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v Cello 1 ar/Molecular Biology Programs In this chapter 89 research-doctorate programs in cellular/molecu- lar biology are assessed. These programs, according to the information supplied by their universities, have accounted for 1,871 doctoral de- grees awarded during the FY1976-80 period. Because cellular and molecular biology programs transcend the boundaries of many other bio- logical science disciplines and because these programs may be found in a variety of different institutional settings (including biology de- partments, medical school departments, etc.), the committee encoun- tered difficulty in identifying a comprehensive set of research-doctor- ate programs that have produced graduates in this discipline. On the average, 34 full-time and part-time students intending to earn doctor- ates were enrolled in a program in December 1980, with an average fac- ulty size of 26 members.2 Roughly half of the 89 programs, listed in Table 5.1' are located in departments of biology or biological sciences and one-fourth in departments of cellular or molecular biology. The remainder are in departments of anatomy, genetics, and other biological sciences. Eighteen programs were initiated since 1970. Each of six institutions--Florida State University, University of Pittsburgh, SUNY at Buffalo, Tufts University, University of Utah, and Washington Uni- versity (St. Louis)--has two cellular/molecular biology programs in- cluded in the assessment. The Albert Einstein College of Medicine has three programs evaluated and the University of Chicago has four. In addition to the 78 institutions represented in this discipline, another 17 were initially identified as meeting the criteria3 for inclusion in the assessment: data from the NRC's Survey of Earned Doctorates indicate that 199 research doctorates in cytology, 773 in molecular biology, and 952 in general biology were awarded by U.S. universities between FY1976 and FY1980. Since the NRC figure is based on field of degree and not de- partment, it may exclude some doctorates included in the numbers re- ported by the institutional coordinators. 2 See the reported means for measures 03 and 01 in Table 5.2. 3AS mentioned in Chapter I, the primary criterion for inclusion was that a university had awarded at least 10 doctorates in cellular/molec- ular biology during the FY1976-78 period. 79

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80 University of California--Davis University of California--San Francisco Colorado State University--Fort Collins Cornell University--Ithaca Dartmouth College University of Florida--Gainesville Fordham University Idaho State University--Pocatello Illinois Institute of Technology University of Iowa--Iowa City University of Kentucky University of Louisville University of Miami--Florida University of New Mexico--Albuquerque New York University Saint John's University College of William and Mary Saint John's University chose not to participate in the assessment in any discipline. Cellular/molecular biology programs at the other 16 institutions have not been included in the evaluations in this discz- pline, since in each case the study coordinator either indicated that the institution did not at that time have a research-doctorate program in cellular/molecular biology or failed to provide the information re- quested by the committee. Before examining the individual program results presented in Table 5.1, the reader is urged to refer to Chapter II, in which each of the 16 measures used in the assessment is discussed. Summary statistics describing every measure are given in Table 5.2. For eight of the mea- sures, data are reported for at least 77 of the 89 cellular/molecular biology programs. For measures 04-07, which pertain to characteristics of the program graduates, data are presented for only approximately two-thirds of the programs; the other third had too few graduates on which to base statistics .4 For measure 12, a composite index of the size of a university library, data are available for 63 programs; for measure 14, the total university expenditures for research in the bio- logical sciences, data are available for 67 programs. The programs not evaluated on measures 12 and 14 are typically smaller--in terms of fac- ulty size and graduate student enrollment--than other cellular/ molec- ular biology programs. Were data on these two measures available for all 89 programs, it is likely that their reported means would be appre- ciably lower (and that some of the correlations of these measures with others would be higher). With regard to reputational survey measures 09 and 10, results were not reported for any programs with fewer than 15 ratings. Intercorrelations among the 16 measures (Pearson product-moment 4As mentioned in Chapter II, data for;measures 04-07 are not reported if they are based on the survey responses of fewer than 10 FY1975-79 program graduates.

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81 coefficients) are given in Table 5.3. Of particular note are the high positive correlations of the reputational survey ratings (08,-09) with measures of publication records (15, 16) and total research expendi- tures (14~. Figure 5.1 illustrates the relation between the mean rat- ing of the scholarly quality of faculty (measure 08) and the number of faculty members (measure 01) for each of 86 programs in cellular/molec- ular biology. Figure 5.2 plots the mean rating of program effective- ness (measure 09) against the total number of FY1976-80 program gradu- ates (measure 02~. Although in both figures there is a significant positive correlation between program size and reputational rating, it is quite apparent that many of the smaller programs received high mean ratings. Table 5.4 describes the 139 faculty members who participated in the evaluation of cellular/molecular biology programs. These individuals constituted 52 percent of those asked to respond to the survey in this discipline and 6 percent of the faculty population in the 89 research- doctorate programs being evaluated.5 Approximately two-thirds of the evaluators identified themselves as cellular or molecular biologists, with the remainder split among biochemistry, genetics, and other bio- logical science disciplines. A majority of the survey participants had earned their highest degree prior to 1970, and almost half held the rank of full professor. One exception should be noted with regard to the survey evaluations in this discipline. In the program listing on the survey form, New Mexico State University at Las Cruces was identified as being located in Alamogordo, where there is another branch of the same university system not offering the research doctorate. Since a large majority of faculty evaluators indicated that they were unfamiliar with this pro- gram and it is quite possible that some of them were misled by the in- accurate identification of this institution, the committee has decided not to report the survey results for this program. To assist the reader in interpreting results of the survey evalua- tions, estimated standard errors have been computed for mean ratings of the scholarly quality of faculty in 86 cellular/molecular biology programs (and are given in Table 5.1~. For each program the mean rat- ing and an associated "confidence interval" of 1.5 standard errors are illustrated in Figure 5.3 (listed in order of highest to lowest mean rating). In comparing two programs, if their confidence intervals do not overlap, one may conclude that there is a significant difference in their mean ratings at a .05 level of significance. 6 From this figure it is also apparent that one should have somewhat more confi- dence in the accuracy of the mean ratings of higher-rated programs than lower-rated programs. This generalization results primarily from the fact that evaluators are not as likely to be familiar with the less prestigious programs, and consequently the mean ratings of these pro- grams are usually based on fewer survey responses. 5 See Table 2.3 in Chapter II. 6 See pp. 31-33 for a discussion of the interpretation of mean ratings and associated confidence intervals.

