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V:II Physiology Programs In this chapter 101 research-doctorate programs in physiology are assessed. mese programs, according to the information supplied by their universities, have accounted for 1,369 doctoral degrees awarded during the FY1976-80 period--approximately 87 percent of the aggregate number of physiology doctorates earned from U.S. universities in this five-year span. Because physiology programs may be found in a vari- ety of settings within universities, the committee encountered diffi- culty in identifying a comprehensive set of research-doctorate programs that have produced graduates in this discipline. On the average, 16 full-time and part-time students intending to earn doctorates were en- rolled in a program in December 1980, with an average faculty size of 19 members .2 Most of the 101 programs, listed in Table 7.1r, are lo- cated in departments within schools of media; no .~iv ~^r~me i.. Notated since 1970. Each of seven institutions--University of Ari- zona, University of California (San Diego), Iowa State University, University of Kansas, Ohio State University, Oklahoma State University, and SUNY at Buffalo--has two physiology programs included in the as- sessment. m e University of Minnesota has three programs evaluated in this discipline. In addition to the 92 institutions represented in this discipline, another 11 were initially identified as meeting the criteria3 for inclusion in the assessment: University of California--Riverside CUNY--Graduate School Florida State University--Tallahassee Massachusetts Institute of Technology data from the NRC's Survey of Earned Doctorates indicate that 1,570 research doctorates in physiology were awarded by U.S. universities between FY1976 and FY1980. 2 See the reported means for measures 03 and 01 in Table 7.2. 3As mentioned in Chapter I, the primary criterion for inclusion was that a university had awarded at least 11 doctorates in physiology during the FY1976-78 period. 123

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124 University of Massachusetts--Amherst University of Nebraska--Lincoln ~ University of New Mexico--Albuquerque Oregon State University Princeton University University of Mississippi--Medical Center University of Texas--Health Science Center, Dallas The latter two institutions chose not to participate in the assessment in any discipline. Physiology programs at the other nine institutions have not been included in the evaluations in this discipline, since in each case the study coordinator either indicated that the institution did not at that time have a research-doctorate program in physiology or failed to provide the information requested by the committee. Before examining individual program results presented in Table 7.1, the reader is urged to refer to Chapter II, in which each of the 16 measures used in the assessment is discussed. Summary statistics de- scribing every measure are given in Table 7.2. For seven of the mea- sures, data are reported for at least 94 of the 101 physiology pro- grams. For measures 04-07, which pertain to characteristics of the program graduates, data are presented for slightly less than half of the programs; the other programs had too few graduates on which to base statistics.4 For measure 12, a composite index of the size of a university library, data are available for 71 programs. With respect to measure 13, the fraction of faculty with research grants from the National Institutes of Health, the National Science Foundation, or the Alcohol, Drug Abuse, and Mental Health Administration, data are re- ported for 80 programs that had at least 10 faculty members. For mea- ~ ~ a ~ sure ~ A, one Local university expenditures for research in the biologi- cal sciences, data are available for 88 programs. The programs not evaluated on measures 12, 13, and 14 are typically smaller--in terms of faculty size and graduate student enrollment--than other physiology programs. Were data on these three measures available for all 101 pro- grams, it is likely that their reported means would be appreciably lower (and that some of the correlations of these measures with others would be higher). With regard to reputational survey measures 09 and 10, results were not reported for anv uroar~ms: with fewer Than 1 c' red_ ings . Intercorrelations among the 16 measures (Pearson product-moment coefficients) are given in Table 7.3. Of particular note are the hiah _ ~ ~ . ~ positive correlations or reputat~onal survey ratings (08, 09) with measures of publication records {15, 16) and number of program faculty (01~. Figure 7.1 illustrates the relation between the mean rating of the scholarly quality of faculty (measure 08) and the number of faculty members (measure 01) for each of 94 programs in physiology. Figure 7.2 4As mentioned in Chapter II, data for measures 04-07 are not reported if they are based on the survey responses of fewer than 10 FY1975-79 program graduates.

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125 plots the mean rating of program effectiveness (measure 09) against the total number of FY1976-80 program graduates (measure 02~. Al-though in both figures there is a significant positive correlation between pro- gram size and reputational rating, it is quite apparent that some of the smaller programs received high mean ratings. Table 7.4 describes the 146 faculty members who participated in the evaluation of physiology programs. These individuals constituted 48 percent of those asked to respond to the survey in this discipline and 7 percent of the faculty population in the 101 research-doctorate pro- grams being evaluated.S More than two-thirds of the survey partici- pants had earned their highest degree prior to 1970, and almost half held the rank of full professor. One exception should be noted with regard to the survey evaluations in this discipline. It has been called to the attention of the commit- tee that the University of Arizona's research-doctorate program in the physiology department in the College of Medicine was incorrectly iden- tified as "Physiology (Human)." The committee has decided to report the survey results for this program but cautions that the reputational ratings may possibly have been influenced by the use of an inaccurate program title on the survey form. To assist the reader in interpreting results of the survey evalua- tions, estimated standard errors have been computed for mean ratings of the scholarly quality of faculty in 94 physiology programs (and are given in Table 7.11. For each program the mean rating and an associ- ated "confidence interval" of 1.5 standard errors are illustrated in Figure 7.3 (listed in order of highest to lowest mean rating). In comparing two programs, if their confidence intervals do not overlap, one may conclude that there is a significant difference in their mean ratings at a .05 level of significance.6 From this figure it is also apparent that one should have somewhat more confidence in the accuracy of the mean ratings of higher-rated programs than lower-rated programs. This generalization results primarily from the fact that evaluators are not as likely to be familiar with the less prestigious programs, and consequently the mean ratings of these programs are usually based on fewer survey responses. 5See Table 2.3 in Chapter II. 6 See pp. 31-33 for a discussion of the interpretation of mean ratings and associated confidence intervals.

