submarine Launched Mobile Mine (SLMM) (US) Mk 67 The Submarine Launched Mobile Mine (SLMM) Mk 67 is a modified Torpedo Mk 37 with a thin-wall mine warhead. It is delivered by submarine and is considered a clandestine mine. SLMM may use either the Target Detection Device Mk 57, or, when available, the Target Detection Device Mk 71. It is a shallow water, bottom mine that detects submarines and surface ships. The mine will either sterilize or self-destruct at the end of life. SLMM is launched from a submarine as a torpedo. After running to a pre-selected location, the torpedo motor shuts down and the weapon sinks to the bottom. Arming takes place at a pre-set time or distance after the torpedo run period. Mines - Improved Submarine Launched Mobile Mine (ISLMM) (US) The Improved Submarine Launched Mobile Mine is based on converting existing Mk48 torpedoes into mines. It features dual mine sections (warheads) to increase submarine mine laying capacity and has improved compatibility with the SSN-688 submarine fire control systems. In addition, ISLMM will have a multiple waypoint turn capability and greater range than the current SLMM, significantly increasing the number of minefields that can be planted by submarine. Mines - Target Detection Device Mk 71 A mine Target Detection Device is the electronic fuse that observes changes in the environment in order to detect ships and submarines and decide whether the target is close enough to damage. Current bottom mines (Quickstrike and SLMM) use a TDD Mk 57 (TTD57), which is a magnetic/seismic device designed specifically for Cold War targets, such as large combatants and submarines on or near the surface. The Quickstrike Mk 65 can also use the TDD Mk 58 (TDD58), which is a magnetic/seismic/pressure device. The TDD57 and TDD58 are in the U.S. Navy's service inventory and are the only sensor/detection packages for bottom mines. The TDD Mk 71 (TDD71) is a programmable device capable of responding to emerging threats, such as quiet diesel-electric submarines, mini-submarines, fast patrol boats, and air cushioned vehicles. It adds an enhanced pressure sensor and has the capability to respond to remote control signals. The TDD71 is designed for use in all Quickstrike-series mines, SLMM, or Improved SLMM. MMS - Marine Mammal System

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Oceanography and Mine Warfare MTW - Major Theater of War NMRS - Near-term Mine Reconnaissance System (ORGANIC MCM SYSTEM). Both near-term and long-term programs have been established to provide the submarine community a UUV mine reconnaissance capability. The initial capability has been designated the Near-term Mine Reconnaissance System (NMRS). The single NMRS will be launched and recovered from a Los Angeles (SSN 688)-class submarine. NMRS will be capable of limited mine detection, classification, and localization with an inherent low-risk to the host platform. NMRS capitalizes on existing technologies and capabilities in order to reduce cost and become available in the near term. The NMRS will be in operation until the Long-term Mine Reconnaissance System (LMRS) reaches its Initial Operational Capability (IOC). NMRS is deployed through standard SSN-688-class torpedo tubes. The operational system will consist of two reusable UUVs; launch and recovery equipment; and shipboard control, processing, and monitoring equipment. Operators control the vehicle via a fiber-optic cable connected to the launch platform. NOMBOS Non-Mine, Mine-Like Bottom Objects NWC Naval War College OMFTS - Operational Maneuver from the Sea POR - Program of Record PW - Propelled-Warhead Mines RAMICS - Rapid Airborne Mine Clearance System. The Rapid Airborne Mine Clearance System (RAMICS) is a helicopter-borne weapon system that fires a special 20mm supercavitating projectile from a modified Gatling gun controlled by targeting algorithms and a blue-green LIDAR (light detection and ranging) to neutralize surface and near-surface mines. At the heart of this system is a supercavitating 20mm projectile that is specially designed for traveling tactical distances in air and water and driving a chemical initiator through a casing into the mine. The LIDAR locates and targets the mine and provides aiming coordinates to the gun's fire-control system. A burst of rounds is fired at the mine causing positive neutralization of the mine. IPB - Intelligence Preparation of Battlespace RMS - Remote Minehunting System (ORGANIC MCM SYSTEM) is a high-endurance, remotely operated, surface-ship launched and recovered semi-submersible vehicle towing a mine reconnaissance sonar. The system will conduct rapid reconnaissance of bottom and moored mines from the deep water region to the 30-foot contour of the very shallow water region. Mine reconnaissance