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82 TABLE 5.1 Program Measures (Raw and Standardized Values) in Cellular/Molecular Biol. Prog No. Univers ity - Department/Academic Unit 001. Albert Einstein College of Medicine Anatomy 002. Albert Einstein College of Medicine Cell Biology 003. Albert Einstein College of Medicine Molecular Biology 004. Arizona, University of-Tucson Cellular and Developmental Biology* 005. Atlanta University Biology 006. Baylor College of Medicine-Houston Cell Biology* 007. Boston University Biology 008. Bowling Green State University Biological Sciences 009. Brandeis University Biology 010. Brown University Biology and Medicine O. 11. cualy-Graduate School - Biology 012. California, University of-Irvine Molec & Biochem/Biol Chem/Dev & Cell/Micro 013. California Institute of Technology Biology 014. California, University of-Berkeley Molecular Biology 015. California, University of-Los Angeles Molecular Biology 016. California, University of-Riverside Biology 017. California, University of-San Diego Biology 018. California, University of-Santa Barbara Biological Sciences 019. Case Western Reserve University Anatomy/Biochem/Biol/Micro/Pathol/Physiol* 020. Chicago, University of Biology * indicates program was initiated since 1970. Program Size (01) (02) (03) 8 2 42 40 18 10 47 44 8 11 42 44 11 1 43 40 10 29 43 53 30 21 52 49 18 18 47 48 29 18 52 48 16 19 46 48 24 18 49 48 111 85 89 80 26 16 50 47 23 48 49 62 14 41 45 59 42 27 58 52 21 21 48 49 46 74 59 74 49 75 61 75 33 3 53 41 8 18 42 48 Characteristics of Program Graduates (04) (05) (06) (07) 11 43 NA NA 19 .80 NA 45 58 16 44 10 43 26 48 30 49 35 50 32 49 44 53 25 47 114 75 43 53 47 54 33 50 35 50 19 45 50 55 98 70 24 47 14 44 NA NA NA NA .83 6 59 .46 5.3 45 61 .27 7.3 38 34 .31 7.0 39 38 .69 6.1 54 50 .67 6.0 53 52 .25 8.5 37 18 .60 4.5 50 72 .81 6.1 58 50 .77 5.7 57 56 .69 5.4 54 60 .40 7.8 43 28 .91 6.2 62 49 .18 6.8 34 41 NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA 6.0 .83 .17 52 53 24 .85 .54 54 48 .46 .27 18 31 .60 .07 3? 17 .88 .69 57 58 .88 .69 57 58 .77 .43 47 41 .87 .67 56 57 .90 .63 59 55 .86 .57 55 50 .74 .58 45 51 .80 .50 50 46 .83 .73 53 61 .70 .30 41 33 NA NA NA NA NOTE: On the first line of data for every program, raw values for each measure are reported; on the second line values are reported in standardized form, with mean = 50 and standard deviation = 10. "NA" indicates that the value for a measure is not available.