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126 TABLE 7.1 Program Measures (Raw and Standardized Values) in Physiology Prog No. University - Department/Academic Unit 001. Alabama, University of-Birmingham Physiol ogy 002. Albany Medical College Physiol ogy 003. Albert Einstein College of Medicine Physiol ogy 004. Arizona, University of-Tucson Ar2imal Physiology 005. Arizona, University of-Tucson Physiol ogy (sol l ege o f Med ~ cine J 006. Baylor College of Medicine-Houston Physiol ogy 007. Brown University Biol ogy and Med. icine 008. California, University of-Irvine P~ysiol & Biophys/Devel opmental & Cel l Biol 009. California, University of-Berkeley Physiol ogy 010. California, University of-Davis Physiol ogy 011. California, University of-Los Angeles Physiol ogy 012. California, University of-San Diego Biol ogy 013. California, University of-San Diego Physiol ogy/Pharmacol ogy * 014. California, University of-San Francisco Physiol ogy 015. Case Western Reserve University Physiol ogy 016. Chicago, University of Pharmacological and Physiological Sciences 017. Cincinnati, University of Physiol ogy 018. Colorado State University-Fort Collins Physiol ogy and Biophysics 019. Colorado, University of Physiol ogy 020. Columbia University Physiol ogy * indicates program was initiated since 1970. Program Size (01) (02) (03) (04) (05) 32 22 59 58 14 10 46 47 14 3 46 40 11 11 44 48 13 12 45 49 15 13 47 49 17 7 48 44 17 7 48 44 14 29 46 64 74 44 90 78 36 15 62 51 7 8 41 45 12 8 45 45 50 23 72 59 9 5 42 42 23 20 53 56 12 14 45 50 22 8 52 45 12 2 45 39 23 7 53 44 14 .31 49 41 13 NA 48 3 41 15 49 13 48 4 42 10 46 8 44 48 72 40 67 11 47 10 46 41 67 9 45 42 8.0 29 NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA .67 6.6 55 44 .33 6.3 42 49 .90 5.1 64 62 NA NA NA NA .60 6.8 53 42 NA NA 25 56 11 .20 5. 47 37 18 NA 51 40 15 49 NA NA 63 NA NA NA NA NA Characteristics of Program Graduates (06) (07) 79 .71 48 60 NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA 78 .52 47 47 83 .66 52 56 84 .79 54 65 NA NA NA NA 95 .75 64 62 NA NA NA NA 90 .70 59 59 NA NA NA NA NA NA NOTE: On the f irst line of data for every program, raw values for each measure are reported; on the second line values are reported in standardized form, with mean = 50 and standard deviation = 10. "NA" indicates that the value for a measure is not available.

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127 TABLE 7.1 Program Measures (Raw and Standardized Values) in Physiology Prog Survey Results No. (08) (09) (10) (11) 001. 002. 003. 004. 3.4 55 2.6 45 3.6 58 NA 005. 3.3 53 006. 2.9 49 007. 3.3 54 008. 3.1 52 009. 3.4 55 010. 3.7 60 011. 4.3 67 012. 2.8 47 013. 3.7 59 014. 4.5 70 015. 2.7 46 016. 3.6 58 017. 2.7 46 018. 3.2 52 019. 3.0 50 020. 4.0 63 NOTE: On the f irst 2.0 1.7 54 71 1.8 1.1 49 48 2.0 1.1 53 46 NA NA 2.0 1.4 53 61 1.6 0.9 43 39 1.9 1.1 51 48 2.1 1.5 56 65 2.1 0.9 56 39 2.3 1.5 62 66 2.3 1.1 63 49 1.8 NA 49 2.0 1.5 53 64 2.5 1.4 67 59 1.3 0.6 35 27 2.1 1.2 57 50 1.8 1.3 48 56 2.1 1.4 56 60 1.5 1.3 41 56 2.1 1.2 58 53 0.5 48 0.6 52 0.6 50 0.9 61 1.0 62 1.3 73 0.3 42 0.8 56 1.4 77 0.4 45 1.0 63 0.4 45 0.4 45 0.5 45 0.9 61 Univers ity Library (12) 0.7 NA 53 0.5 NA 47 0.8 56 0.2 37 0.7 54 NA 0.9 56 0.9 56 NA 37 NA 2.2 69 0.6 54 2.0 67 0.0 47 0.0 47 NA 1 .3 35 0.9 56 0.2 45 1.1 37 0.9 39 1.7 65 Research Published Supper t Articles (13) (14) (15) (16) .56 4467 40 52 43 62 .64 3066 10 55 41 46 .71 9184 17 5 8 51 50 .00 7828 4 28 49 43 .62 7828 13 54 49 48 .27 14051 11 39 59 47 .59 NA 11 53 47 .77 6547 14 60 47 48 .79 18977 23 61 67 53 .4 2 18053 26 46 65 55 .64 15581 75 55 61 82 NA 8706 16 50 49 .83 8706 36 63 50 60 .78 13194 77 61 57 83 NA 7721 1 48 41 .78 17589 61 64 .75 9365 60 51 .41 8863 45 50 .83 11967 63 55 .70 11090 57 54 60 45 52 43 47 48 47 48 61 51 82 49 55 83 42 29 56 59 9 45 47 42 42 39 62 63 27 55 54 (08) (09) .14 .10 .21 .10 .13 .11 NA NA .13 .09 .18 .14 .12 .08 .15 .14 .12 .12 .13 .08 Survey Ratings Standard Error (10) (11) .09 .08 .14 .08 .12 .08 NA .06 .11 .08 .15 .07 .10 .08 .15 .09 .07 .09 .10 09 .09 .07 .07 .08 .29 .14 NA .07 .15 .10 .11 .08 .09 .15 .08 .08 .08 .14 .14 .07 .07 .18 .13 .13 .07 .19 .13 .12 .08 .20 .16 .11 .08 .09 .09 .09 .08 .13 . ~ _ line of data for every program, raw values for each measure are reported; on the second line values are reported in standardized form, with mean = 50 and standard deviation = 10. "NA" indicates that the value for a measure is not available. Since the scale used to compute measure 16 is entirely arbitrary, only values in standardized form are reported for this measure.