operations conducted by RMS will determine the presence of mine-like objects and safe routes or operating areas around potential minefields. SABRE - Shallow water Assault Breaching System. The Shallow water Assault Breaching System (SABRE) is a discontinuous line charge system delivered by the Mk 22 Mod 4 rocket and deployed from an LCAC. SABRE is designed to accomplish wide area neutralization of anti-invasion mines in the three-to-ten-foot deep portion of the Surf Zone, thereby minimizing the loss of personnel and surface landing craft. The system is designed for operation with the Distributed Explosive Technology (DET) in graduated clearing of an approach lane from the sea for amphibious landing craft. Explosive effectiveness tests have shown line charges to be very capable of reducing light and medium obstacles on land and defeating mines located in water depths up to three to ten feet. SPM - Self-Protective Measures SR - Surveillance and Reconnaissance

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Oceanography and Mine Warfare SWIMS - The Shallow Water Influence Minesweep System (SWIMS) is a self-contained system designed to perform high-speed magnetic or magnetic/acoustic influence minesweeping missions in a shallow water environment. SWIMS is fitted on MH-53E Sea Dragon helicopters, permitting full speed transit to and from the mission area, traveling over-the-horizon. It consists of a towed magnetic and acoustic source, a tow/power delivery cable, a power conditioning and control subsystem, and an external or palletized power supply. The magnetic device is smaller and lighter than other magnetic minesweeping sources, measuring ten feet in length, 20 inches in diameter, and weighing approximately 1,000 pounds. Its small size and reduced weight require minimum handling equipment, and it is deployable from the helicopter by two crewmen. SWIMS is deployed from the helicopter by a standard tow cable when the helicopter reaches the area of operation. The programmable waveforms allow flexible performance and address emulation requirements. Installation uses existing AMCM interface equipment. SWIMS can be used in conjunction with the Mk 104 acoustic sweeping systems. The tow body is torpedo shaped and provides a hydrodynamically stable minesweeping platform that exhibits excellent towing characteristics under all operating conditions. SWIMS possesses high maneuverability in shallow waters and is capable of being towed at speeds up to 40 knots. Its ability to fully demagnetize allows the system to be transported within the helicopter allowing for fast transit to over-the-horizon operating areas. SW - Shallow Water SZ - Surf Zone TDA - Tactical Decision Aid USW - Undersea Warfare UUV - Unmanned Underwater Vehicle VSW - Very Shallow Water VSW DET - Very Shallow Water MCM Detachment. Since 1996, the Navy has successfully completed a feasibility demonstration of the Very Shallow Water (VSW) MCM Test Detachment and authorized establishment of a permanent VSW MCM Detachment under the Commander, Mine Warfare Command. This detachment provides a capability for conducting advance force and pre-assault exploratory and reconnaissance MCM operations in the VSW zone (ten to 40 feet) and locating (and if necessary clearing) potential landing sites in support of joint littoral power projection operations. The VSW MCM Detachment, comprised of EOD, Naval Special Warfare, and USMC Reconnaissance divers and marine mammals, is responsible for developing tactics, techniques, and procedures for MCM operations in the VSW zone and for rapidly mobilizing to embark deployed amphibious task groups during contingencies. The detachment is, in essence, the Navy's warfighting laboratory for evaluating prototype systems that could be used to conduct VSW MCM operations. Acquisition programs are underway to develop an Integrated Navigation Sonar System (INSS) and a hydrodynamic Underwater Breathing Apparatus (UBA) for VSW MCM divers. Additionally, the EX-8 Marine Mammal System acquisition program began in FY 98 to merge demonstrated prototype capabilities from the VSW MCM Test Detachment with new technology to acquire an operational MMS Det by the end of FY 00. VSW MCM acquisition projects currently underway are only the beginning of a longer-term plan to acquire a viable VSW MCM capability that enables seamless power projection forward, from the sea through the littoral waters and across the shore, even when a credible mine threat challenges exists. The VSW MCM Detachment is the small cadre of experts that will remain focused on solving the VSW MCM problem and enable the transition from a dedicated contingency configuration to a CVBG/ARG-focused organic configuration and from a ''diver-in-the-loop'' configuration to an unmanned system configuration.