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83 TABLE 5.1 Program Measures (Raw and Standardized Values) in Cellular/Molecular Biol. Prog Survey Results No. (08) (09) (10) (11) 001. 002. 003. 004. 005. 2.8 1.3 49 36 3.5 2.0 56 53 2.9 1.7 50 45 2.0 1.1 40 30 NA NA 006. 3.6 57 007. 2.6 46 008. 1.5 35 009. 3.6 57 010. 3.1 52 011. 2.4 44 012. 3.2 53 013. 4.8 70 014. 4.2 64 015. 3.8 60 016. 2.6 47 017. 4.3 64 018. 3.2 52 019. 2.7 47 020. 3.4 55 1.5 62 1.0 42 1.1 46 1.2 49 .NA 2.1 1.5 56 62 1.4 0.9 38 36 NA NA 2.2 1.1 59 44 l.9 1.2 50 51 1.5 1.0 -41 41 1.9 1.2 51 51 2.8 1.1 72 47 2.3 1.2 61 48 2.2 1.6 57 66 1.6 1.1 42 44 2.5 1.5 66 60 2.0 1.1 52 46 1.5 0.8 40 31 1.9 1.0 51 41 University Library (12) 0.7 NA 49 1.0 NA 56 0.7 NA 50 0.4 0.9 42 56 0.1 NA 36 1.1 59 0.4 43 0.1 36 1.2 60 0.9 53 0.4 42 0.9 55 1.6 71 1.5 68 1.2 62 0.4 42 1.4 66 0.7 50 0.5 44 0.9 53 NA 0.4 44 NA NA -1.1 37 NA NA NA 2.2 69 2.0 67 1 .0 38 0.0 47 O . 1 47 -1 .3 35 0.9 56 _ 56 56 .50 NA 44 .21 NA 31 .88 5487 61 43 .63 NA 49 .24 NA 32 .85 6547 59 44 .91 5446 62 43 .8 6 18977 60 63 .8 6 15581 60 58 .38 6232 38 44 .74 8706 54 48 .59 NA 48 .70 7721 53 46 NA 17589 61 Research Published Supoor t Art icles (13) (14) (15) (16) NA 9184 234 48 58 .78 9184 234 56 48 58 NA 9184 234 48 58 .55 7828 82 46 46 46 .30 NA 5 35 40 .77 14051 225 57 26 42 17 41 98 47 75 45 74 45 144 51. 187 54 387 70 444 74 96 47 304 63 86 46 143 51 325 65 46 63 47 51 64 61 61 61 45 40 57 41 49 45 Survey Ratings Standard Error (08) (09) (10) (11) .17 .17 .16 .08 .10 .07 .08 .08 .15 .12 .17 .16 NA NA .09 .06 .15 .13 .26 NA .10 .08 .06 .15 .09 .18 .07 NA .04 .08 .11 NA .09 .08 .07 .04 .08 .10 .08 .18 .23 .17 .07 44 .11 .09 .11 .08 50 55 68 72 .05 .06 .08 .07 .08 .07 .10 .07 .09 .07 .18 .12 .08 .07 .10 .08 .17 .16 .11 .08 .08 .13 .10 .14 .14 .11 NOTE: On the f irst line of data for every program, raw values for each measure are reported; on the second line values are reported in standardized form, with mean = 50 and standard deviation = 10. "NA" indicates that the value for a measure is not available. Since the scale used to compute measure 16 is entirely arbitrary, only values in standardized form are reported for this measure. .07 .06 .08 .07 .07 .09

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84 TABLE 5.1 Program Measures (Raw and Standardized Values) in Cellular/Molecular Biol. Prog No. University - Department/Academic Unit 021. Chicago, University of Biophysics and Theoretical Biology 022. Chicago, University of Developmental Biology* 023. Chicago, University of Genetics 024. Cincinnati, University of Biological Sciences 025. Colorado, University of Molecular, Cellular, and Developmental Biol 026. Columbia University Biological Sciences 027. Connecticut, University of-Storrs Biological Sciences 028. Cornell University-Medical Center Biological Structure/Cell Biology 029. Delaware, University of-Newark Life and Health Sciences 030. Duke University Cell and Molecular Biology* 031. Florida State University-Tallahassee Biological Science 032. Florida State University-Tallahassee Molecular Biophysics* 033. Harvard University Biology (Cellular & Developmental) 034. Houston, University of Biology 035. Illinois, University-Urbana/Champaign Cell Biology 037. 039. 040. 036. Indiana University-Bloomington Biology* Iowa State University-Ames Nolecular, Cellular, and Developmental Biol 038. Johns Hopkins University Biology Kansas, University of Physiology and Cell Biology Loma Linda University Biology * indicates program was initiated since 1970. Program Size (01) (02) (03) 15 35 45 56 18 1 47 40 33 11 53 44 9 10 42 44 22 24 48 51 26 27 50 52 15 9 45 43 17 24 46 51 8 5 42 41 134 NA 99 36 63 55 69 22 17 48 47 19 35 47 56 12 7 44 42 40 NA 57 18 9 47 43 24 11 49 44 12 60 44 68 10 12 43 45 6 NA 41 28 48 11 43 11 43 4 41 57 57 61 58 19 45 39 52 5 41 32 49 64 59 9 42 53 56 6 41 9 42 33 50 25 47 79 64 42 4 41 Characteristics of Program Graduates (04) (05) (06) (07) NA NA NA NA 1.00 6.3 66 48 .10 5.2 31 63 .68 5.8 53 54 .75 6.3 56 48 .85 6.7 60 42 .42 5.4 43 60 NA NA .73 6.1 55 50 .46 6.9 45 40 .57 5.5 49 59 .89 5.7 62 56 NA NA .60 6.2 50 49 .78 5.9 57 53 NA NA .96 6.3 64 47 .22 6.5 36 45 NA NA NOTE: On the first line of data for every program, raw values for each measure are reported; on the second line values are reported in standardized form, with mean = 50 and standard deviation = 10. "NA" indicates that the value for a measure is not available. NA NA NINA NA .83 .75 53 62 .80 .70 50 59 .84 .72 54 60 .90 .62 59 54 .77 .54 47 48 1.00 .58 69 51 NA NA .66 .55 37 49 .75 .37 46 37 .89 .51 59 47 .92 .58 61 51 NA NA .80 .56 50 50 .91 .61 61 53 NA NA .91 .65 61 56 .77 .53 47 48 NA NA