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128 TABLE 7.1 Program Measures (Raw and Standardized Values) in Physiology Prog Program Size No. University - Department/Academic Unit (01) (02) (03) Characteristics of Program Graduates (04) (05) (06) (07) 021. Connecticut, University of-Storrs 7 8 9 .39 6.8 .85 .69 Biological Sciences 41 45 45 44 43 54 58 022. Cornell University-Ithaca 34 12 13 .45 6.7 .75 .45 Physiology 61 49 48 47 44 45 42 023. Cornell University-Medical Center 8 6 6 NA NA NA NA Physiol ogy 42 43 43 024 . Duke University 37 39 28 . 84 5.4 . 75 .57 Physiol ogy 63 74 58 62 59 44 50 025. Emory University 10 8 10 .70 6.5 NA NA Physiology 43 45 46 57 46 026. Florida, University of-Gainesville 15 7 9 NA NA NA NA Physiol ogy (Human ) 47 44 45 027. Georgetown University 13 18 21 .43 5.2 .71 .21 Physiol ogy and Biophysics 45 54 53 46 61 41 26 028. Georgia, University of-Athens 10 6 7 NA NA NA NA Physiol ogy and Pharmacol ogy 43 43 44 029. Harvard University 46 54 76 .57 6.1 .77 .56 Biology (Organismic & Evol utionary ) 69 88 92 51 51 46 49 030. Hawaii, University of 13 17 15 .09 5.3 .91 .55 Physiology 45 53 49 32 59 60 48 031. Houston, University of 7 11 6 .10 7.5 .80 .50 Biology 41 48 43 33 34 50 45 032. Howard University 18 10 12 NA NA NA NA Physiology 49 47 47 033. Illinois, University of-Medical Center 25 25 32 .56 6.6 .87 .73 Physiology and Biophysics 54 61 61 51 44 56 61 034. Illinois, University-Urbana/Champaign 35 31 78 .77 6.5 .77 .59 Physiol ogy and Biophysics 61 66 93 60 46 47 52 035. Indiana State University-Terre Haute 10 6 7 NA NA NA NA Li f e Sciences 43 43 44 036. Indiana University-Bloomington 9 12 7 NA NA NA NA Physiology 42 49 44 037. Indiana University-Purdue University 15 13 11 NA NA NA NA Physiol ogy 47 49 47 038. Iowa State University-Ames 8 8 25 NA NA NA NA Animal Science 42 45 56 039. Iowa State University-Ames 18 1 16 NA NA NA NA Veterinary Physiology and Pharmacology 49 38 50 040. Iowa, University of-Iowa City 23 13 10 .79 5.0 .90 .79 Physiol ogy and Biophysics 53 49 46 60 63 59 65 * indicates program was initiated since 1970. NOTE: On the first line of data for every program, raw values for each measure are reported; on the second line values are reported in standardized form, with mean = 50 and standard deviation = 10. "NA" indicates that the value for a measure is not available.

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129 TABLE 7.1 Program Measures (Raw and Standardized Values) in Physiology University Research Published Survey Ratings Prog Survey Results Library Support Articles Standard Error No. (08) (09) (10) (11) (12) (13) (14) (15) (16) (08) (09) (10) (11) 021. 2.5 1.3 1.1 0.3 -0.5 NA 15199 2 .17 .18 .17 .06 43 36 46 42 43 61 42 43 022. 3.5 2.2 1.2 0.7 1.6 .41 14597 15 .14 .09 .12 .08 57 60 52 52 63 45 60 49 50 023. 3.2 1.9 1.0 0.6 NA NA 14597 5 .13 .08 .11 .08 53 52 42 51 60 43 43 024. 3.9 2.4 1.0 1.2 0.3 .65 11320 34 .10 .06 .10 .08 63 64 44 69 51 55 54 59 62 025. 2.7 1.7 0.8 0.6 -0.6 .90 2874 14 .13 .10 .14 .07 46 45 33 51 42 66 41 48 48 026. 2.9 1.8 1.2 0.8 0.8 .47 3486 20 .13 .10 .11 .08 48 48 52 56 55 48 42 52 49 027. 2.8 1.8 1.0 0.5 -0.6 .46 4200 10 .21 .12 .10 .08 48 48 43 46 41 47 43 46 46 028. 2.0 NA NA 0.3 0.4 .00 10714 3 .27 NA NA .07 36 40 52 28 53 42 42 029. 4.1 2.5 1.1 0.8 3.0 .74 34979 6 .15 .08 .12 .09 65 67 49 55 77 59 93 44 44 030. 2.6 1.5 NA 0.3 -0.1 .39 4440 3 .22 .16 NA .06 44 41 41 46 44 43 42 42 031. 1.6 NA NA 0.2 -0.9 NA NA 2 .26 NA NA .05 31 36 39 42 43 032. 2.1 1.3 1.3 0.4 -0.4 .06 NA 1 .19 .16 .18 .07 38 34 55 42 44 30 41 42 033. 3.0 1.8 1.1 0.6 NA .44 4393 33 .14 .10 .14 .07 49 49 45 50 47 43 59 58 034. 3.8 2.2 1.4 1.0 2.0 .74 6074 5 .12 .09 .12 .09 61 59 59 63 67 59 46 43 42 035. 1.1 NA NA 0.2 NA .10 NA 0 .28 NA NA .05 24 37 32 41 41 036. 2.6 1.6 0.8 0.4 0.9 NA NA 1 .15 .10 .14 .07 44 44 33 45 57 41 42 037. 3.4 1.9 1.0 0.9 NA .60 2940 NA .14 .09 .11 .09 56 52 43 59 53 41 NA 038. 2.5 1.5 NA 0.3 -0.5 NA 5287 8 .30 .24 NA .07 43 40 40 43 44 45 43 039. 2.6 1.5 NA 0.3 -0.5 .06 5287 8 .26 .19 NA .07 44 41 42 43 30 44 45 43 040. 3.4 2.1 1.3 1.1 0.3 .70 7088 48 .12 .09 .11 .08 56 57 56 65 50 57 47 67 61 NOTE: On the f irst line of data for every program, raw values for each measure are reported; on the second line values are reported in standardized form, with mean = 50 and standard deviation = 10. "NA" indicates that the value for a measure is not available. Since the scale used to compute measure 16 is entirely arbitrary, only values in standardized form are reported for this measure.

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130 TABLE 7.1 Program Measures (Raw and Standardized Values) in Physiology Prog No . Un iver s i ty - Depar tment/Academic Un i t 041. Johns Hopkins University Physiol ogy 042. Kansas State University-Manhattan Anatomy and PLysiol ogy 0 43 . Kansas, Univer s ity of Physiology (Schl of Medicine-Kansas City J 044. Kansas, University of Physiology and Cell Biology (Graduate Schl ) 045. Kent State University Biol ogical Sciences 046 . Kentucky, University of Physiol ogy and Biophysics 047. Louisiana State University-Baton Rouge Zool ogy and Physiol ogy * 048. Louisiana State Univ-School of Medicine Physiol ogy and Biophysics 049. Louisville, University of Physiol ogy 050. Loyola University of Chicago Physiol ogy 051. Maryland, University of-College Park Animal Sciences * 052. Medical College of Wisconsin Physiol ogy 053. Medical University of South Carolina Physiol ogy 054. Miami, University of-Florida Physiol ogy and Biophysics 055. Michigan State University-East Lansing Physiol ogy 056. Michigan, University of-Ann Arbor Physiol ogy 057. Minnesota, University of Animal Sci/Ecol & Behav Biol/Gen & Cell Bio 058. Minnesota, University of Physiol & Biophysics Mayo Grad Sch of MedJ 059. Minnesota, University of Physiology (Graduate School J 060. Missour i, University of-Columbia Physiol ogy * indicates program was initiated since 1970. Program Size (01) (02) (03) 10 8 43 45 9 7 42 44 17 5 48 42 11 12 44 49 16 9 48 46 19 9 50 46 5 3 40 40 37 12 63 49 9 8 42 45 8 6 42 43 6 8 40 45 9 19 42 55 14 6 46 43 15 8 47 45 34 33 61 68 22 27 20 52 63 53 6 5 40 42 13 2 45 39 24 17 53 53 15 21 47 57 Characteristics of Prouram Graduates (04) (05) (06) (07) 8 .90 44 65 12 NA 47 9 45 4 .06 42 31 30 60 10 46 6 43 17 51 6 43 14 49 11 47 44 4 42 8 .46 44 47 19 .19 52 36 8 44 42 35 .67 63 55 15 49 NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA 56 5.5 51 57 NA NA 78 6.1 60 50 NA NA NA NA 52 6.5 49 46 (06) NA .80 50 NA NA NA 7.2 .67 38 36 NA NA NA NA NA NA NA .78 47 NA 6.1 .54 50 24 6.3 .84 48 53 .87 56 NA NA 9.0 .64 17 34 .75 45 NOTE: On the f irst line of data for every program, raw values for each measure are reported; on the second line values are reported in standardized form, with mean = 50 and standard deviation = 10. "NA" indicates that the value for a measure is not available. 60 52 NA NA 33 34 NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA .39 38 .61 53 .61 53 NA NA .36 36 .46 43

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131 TABLE 7.1 Program Measures (Raw and Standardized Values) in Physiology University Research Published Survey Ratings Prog Survey Results Library Support Articles Standard Error No. (08) (09) (10) (11) (12) (13) (14) (15) (16) (OB) (09) (10) (11) 041. 3.5 2.0 0.7 0.7 -0.4 .70 19837 45 .15 .09 .10 .08 56 53 30 53 44 58 68 65 61 042. 2.2 NA NA 0.3 NA NA 2496 2 .31 NA NA .06 39 40 40 42 42 043. 2.8 1.6 1.2 0.5 0.1 .53 3161 18 .16 .12 .10 .07 47 44 53 48 49 50 41 50 49 044. 2.1 1.5 1.0 0.3 0.1 .36 3161 1 .22 .14 .12 .06 38 40 43 40 49 43 41 41 42 045. NA NA NA 0.2 -1.8 .06 NA 1 NA NA NA .05 36 30 31 41 42 046. 2.6 1.6 1.0 0.5 -0.1 .42 484 6 .17 .12 .17 .07 44 43 43 45 4 7 46 3 7 44 44 047. 1.3 NA NA 0.2 - 0.3 NA 5116 3 .23 NA NA .05 26 36 44 44 42 42 048. 3.0 1.8 1.6 0.7 NA .35 5116 5 .14 .10 .11 .09 49 49 68 54 43 44 43 43 049. 2.0 1.1 NA 0.3 NA NA NA 0 .17 .12 NA .06 36 30 42 41 41 050. 2.6 1.6 1.0 0.5 NA NA NA 10 .17 .13 .13 .09 45 43 41 4 8 46 4 7 051. NA NA NA 0.1 0.2 NA 1623 1 NA NA NA .04 - 34 49 39 41 42 052. 2.2 1.4 1.3 0.4 NA NA 2085 9 .18 .17 .17 .08 40 3 7 54 45 39 45 45 053. 2.3 1.4 NA 0.4 NA .43 3178 3 .23 .17 NA .07 40 38 43 46 41 42 43 054. 3.3 1.7 1.3 0.6 NA .53 6101 10 .14 .13 .13 .08 54 45 56 52 50 46 46 47 055. 3.5 2.2 1.3 1.0 0.3 .38 10357 17 .11 .10 .12 .09 57 59 56 62 51 44 53 50 50 056. 4.1 2.3 1.2 1.2 1.8 .77 15431 35 .11 .08 .08 .08 65 62 50 71 65 61 61 60 59 057. 1.8 1.1 NA 0.3 1.2 NA 13696 NA .24 .19 NA .07 34 30 40 59 58 NA 058. 3.7 2.1 1.2 0.8 1.2 .00 13696 29 .14 .15 .12 .09 60 56 50 56 59 28 5 8 56 56 059. 3.5 1.9 1.1 0.8 1.2 .63 13696 12 .14 .10 .12 .09 57 53 48 57 59 54 58 47 48 060. 3.6 2.2 1.1 0.7 -0.2 .60 4628 NA .12 .08 .10 .09 58 60 48 54 46 53 43 NA NOTE: On the first line of data for every program, raw values for each measure are reported; on the second line values are reported in standardized form, with mean = 50 and standard deviation = 10. "NAT indicates that the value for a measure is not available. Since the scale used to compute measure 16 is entirely arbitrary, only values in s tandardized form are reported for this measure.