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85 TABLE 5.1 Program Measures (Raw and Standardized Values) in Cellular/Molecular Biol. University Research Published Survey Ratings Prog Survey Results Library Support Articles Standard Error No. (08) (09) (10) (11) (12) (13) (14) (15) (16) (08) (09) (10) (11) 021. 3.7 2.3 1.0 0.8 0.9 .67 17589 325 .11 .09 .11 .08 58 59 42 51 56 51 61 65 64 022. 3.,4 1.8 0.8 1.0 0.9 .78 17589 325 .10 .12 .11 .07 54 47 33 57 56 56 61 65 64 023. 3.9 2.2 1.3 1.1 0.9 .76 17589 325 .10 .08 .10 .09 61 57 52 58 56 55 61 65 64 024. 1.7 NA NA 0.3 - 0.2 NA 9365 14 .19 NA NA .07 37 40 45 49 41 41 025. 4.1 2.4 1.5 1.5 -0.9 .91 11967 125 .09 .07 .07 .07 62 63 64 67 39 62 53 49 49 026. 4.1 2.4 1.4 1.4 1.7 .89 11090 94 .08 .07 .10 .08 63 62 59 65 65 61 51 47 48 027. 2.7 1.6 1.0 0.7 -0.5 .53 15199 56 .11 .10 .13 .09 48 42 41 50 43 45 58 44 43 028. 3.2 1.9 1.1 0.6 NA .18 14597 102 .15 .14 .14 .08 52 50 45 46 29 57 48 49 029. 2.0 1.4 0.9 0.3 NA NA NA 39 .19 .13 .13 .06 40 38 36 40 43 43 030. 3.7 2.1 1.5 1.0 0.3 .69 11320 203 .09 .08 .09 .08 58 57 61 57 51 52 52 56 57 031. 2.8 1.9 1.2 0.4 -0.4 .81 3196 42 .15 .13 .14 .07 48 51 51 43 43 57 39 43 42 032. 2.7 1.8 NA 0.5 -0.4 .91 3196 42 .17 .10 NA .07 48 47 45 43 62 39 43 42 033. 4.3 2.6 0.9 1.5 3.0 .90 34979 281 .07 .06 .07 .08 65 67 36 67 77 61 88 62 64 034. 1.4 NA NA 0.3 -0.9 .42 NA 44 .21 NA NA .05 34 39 39 40 43 42 035. 3.1 1.8 1.2 0.6 2.0 .73 6074 142 .13 .10 .13 .08 52 48 49 48 67 54 44 51 50 036. 3.5 2.0 1.3 1.1 0.9 .83 NA 119 .11 .09 .09 .09 56 53 55 58 57 59 49 48 037. 2.6 1.6 NA 0.4 -0.5 .58 5287 62 .15 .12 NA .07 46 42 43 43 48 42 44 44 038. 3.3 2.0 0.8 1.0 -0~4 .83 19837 62 .09 .08 .10 .07 54 53 32 57 44 59 65 44 45 039. 1.9 1.2 0.9 0.3 0.1 .50 3161 51 .23 .18 .09 .06 39 32 36 41 49 44 39 44 43 040. 0.4 NA NA 0.1 NA NA NA 0 .16 NA NA .03 23 35 39 40 NOTE: On the f irst line of data for every program, raw values for each measure are reported; on the second line values are reported in standardized form, with mean = 50 and standard deviation = 10. "NA" indicates that the value for a measure is not available. Since the scale used to compute measure 16 is entirely arbitrary, only values in standardized form are reported for this measure.

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86 TABLE 5.1 Program Measures (Raw and Standardized Values) in Cellular/Molecular Biol. Prog No. University - Department/Academic Unit Program Size (01) (02) (03) (04) Characteristics of Prouram Graduates (05) (06) (07) 041. Marquette University 17 15 16 .40 6.2 NA NA Biol ogy 46 46 44 43 49 042. Massachusetts Institute of Technology 20 35 49 .88 5.2 .82 .61 Biology 47 56 55 61 62 52 53 043. Michigan State University-East Lansing 33 42 70 NA NA NA NA Microbiol ogy and Biochemistry 53 59 61 044. Michigan, University of-Ann Arbor 63 3 24 NA NA NA NA Cel l ul ar and Sol ecus ar Biol ogy 6 7 41 4 7 045. Minnesota, University of 21 9 18 NA NA NA NA Genetics and Cel 1 Biol ogy 4 8 43 45 046. Missouri, University of-Columbia 11 2 10 NA NA NA NA Biol ogical Sciences * 43 40 43 047. Nebraska, University of-Lincoln 12 15 23 NA NA NA NA Li f e Sciences * 44 46 4 7 048. New Mexico State University-Las Cruces 19 15 20 .29 6.0 .71 .43 Biology 47 46 46 38 52 42 41 049. North Carolina, University of-Chapel Hill 51 NA NA .55 4.7 1.00 .63 Cellular Biology/Molecular Biology 62 48 70 69 54 050. North Dakota, University of-Grand Forks 9 11 8 NA NA NA NA Anatomy 42 44 42 051. North Texas State University-Denton 6 8 18 NA NA NA NA - Biol ogical Sciences * 41 43 45 052. Northwestern University 45 44 93 .46 5.5 .68 .64 Blocked & Molec/Pharmacol/Anat/Path/Physiol 59 60 68 45 59 39 55 053. Ohio State University-Columbus 11 9 6 NA NA NA NA Sol ecus or, Cel l us ar, and Devel opmental Biol 43 43 41 054. Oregon, University of-Eugene 21 4 10 .69 6.7 .58 .42 Biol ogy 4 8 41 43 54 43 30 40 055. Pennsylvania, University of 46 27 33 .85 5.9 .78 .56 Molecular Biology 59 52 50 60 53 48 50 056. Pittsburgh, University of 5 8 19 NA NA NA NA Anatomy and Cel l Biology (Schl of Medicine) 41 43 45 057. Pittsburgh, University of 28 8 26 .25 7.0 .56 .25 Biological Sciences (Arts and Sciences J * 51 43 48 37 38 28 29 058. Princeton University 15 39 36 .77 6.2 .69 .62 Biology 45 58 51 57 49 40 53 059. Purdue University-West Lafayette 38 79 119 .68 6.1 .76 .54 Biological Sciences 56 77 76 54 51 46 48 060. Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute 10 9 6 NA NA NA NA Biol ogy 43 43 41 * indicates program was initiated since 1970. NOTE: On the first line of data for every program, raw values for each measure are reported; on the second line values are reported in standardized form, with mean = 50 and standard deviation = 10. "NA" indicates that the value for a measure is not available.