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132 TABLE 7.1 Program Measures (Raw and Standardized Values) in Physiology Prog No. University - Department/Academic Unit 061. New Jersey, College of Medicine & Dentistry PI ysiol ogy * 062. New York University Basic Med. ical Sciences 063. North Carolina State University-Raleigh Physiol ogy 064. North Carolina, University of-Chapel Hill Physiol ogy 065. North Dakota, University of-Grand Forks Physiol ogy 066. Northwestern University Physiol ogy/Pharmacol ogy/Pathol ogy/Biol Sci 067. Ohio State University-Columbus Physiol ogy 068. Oh lo State Univers ity-Columbus Veterinary Physiol ogy and Pharmacol ogy 069. Oklahoma State University-Stillwater Animal Science 070. Oklahoma State University-Stillwater Physiol ogical Sciences 071. Oklahoma, University of-Norman Physiol ogy and Biostatistics 072. Oregon, University of-Eugene Bio logy 073. Pennsylvania State University Physiology (Grad School and Medical Center J 074. Pennsylvania, University of Physiol ogy 075. Purdue University-West Lafayette Biol ogical Sciences 076. Rochester, University of 13 Pays ~ ol ogy 45 077. Rockefeller University 40 Physiol ogy 65 078. Rutgers, The State Ur~iversity-New Brunswick 26 Physiology 55 079. SUNY Upstate Medical Center 13 Pl~ysiol ogy 45 080. SUNY at Buffalo 15 Physiology (Roswel l Park Graduate Division J 47 * indicates program was initiated since 1970. Program Size (01) (02) (03) 15 8 47 45 25 5 54 42 19 14 50 50 77 9 92 46 6 11 40 48 27 15 55 51 20 23 50 59 6 10 40 47 16 71 48 99 17 9 48 46 13 8 45 45 12 3 45 40 37 34 63 69 46 14 69 50 13 26 45 62 12 47 6 43 15 .42 49 45 21 NA 53 7 44 37 65 22 54 42 12 47 8 44 44 44 35 63 30 60 28 58 10 16 47 50 20 26 56 57 21 72 57 89 9 7 46 44 10 16 47 50 Characteristics of Program Graduates (04) (05) (06) (07) NA NA NA NA 6.0 .92 4. 65 .53 5.8 50 54 .56 5.3 51 60 NA NA .24 4.5 38 70 NA NA NA NA NA NA 33 5.5 42 57 75 7.0 59 40 46 5.7 47 55 83 7.2 62 38 56 5.5 51 58 09 6.5 32 46 NA NA NA NA NA NA .83 52 53 NA NA .75 69 45 .77 46 .61 31 NA .95 65 NA NA NA .68 38 .88 57 .91 60 .92 61 .81 51 .82 51 NA NA NOTE: On the first line of data for every program, raw values for each measure are reported; on the second line values are reported in standardized form, with mean = 50 and standard deviation = 10. "NA" indicates that the value for a measure is not available. NA NA .25 28 NA .67 57 .53 47 .33 34 NA .67 57 NA NA NA .42 40 .56 50 .76 63 .58 51 .75 62 .55 48 NA NA