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87 TABLE 5.1 Program Measures (Raw and Standardized Values) in Cellular/Molecular Biol. University Research Published Survey Ratings Prog Survey Results Library Support Articles Standard Error No. (08) (09) (10) (11) (12) (13) (14) (15) (16) (08) (09) (10) (11) 041. 1.8 NA NA 0.2 NA .35 NA 5 .18 NA NA .05 38 37 37 40 40 042. 4.9 2.8 1.3 1.7 -0.3 .85 17348 360 .04 .05 .07 .06 70 74 56 72 44 59 61 68 72 043. 2.7 1.7 1.3 0.8 0.3 .70 10357 145 .13 .09 .14 .09 48 45 53 51 51 53 50 51 49 044. 3.3 1.7 1.2 0.9 1.8 .14 15431 324 .11 .11 .12 .08 54 46 49 54 65 28 5 8 65 64 045. 2.8 1.7 1.0 0.6 1.2 .86 13696 309 .11 .10 .09 .07 49 45 39 4 7 59 60 55 64 60 046. 1.6 0.9 NA 0.3 - 0.2 .64 4628 35 .21 .17 NA .05 36 26 39 46 50 41 42 42 047. 2.1 1.6 NA 0.2 -0.5 .67 2965 44 .23 .18 NA .06 41 42 39 43 51 39 43 43 048. NA NA NA NA NA .32 NA 20 NA NA NA NA 36 41 42 049. 3.3 2.0 1.6 0.9 1.0 .73 9849 NA .09 .05 .11 .08 54 54 67 55 57 54 49 NA 050. 1.0 NA NA 0.1 NA NA NA 15 .28 NA NA .04 30 35 41 41 051. 1.3 1.1 NA 0.2 NA NA NA 9 .24 .17 NA .06 32 - 29 39 40 41 052. 3.2 2.0 1.4 0.8 0.3 .89 4760 147 .11 .10 .13 .08 53 54 59 53 51 61 42 51 50 053. 2.1 1.5 1.1 0.4 0.9 .73 8330 91 .16 .15 .17 .07 41 40 44 42 56 54 4 7 4 7 46 054. 3.7 2.1 1.1 1.1 - 0.9 .86 NA 87 .08 .07 .08 .08 58 56 46 60 38 60 46 47 055. 3.5 2.0 1.1 1.1 0.7 .61 23550 396 .11 .07 .11 .08 56 54 44 59 54 49 71 71 68 056. 2.0 NA NA 0.2 0.1 NA 6462 89 .19 NA NA .05 40 36 48 44 47 46 057. 2.8 1.8 1.4 0.7 0.1 .75 6462 63 .10 .10 .14 .07 49 49 5 7 49 4 8 55 44 44 45 058. 3.3 2.0 0.8 1.1 0.9 .73 3574 98 .12 .08 .12 .08 53 53 32 58 56 54 40 47 47 059. 3.4 2.1 1.2 1.0 -0.5 .82 10337 226 .09 .07 .10 .08 55 55 49 57 42 58 50 57 56 060. 1.5 NA NA 0.1 NA .40 NA 20 .24 NA NA .04 35 36 39 41 41 NOTE: On the first line of data for every program, raw values for each measure are reported; on the second line values are reported in standardized form, with mean = 50 and standard deviation = 10. "NA" indicates that the value for a measure is not available. Since the scale used to compute measure 16 is entirely arbitrary, only values in standardized form are reported for this measure.