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133 TABLE 7.1 Program Measures (Raw and Standardized Values) in Physiology University Research Published Survey Ratings Prog _ Survey Results Library Support Articles Standard Error No. (08) (09) (10) (11) (12) (13) (14) (15) (16) (08) (09) (10) (11) 061. 2.6 1.6 1.1 0.3 NA .47 4529 15 .21 .16 .13 .06 44 42 49 41 48 43 49 47 062. 3.3 1.8 1.4 0.6 0.5 .60 9934 11 .17 .15 .15 .09 54 48 61 51 52 53 52 47 49 063. 2.7 1.7 NA 0.3 NA .26 6741 4 .24 .16 NA .07 45 45 41 39 4 7 43 42 064. 3.8 2.1 1.4 1.0 1.0 .61 9849 29 .10 .09 .10 .08 61 57 61 62 57 54 52 56 56 065. 1.4 1.0 NA 0.3 NA NA NA 2 .23 .19 NA .06 28 27 39 42 42 066. 3.4 2.0 1.7 0.8 0.3 .78 4760 19 .12 .10 .13 .09 55 54 73 55 50 61 44 51 52 067. 2.6 1.5 NA 0.4 0.9 .35 8330 8 .22 .14 NA .08 44 41 44 56 43 49 45 44 068. 1.9 NA NA 0.3 0.9 NA 8330 8 .30 NA NA .07 35 39 56 49 45 44 069. NA NA NA 0.2 - 1.9 .00 3127 4 NA NA NA .05 3 7 29 28 41 43 43 070. NA NA NA 0.2 - 1.9 .35 3127 4 NA NA NA .07 38 29 43 41 43 43 071. 2.3 1.4 1.1 0.5 -0.6 .46 NA 7 .15 .15 .19 .07 40 ~ 39 46 46 42 47 44 44 072. 3.0 1.9 1.2 0.4 -0.9 .58 NA 6 .25 .14 .10 .07 50 51 51 43 39 53 44 43 073. 3.5 2.1 1.3 0.7 0.7 .49 8024 32 .14 .08 .14 .09 57 58 57 54 54 48 49 58 54 074. 4.3 2.5 1.3 1.4 0.7 .70 23550 104 .10 .07 .08 .07 6 7 66 54 77 54 5 7 74 9 8 91 075. 3.1 1.9 1.0 0.5 -0.5 .85 10337 17 .17 .09 .15 .07 51 52 45 46 42 64 53 50 52 076. 3.4 2.2 0.9 0.8 -0.6 .85 15969 39 .13 .07 .08 .09 55 58 41 56 42 64 62 62 60 077. 4.3 2.6 1.2 1.0 NA .73 27299 29 .09 .07 .09 .09 68 70 52 62 59 80 56 67 078. 3.1 2.0 1.1 0.7 0.8 .15 7505 5 .13 .06 .10 .08 51 53 48 52 55 34 48 43 44 079. 2.8 1.8 NA 0.4 NA .54 NA 8 .15 .14 NA .07 4 7 4 8 45 51 45 44 080. NA NA NA 0.2 0.3 .00 6799 6 NA NA NA .06 38 50 28 47 44 42 NOTE: On the first line of data for every program, raw values for each measure are reported; on the second line values are reported in standardized form, with mean = 50 and standard deviation = 10. "NA" indicates that the value for a measure is not available. Since the scale used to compute measure 16 is entirely arbitrary, only values in standardized form are reported for this measure.

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134 TABLE 7.1 Program Measures (Raw and Standardized Values) in Physiology Characteristics of Prog Program Size Program Graduates No. University - Department/Academic Unit (01) (02) (03) (04) (05) (06) (07) 081. SUNY at Buffalo 29 15 9 .67 6.0 .83 .75 Physiology (School of Medicine) 57 51 45 55 52 53 62 082. SUNY-Downstate Medical Center 17 3 3 NA NA NA NA Physiology 48 40 41 083. Southern California, University of 14 12 9 .67 6.5 .92 .50 Physiol ogy and Biophysics 46 49 45 55 46 61 45 084. Stanford University 8 13 14 .75 6.0 .92 .75 Physiol ogy 42 49 49 59 52 61 62 085. Temple University 8 7 9 .23 6.5 .58 .33 Physiol ogy 42 44 45 3 8 46 28 34 086. Tennessee, Univ of-Ctr for Health Sciences 21 4 3 NA NA NA NA Physiol ogy & Biophysics 51 41 41 087. Texas, U of-Health Science Center, Houston 65 12 40 NA 6.5 .70 .40 Physiol & Cell Biol/Pharm/Neuro & Anatomy 83 49 67 46 40 39 088. Thomas Jefferson University 10 13 10 .13 5.2 .87 .67 Physiol ogy 43 49 46 34 61 56 5 7 089. Tufts University 4 4 2 NA NA NA NA Physiol ogy * 39 41 40 090. Tulane University 10 3 4 NA NA NA NA Physiol ogy 43 40 42 091. Vanderbilt University 18 11 2 NA NA NA NA Physiology 49 48 40 092. Vermont, University of 8 13 5 .50 5.5 .83 .58 Physiol ogy and Biophysics 42 49 42 49 5 7 53 51 093. Virginia Commonwealth University/Medical Col 22 11 24 .42 5.8 .83 .50 Physiology 52 48 56 45 55 53 45 094. Virginia, University of 17 17 19 .93 5.8 .87 .73 Physiology 48 53 52 66 54 56 61 095. Washington State University-Pullman 8 8 7 NA NA NA NA Zoophysiol ogy 42 45 44 096. Washington University-Saint Louis 44 9 33 NA NA NA NA Biol ogy and Boomed ical Sciences * 6 8 46 62 097. Washington, University of-Seattle 34 25 8 .96 7.5 .85 ,62 Physiol ogy and Biophysics 61 61 44 6 7 34 54 53 098. Wayne State University 19 17 12 .47 6.5 .60 .40 Physiology 50 53 47 47 46 30 39 099. West Virginia University 18 10 12 NA NA NA NA Physiology 49 47 47 100. Wisconsin, University of-Madison 14 17 20 .63 6.0 1.00 .69 Physiol ogy 46 53 53 54 52 69 5 8 * indicates program was initiated since 1970. NOTE: On the first line of data for every program, raw values for each measure are reported; on the second line values are reported in standardized form, with mean = 50 and standard deviation = 10. "NA" indicates that the value for a measure is not available.