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88 TABLE 5.1 Program Measures (Raw and Standardized Values) in Cellular/Molecular Biol. Characteristics of Prog Program Size Prouram Graduates No. University - Department/Academic Unit (01) (02) (03) (04) (05) (06) (07) 061. Rice University 13 16 16 .74 6.3 .68 .53 Biology 44 47 44 56 47 39 48 062. Rochester, University of 27 29 42 .86 7.0 .76 .38 Biology, Radiation Biol & Biology Trng Prog 51 53 52 60 38 47 38 063. Rockefeller University 42 19 41 .18 5.4 .82 .71 Cellular Biology/Molecular Biology 5 8 4 8 52 34 60 52 59 064. SUNY at Albany 16 NA NA .54 5.8 .77 .62 Biological Sciences 46 4 8 54 4 7 53 065. SUNY at Buffalo 17 13 36 NA NA NA NA Biological Sciences (Div of Grad & Prof Ed) 46 45 51 066. SUNY at Buffalo 13 13 17 NA NA NA NA Biology (Roswell Park Graduate Division) 44 45 45 067. SUNY at Stony Brook 26 21 29 .31 6.2 .94 .75 Biology 50 49 48 39 49 63 62 068. SUNY-Downstate Medical Center 18 10 23 .50 6.3 .91 .36 Anatomy and Cell Biology/ Biophysics 47 44 47 46 48 60 37 069. Southern California, University of 37 28 114 .38 6.4 .81 .52 Biological Sciences 55 52 75 42 47 51 47 070. Southern Mississippi, Univ of-Hattiesburg 3 3 1 NA NA NA NA Biology 40 41 40 071. Stanford University 7 NA 2 NA NA NA NA -Structural Biology* 41 40 072. Syracuse University 10 15 10 .30 NA . 80 .70 Biology* 43 46 43 39 50 59 073. Texas Woman's University-Denton 10 11 18 .00 5.5 .70 .50 Biology* 43 44 45 27 58 41 46 074. Texas, U of-Health Science Center, Houston 21 18 26 .54 6.6 .77 .62 Cellular and Molec Bio (M D Anderson HospJ 48 48 48 48 43 47 53 075. Texas, University of-Austin 29 32 11 .79 6.5 .64 .50 Biological Sciences* 52 54 43 58 45 36 46 076. Texas, University of-Dallas 12 17 37 .11 5.5 .79 .74 Biol ogy * 44 4 7 51 31 5 8 49 61 077. Tufts University 15 10 13 NA NA NA NA Biol ogy 078. Tufts University 9 13 18 1.00 6.7 .92 .77 Molecular Biology 42 45 45 66 42 61 63 079. Tulane University 19 26 36 .42 7.8 .80 .50 Biology 47 52 51 43 28 50 46 080. Utah, University of-Salt Lake City 51 23 62 NA NA NA NA Biology 62 50 59 * indicates program was initiated since 1970. NOTE: On the first line of data for every program, raw values for each measure are reported; on the second line values are reported in standardized form, with mean = 50 and standard deviation = 10. "NA" indicates that the value for a measure is not available.

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89 TABLE 5.1 Program Measures (Raw and Standardized Values) in Cellular/Molecular Biol. University Research Published Survey Ratings Prog Survey Results Library Support Articles Standard Error No. (08) (09) (10) (11) (12) (13) (14) (15) (16) (08) (09) (10) (11) 061. 2.7 1.6 1.0 0.4 - 1.4 .46 NA 50 .16 .16 .17 .06 47 42 41 42 33 42 43 45 062. 3.0 1.9 1.4 0.7 -0.6 .74 15969 233 .10 .11 .11 .08 51 51 57 50 41 55 59 58 55 063. 4.8 2.6 1.3 1.7 NA .81 27299 252 .05 .07 .08 .06 70 67 53 72 58 76 59 64 064. 2.7 1.5 1.5 0.6 -1.0 .75 NA 72 .10 .12 .14 .08 48 40 61 47 38 55 45 46 065. 2.6 1.6 NA 0.5 0.3 .59 6799 43 .12 .14 NA .06 47 42 44 50 48 45 43 42 066. 2.8 1.7 1.1 0.7 0.3 .00 6799 43 .13 .12 .10 .07 49 45 45 48 50 21 45 43 42 067. 2.9 1.8 1.4 0.7 -0.6 .62 5802 149 .10 .09 .10 .07 50 47 58 50 41 49 43 51 52 068. 2.5 1.6 1.5 0.4 NA .39 3077 78 .15 .14 .14 .07 45 42 64 43 39 39 46 44 069. 2.8 1.6 1.2 0.4 0.4 .35 2405 48 .18 .16 .13 .07 49 44 51 43 51 3 7 3 8 43 44 070. 0.2 NA NA 0.0 NA NA NA 24 .09 NA NA .02 21 34 41 41 071. 4.0 2.3 1.6 1.1 2.0 NA 12514 243 .10 .11 .10 .09 61 60 67 58 68 54 59 62 072. 2.3 1.5 0.8 0.4 - 0.3 .70 NA 45 .18 .11 .13 .07 43 40 33 41 44 53 43 43 0 7 3 . NA NA NA 0.1 NA .10 NA 6 NA NA NA .0 4 36 26 40 40 074. 2.8 1.6 1.3 0.7 NA .76 4151 NA .13 .13 .15 .07 48 43 54 49 56 41 NA 075. 3.0 1.6 1.1 0.6 1.6 .79 5757 143 .14 .11 .16 .07 51 43 46 4 7 64 5 7 43 51 49 076. 2.3 1.5 1.1 0.5 NA .50 NA NA .16 .16 .12 .07 44 41 43 44 44 NA 077. 1.6 NA NA 0.2 NA .40 3518 9 .18 NA NA .06 36 38 39 40 40 41 078. 2.8 1.9 1.2 0.6 NA NA 3518 86 .15 .11 .13 .08 4 8 49 49 46 40 46 4 7 079. 2.3 NA NA 0.3 -1.0 .16 3690 6 .15 NA NA .07 44 40 3 7 29 40 40 41 080. 3.5 2.0 1.8 0.9 -0.6 .61 6905 60 .10 .08 .07 .08 56 52 74 54 42 49 45 44 45 NOTE: On the first line of data for every program, raw values for each measure are reported; on the second line values are reported in standardized form, with mean = 50 and standard deviation = 10. "NA" indicates that the value for a measure is not available. Since the scale used to compute measure 16 is entirely arbitrary, only values in standardized form are reported for this measure.