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35 ~BLE 7.1 Program ~asures (~w and Standardized Values) in PhYsiologY university Research Publisbed SurveY Ratings Prog Survev Results Librarv Sup~rt Articles Standard Error No. (08) (09) (10) (11) (12) (13) (14) (15) (16) (08) (09) (10) {11) 081. 3.7 2.3 1.0 1.0 0.3 .48 6799 25 .13 .10 .11 .10 ~ ~ dj 6; 50 48 47 S~ 50 082. 2.8 1.7 0.7 0.5 NA .41 3077 12 .15 .13 .11 .08 46 45 32 48 45 d] 47 48 083. 3.1 1.8 1.3 0.5 0.4 .64 2405 19 .14 .08 .14 .07 52 SO 56 ~ ~ 5] SS 40 5] ~ 7 084. 3.3 2.1 0.8 0.8 2.0 NA 12514 24 .18 .10 .11 .09 54 56 34 57 67 56 54 S~ 085. 2.1 1.3 NA 0.3 -0.4 NA 6914 15 .17 .11 NA .07 38 J~ 42 43 47 49 46 086. 2.8 1.6 1.1 0.6 NA .48 2127 9 .15 .11 .07 .08 47 42 48 SO 48 J9 45 47 087. 3.5 2.0 1.6 0.6 NA .57 4151 NA .15 .12 .15 .08 57 55 67 SO 52 dJ ~ 088. NA NA NA 0.3 NA .60 1851 9 NA NA NA .08 d] ~J J~ dS dG 089. 1.4 0.8 0.5 0.2 NA NA 3518 5 .28 .17 .13 .05 28 2J 22 38 42 43 44 090. 2.5 1.4 1.1 0.3 -1.0 .40 3690 13 .21 .16 .18 .06 dJ 39 dG 42 38 dS 42 48 45 091. 3.5 2.0 1.0 0.5 -0.7 .78 5204 13 .21 .13 .14 .09 56 54 dJ 48 4] 6] 44 48 47 092. 2.9 1.9 1.2 0.5 NA NA 4628 11 .15 .09 .08 .08 dS SO 5] 48 43 47 49 093. 3.1 1.8 1.4 0.8 NA .68 6556 21 .16 .10 .12 .08 52 49 6] 57 57 47 52 52 094. 3.8 2.3 1.2 0.9 0.7 .65 6224 17 .12 .07 .09 .08 GO 62 52 60 55 65 46 SO 49 095. 2.3 1.7 1.0 0.4 -0.3 NA 998 5 .21 .18 .00 .07 dO 46 dJ dd 45 J 8 dJ dJ 096. 4.0 2.3 1.4 0.9 -0.4 .86 16825 48 .12 .08 .09 .08 ~J dJ SS 6] 44 64 63 ~ 7 75 097. 4.3 2.6 1.3 1.3 1.5 .68 14164 54 .09 .07 .11 .08 68 69 54 74 62 57 59 70 68 098. 2.6 1.5 1.0 0.4 -0.4 .53 6372 19 .19 .15 .18 .06 44 42 dJ dJ 44 50 dG S] 5] 099. 2.5 NA NA 0.3 NA .33 NA 2 .14 NA NA .06 43 42 42 42 42 100. 3.0 2.0 1.2 0.5 1.6 .64 19738 24 .16 .04 .17 .08 SO ~J 52 47 6J 55 68 54 52 N~E: On the f irst line of data for every program, raw values for eacb measure are reported; on the second line values are re~rted in standardized form, with mean = 50 and standard deviation = 10. "~" indicates that the value for a measure is nOt available. Since the scale used to co~ute measure 16 is entirelY arbitrarY ~ onlY values in standardized form are re~rted for this measure.

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136 TABLE 7.1 Program Measures (Raw and Standardized Values ) in Physiology Character istics of Prog Program Size Program Graduates No. University - Department/Academic Unit (01) (02) (03) (04) (05) (06) (07) 101. Yale University 33 17 20 .82 5.9 .88 .50 Physiology/ Biology/ Neuroanatomy 60 53 53 62 53 57 45 * indicates program was initiated since 1970. NOTE: On the f irst line of data for every program, raw values for each measure are reported; on the second line values are reported in standardized form, with mean = 50 and standard deviation = 10. "NA" indicates that the value for a measure is not available.

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137 TABLE 7.1 Program Measures (Raw and Standardized Values) in Physiology University Research Published Survey Ratings Prog Survey Results Library Support Articles Standard Error No. (08) (09) (10) (11) (12) (13) (14) (15) (16) (08) (09) (10) (11) 101. 4.3 2.5 1.4 1.3 2.1 .73 4337 64 .10 .07 .10 .08 68 67 59 74 68 59 43 76 82 NOTE: On the first line of data for every program, raw values for each measure are reported; on the second line values are reported in standardized form, with mean = 50 and standard deviation = 10. "NA" indicates that the value for a measure is not available Since the scale used to compute measure 16 is entirely arbitrary, only values in standardized form are reported for this measure.

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138 TABLE 7.2 Summary Statistics Describing Each Program Measure--Physiology Number of Programs Evaluated Mean Measure Program Size 01 Raw Value Std Value 02 Raw Value Std Value 03 Raw Value Std Value Program Graduates 04 Raw Value Std Value 05 Raw Value Std Value 06 Raw Value Std Value 07 Raw Value Std Value Survey Results 08 Raw Value 9 4 Std Value 9 4 09 Raw Value 87 Std Value 87 10 Raw Value 75 Std Value 75 11 Raw Value 101 Std Value 101 University Library 12 Raw Value Std Value Research Support 13 Raw Value Std Value 14 Raw Value Std Value Publication Records 101 101 101 101 101 101 48 .53 48 50 48 6.2 48 50 48 .80 48 50 48 .57 48 50 71 71 80 ~0 88 88 15 Raw Value 97 Std Value 97 16 Std Value 9 7 19 14 50 10 14 11 50 10 16 14 50 10 .25 10 .9 10 .10 10 .15 10 3.0 .7 50 10 1.9 .4 50 10 1.2 .2 50 10 .6 .3 50 10 1.0 50 10 .52 .24 50 10 8687 6173 50 10 17 18 50 10 50 10 D E C I L E S - 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 8 9 42 42 4 7 41 44 4 7 42 44 .13 .28 34 40 7.2 6.7 38 44 .64 .73 34 43 .33 .41 34 39 2.0 2.5 36 43 1.3 1.5 35 41 1.0 43 .3 41 12 13 45 45 8 9 45 46 ~ 9 44 45 .42 .46 46 47 6.5 6.5 46 46 .77 .79 47 49 .50 .55 45 49 2.6 2.8 44 47 1.6 1.8 43 49 1.1 1.1 48 48 .4 .4 44 44 - 1.0 - .6 - .4 - . 44 46 38 42 15 47 11 48 11 47 .56 51 6.1 51 .83 53 .58 51 3.0 50 1.9 51 1.2 52 .5 47 .2 50 .06 .35 .42 .48 .57 31 43 46 48 52 2798 3363 4492 5444 6799 40 41 43 45 47 2 4 42 43 42 43 6 9 44 45 43 45 11 15 47 49 47 48 17 21 48 51 12 14 49 50 14 16 49 50 .59 .67 52 56 6.0 5.7 52 55 .84 .87 54 57 .61 .67 53 57 3.3 3.4 54 55 2.0 2.1 54 57 1.2 1.3 52 56 .6 .7 50 54 .4 .8 51 55 .62 .~8 54 57 8330 10349 49 53 19 28 51 56 51 56 26 55 18 54 22 54 .78 60 5.5 57 .88 58 .71 59 3.6 58 2.2 59 1.4 60 .8 57 1.0 1 57 37 63 25 61 33 62 .85 63 5.2 61 .92 62 .75 62 4.0 63 2.3 62 1.4 60 1.0 63 L.7 64 .73 .78 59 61 13696 16140 58 62 39 62 61 NOTE: Standardized values reported in the preceding table have been computed from exact values of the mean and standard deviation and not the rounded values reported here. Since the scale used to compute measure 16 is entirely arbitrary, only data in standardized form are reported for this measure.

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139 TABLE 7.3 Intercorrelations Among Program Measures on 101 Programs in Physiology Measure 01 02 03 04 05 06 07 08 09 10 li 12 13 14 15 16 Program Size 01 .43 .49 .12 -.15 -.01 .08 .64 .62 .53 .63 .36 .18 .36 .52 .52 02 .54 -.09 .19 .14 .15 .46 .51 .19 .32 .25 .04 .30 .16 .17 03 .01 -.11 -.09 -.08 .42 .43 .29 .34 .41 .16 .37 .12 .14 Program Graduates 04 .01 .15 .28 .47 .38 -.25 .60 .43 .60 .31 .51 .50 05 .19 .22 -.11 -.16 .00 -.17 -.13 -.17 -.16 -.15 -.12 06 .68 .27 .37 -.03 .22 .01 .17 .14 .30 .29 07 .30 .33 -.01 .32 .10 .32 .23 .32 .33 Survey Results 08 .95 .38 .89 .49 .57 .51 .69 .71 09 .40 .84 .53 .47 .51 .63 .65 10 .29 .18 .06 -.01 .23 .20 11 .58 .57 .46 .80 .81 University Library 12 .23 .50 .34 .37 Research Support 13 14 Publication Records IS 16 .28 .48 .51 .43 .48 .97 NOTE: Since in computing correlation coefficients program data must be available for both of the measures being correlated, the actual number of programs on which each coefficient is based varies.

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140 5.0+F * * ** * * * * 4.0++ * + * + * * * + ** * * + ** * + * * * * * * Measure + 3.0++ 08 + + + + 2.0++ + + + + * * + + 1 . 0++ + + + + OO +/+++++++++++/+++++++++++/+++++++++++/+++++++++++f+++++++++++/+++++++++++/++~+V++++++/+++++++++++/ 1 4 9 16 25 36 49 64 81 * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * ** * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * ** ** * * * * * * Measure 01 (square root scale) FIGURE 7.1 Mean rating of scholarly quality of faculty (measure 08) versus number of faculty members (measure 01)--94 programs in physiology.

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141 . o++ + + + + 2.0++ Measure 09 * * * * * * * * * * * * + + + 1.0++ + * + * + + + + + * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * ** * * * * * * * * * * * * * r r = .52 O. O +/+++++++++++++/+++++++++++++/+++++++++++++/+++++++++++++/+++++++++++++/+++++++++++++/+++++++++++++/ 1 4 9 16 25 36 49 64 Measure 02 (square root scale) FIGURE 7.2 Mean rating of program effectiveness in educating research scholars/scientists (measure 09) versus number of graduates in last five years (measure 02)--87 programs in physiology.

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142 TABLE 7.4 Characteristics of Survey Participants in Physiology Respondents N ield of Specialization Biophysics 11 8 Physiology, Animal/Human 113 77 Other/Unknown 22 15 Faculty Rank Professor 73 50 Associate Professor 45 31 Assistant Professor 28 19 Year of Highest Degree Pre-1950 8 6 1950-59 38 26 1960-69 57 39 Post-1969 42 29 Unknown 1 1 Evaluator Selection Nominated by Institution 120 82 Other 26 18 Survey Form With Faculty Names 136 93 Without Names 10 7 Total Evaluators 146 100

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143 3.0 2.0 1.0 Mean Survey Rating (measure 08) FIGURE 7.3 Mean rating of scholarly quality of faculty in 94 programs in physiology. NOTE: Programs are listed in sequence of mean rating, with the highest-rated program appearing at the top of the page. The broken lines (---) indicate a confidence interval of +1.5 standard errors around the reported mean (x) of each program. 0.0

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