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9o TABLE 5.1 Program Measures (Raw and Standardized Values) in Cellular/Molecular Biol. Characteristics of Prog Program Size Program Graduates No. University - Department/Academic Unit (01) (02) (03) (04) (05) (06) (07) 081. Utah, University of-Salt Lake City 10 11 12 NA NA NA NA Cellular, Viral, and Molecular Biology 43 44 43 082. Vanderbilt University 13 21 26 .60 5.4 .86 .71 Molecular Biology 44 49 48 50 60 55 60 083. Virginia, University of 20 22 49 .85 6.3 .70 .55 Biology 47 50 55 60 48 41 49 084. Washington University-Saint Louis 53 19 57 .82 6.0 .82 .82 Biology and Biomed Sci (Molecular BiologyJ* 63 48 57 59 52 52 67 085. Washington University-Saint Louis 82 9 39 NA NA NA NA Biology and Biomedical Sci (Cell Biology 76 43 52 086. Washington, University of-Seattle 17 28 8 .96 5.0 .96 .74 Genetics 46 52 42 64 66 65 62 087. Wayne State University 16 NA NA NA NA NA NA Biological Sciences 46 088. Wisconsin, University of-Madison 67 27 91 .71 6.5 .87 .68 Molecular Biology 69 52 68 55 45 57 57 089. Yale University 76 120 205 .86 5.4 .92 .65 Biol/Cell Bio/Molec Biophys & Biochem/Genet 73 97 99 60 59 62 55 * indicates program was initiated since 1970. NOTE: On the f irst line of data for every program, raw values for each measure are reported; on the second line values are reported in standardized form, with mean = 50 and standard deviation = 10. "NA" indicates that the value for a measure is not available.

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91 TABLE 5.1 Program Measures (Raw and Standardized Values ) in Cellular/Molecular Biol . University Research Published Survey Ratings Survey Results Library Support Articles Standard Error (08) (09) (10) (11) (12) (13) (14) (15) (16) (08) (09) (10) (11) 081. 2.9 1.9 1.5 0.7 -0.6 .70 6905 50 .15 .10 .12 .09 50 50 64 48 42 53 45 43 43 082. 2.8 1.7 1.0 0.8 -0.7 .77 5204 25 .11 .09 .11 .08 48 46 43 52 41 56 42 41 43 083. 3.1 2.0 1.6 0.9 0.7 .85 6224 50 .12 .06 .10 .09 52 52 66 53 55 59 44 43 43 084. 3.8 2.2 1.4 1.2 -0.4 .85 16825 48 .08 .09 .08 .08 60 57 58 62 44 59 60 43 46 085. 3.7 2.1 1.3 1.1 - 0.4 .73 16825 NA .10 .10 .13 .08 58 54 52 59 44 54 60 NA 086. 4.0 2.5 1.2 1.0 1.5 .82 14164 85 .11 .08 .08 .09 61 64 48 55 62 58 56 46 45 087. 2.0 NA NA 0.3 -0.4 .50 6372 48 .18 NA NA .06 40 40 44 44 44 43 43 088. 4.6 2.5 1.4 1.5 1.6 .79 19738 561 .07 .06 .07 .07 67 66 58 67 63 57 65 84 82 089. 4.7 2.7 1.4 1.7 2.1 .78 4337 511 .07 .07 .08 .06 69 70 59 72 68 56 41 80 84 NOTE: On the first line of data for every program, raw values for each measure are reported; on the second line values are reported in standardized form, with mean = 50 and standard deviation = 10. "NA" indicates that the value for a measure is not available. Since the scale used to compute measure 16 is entirely arbitrary, only values in standardized form are reported for this measure.

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92 TABLE 5.2 Summary Statistics Describing Each Program Measure--Cellular/Molecular Biology Number of Programs Standard D E C I ~ E S Measure Evaluated Mean Deviation 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 ~ 9 Program Size 01 Raw Value 89 26 22 8 10 13 16 18 21 26 36 49 Std Value 89 SO 10 42 43 44 46 47 48 50 55 61 02 Raw Value 82 23 21 4 9 11 13 17 19 25 29 44 Std Value 82 50 10 41 43 44 45 47 48 51 53 60 03 Raw Value 86 34 32 7 10 16 19 25 32 36 49 66 Std Value 86 50 10 42 43 44 45 47 49 51 55 60 Program Graduates 04 Raw Value 59 .59 .26 .22 .31 .42 .54 .63 .70 .78 .84 .88 Std Value 59 50 10 36 39 43 48 52 54 57 60 61 05 Raw Value 57 6.1 .7 7.0 6.7 6.4 6.3 6.2 6.0 5.8 5.5 5.4 Std Value 57 50 10 38 42 46 48 49 52 54 59 60 57 .80 .11 .65 .70 .76 .78 .80 .83 .86 .90 .92 57 50 10 36 41 46 48 50 53 55 59 61 07 Raw Value 57 .56 .15 .35 .46 .52 .55 .58 .62 .65 .70 .73 Std Value 57 50 10 36 43 47 49 51 54 56 59 61 Survey Results 08 Raw Value 86 2.9 1.0 1.6 2.1 2.6 2.8 2.9 3.2 3.4 3.7 4.1 Std Value 86 50 10 36 41 47 49 50 53 55 58 62 09 Raw Value 74 1.9 .4 1.4 1.6 1.6 1.8 1.9 2.0 2.0 2.2 2.4 Std Value 74 50 10 38 43 43 48 51 ~ 53 53 58 63 10 Raw Value 68 1.2 .2 .9 1.0 1.1 1.1 1.2 1.3 1.4 1.4 1.5 Std Value 68 50 10 37 41 45 45 50 54 58 58 63 11 Raw Value 88 .7 .4 .2 .3 .4 .6 .7 .8 1.0 1.1 1.4 Std Value 88 50 10 38 40 42 47 49 52 56 59 66 University Library 12 Raw Value 63 .3 1.0 -1.0 -.6 -.5 -.4 .0 .3 .9 1.0 1.8 Std Value 63 50 10 38 42 43 44 48 50 56 57 65 Research Support 13 Raw Value 77 .64 .22 .28 .41 .55 .63 .71 .75 .78 .83 .86 Std Value 77 50 10 34 40 46 50 53 55 56 59 60 14 Raw Value 67 10243 6479 3421 4681 5829 6530 8079 9947 13578 15814 17589 Std Value 67 50 10 39 41 43 44 47 50 55 59 61 Publication Records 15 Raw Value 85 133 127 15 39 48 62 86 98 146 234 325 Std Value 85 50 10 41 43 43 44 46 47 51 58 65 16 Std Value 85 50 10 41 42 43 45 46 48 51 61 64 NOTE: Standardized values reported in the preceding table have been computed from exact values of the mean and standard deviation and not the rounded values reported here. Since the scale used to compute measure 16 is entirely arbitrary, only data in standardized form are reported for this measure.

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93 TABLE 5.3 Intercorrelations Among Program Measures on 89 Programs in Cellular/Molecular Biology Measure 01 02 03 04 05 06 07 08 09 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 Program Size 01 .54 .55 .03 -.16 -.09 -.01 .39 .29 .28 .37 .16 .06 .16 .37 .37 02 .83 .16 -.11 .12 -.02 .42 .47 .09 .40 .19 .18 .02 .32 .34 03 .07 -.06 .12 .02 .43 .39 .20 .43 .12 .16 .02 .32 .35 Program Graduates 04 .13 .32 .29 .58 .51 .10 .54 .34 .55 .30 .42 .42 05 .44 .48 .38 .42 .31 .37 .36 .39 .25 .26 .29 06 .57 .33 .34 .16 .32 .26 .18 .18 ,23 .26 07 .41 .35 .10 .48 .13 .48 .20 .29 .32 Survey Results 08 ~ .96 .33 .94 .47 .58 .57 .69 .71 09 .33 .91 .37 .51 .47 .56 .61 10 .31 .06 .19 -.16 .15 .17 11 .45 .65 .58 .70 .74 University Library 12 Research Support 13 14 Publication Records 15 16 .24 .42 .59 .59 .24 .40 .40 .58 .59 .99 NOTE: Since in computing correlation coefficients program data must be available for both of the measures being correlated, the actual number of programs on which each coefficient is based varies.

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94 5.0++ + + 4.0++ + + Measure + 3.0++ + + + 2.0++ + + 1. 0++ + + + 08 * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * ** * * ** ** * * ** * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * . * * * * * r = .48 O~O +/++++++~+/++++++++/++++++++/++++++++/++++++++/++++++++/++++++++/++++++++/++++++++/++++++++/++++++++/ 1 4 9 16 25 36 49 64 81 100 121 144 Measure 01 (square root scale) FIGURE 5.1 Mean rating of scholarly quality of faculty (measure 08) versus number of faculty members (measure 01)--86 programs in cellular/molecular biology.

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95 3. 0++ + + + + 2.0++ + Measure + - * 09 + + + +* 1. 0++ + + + + + * * * * * * ** * * * * * * * * * * * ** * ** * * * * * * * * ** * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * r = .43 0-0 +/+++++++++/+++++++++/+++++++++/+++++++++/+++++++++/+++++++++/+++++++++/+++++++++/+++++++++/+++++++++/ 1 4 9 16 25 36 49 64 81 100 121 Measure 02 (square root scale) FIGURE 5.2 Mean rating of program effectiveness in educating research scholars/scientists (measure 09) versus number of graduates in last five years (measure 02)--69 programs in cellular/molecular biology .

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96 TABLE 5.4 Characteristics of Survey Participants in Cellular/ Molecular Biology Respondents N % Field of Specialization Biochemistry 17 12 Cell Biology 32 23 Genetics 22 16 Molecular Biology 34 25 Other/Unknown 34 25 Faculty Rank Professor 63 45 Associate Professor 46 33 Assistant Professor 30 22 Year of Highest Degree Pre-1950 6 4 1950-59 29 21 1960-69 45 32 Post-1969 58 42 Unknown 1 1 Evaluator Selection Nominated by Institution 113 81 Other 26 19 Survey Form With Faculty Names 130 94 Without Names 9 7 Total Evaluators 139 100

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97 5.0 4.0 3.0 2.0 1.0 Mean Survey Rating (measure 08) FIGURE 5.3 Mean rating of scholarly quality of faculty in 86 programs in cellular/molecular biology. NOTE: Programs are listed in sequence of mean rating, with the highest-rated program appearing at the top of the page. The broken lines (---) indicate a confidence interval of +1.5 standard errors around the reported mean (x) of each program.

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