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al Microbiology Programs In this chapter 134 research-doctorate programs in microbiology are assessed. These programs, according to the information supplied by their universities, have accounted for 2,058 doctoral degrees awarded during the FY1976-80 period--approximately 87 percent of the aggregate number of microbiology, immunology, parasitology, and bacteriology doctorates earned from U.S. universities in this five-year span. On the average, 20 full-time and part-time students intending to earn doctorates were enrolled in a program in December 1980, with an average faculty size of 16 members .2 Most of the 134 programs, listed in Table 6.1, are located in departments of microbiology; a few are found in departments of biology, immunology, and other related fields. Eighteen programs were initiated since 1970. Each of eight institu- tions--Auburn University, University of California (San Francisco), University of Kansas, University of Maryland (Baltimore Professional School), University of Oklahoma, Pennsylvania State University, SUNY at Buffalo, and Tulane University--has two microbiology programs in- cluded in the assessment. Each of five other universities--University of California (Berkeley), University of Chicago, Ohio State University, University of Pennsylvania, and University of Pittsburgh--has three programs evaluated. In addition to the 116 institutions represented in this discipline, another 13 were initially identified as meeting the , criteria3 for inclusion in the assessment: CUNY--Graduate School University of California--Santa Barbara data from the NRC's Survey of Earned Doctorates indicate that 2,367 research doctorates in microbiology, immunology, parasitology, and bacteriology were awarded by U.S. universities between FY1976 and FY1980. 2See the reported means for measures 03 and 01 in Table 6.2. Was mentioned in Chapter I, the primary criterion for inclusion was that a university had awarded at least 4 doctorates in microbiology during the FY1976-78 period. 99

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100 University of Colorado Harvard University --~ Illinois Institute of Technology University of Utah--Salt Lake City Washington University--Saint Louis Medical College of Georgia University of Mississippi--Medical Center University of Oregon--Health Sciences Center Saint John's University University of Southwestern Louisiana University of Texas--Health Science Center, Dallas The last six institutions chose not to participate in the assessment in any discipline. Microbiology programs at the other seven institu- tions have not been included in the evaluations in this discipline, since in each case the study coordinator either indicated that the in- stitution did not at that time have a research-doctorate program in microbiology or failed to provide the information requested by the committee. Before examining individual program results presented in Table 6.1, the reader is urged to refer to Chapter II, in which each of the 16 measures used in the assessment is discussed. Summary statistics de- scribing every measure are given in Table 6.2. For nine of the mea- sures, data are reported for at least 116 of the 134 microbiology pro- grams. For measures 04-07, which pertain to characteristics of the program graduates, data are presented for only approximately half of the programs; the other half had too few graduates on which to base statistics .4 For measure 12, a composite index of the size of a university library, data are available for 85 programs. With respect to measure 13, the fraction of faculty with research grants from the National Institutes of Health, the National Science Foundation, or the Alcohol, Drug Abuse, and Mental Health Administration, data are re- ported for 102 programs that had at least 10 faculty members. For measure 14, total university expenditures for research in the biologi- cal sciences, data are available for 108 programs. The programs not evaluated on measures 12, 13, and 14 are typically smaller--in terms of faculty size and graduate student enrollment--than other microbiol- ogy programs. Were data on these three measures available for all 134 programs, it is likely that their reported means would be appreciably lower (and that some of the correlations of these measures with others would be higher). Intercorrelations among the 16 measures (Pearson product-moment coefficients) are given in Table 6.3. Of particular note are the high positive correlations of reputational survey ratings (08, 09) with measures of publication records (15, 16) and research expenditures 4As mentioned in Chapter II, data for measures 04-07 are not reported if they are based on the survey responses of fewer than 10 FY1975-79 program graduates.

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101 (14~. Figure 6.1 illustrates the relation between the mean rating of the scholarly quality of faculty (measure 08) and the number- of faculty members (measure 01} for each of 131 programs in microbiology. Figure 6.2 plots the mean rating of program effectiveness (measure 09) against the total number of FY1976-80 program graduates (measure 021. Although in both figures there is a significant positive correlation between program size and reputational rating, it is quite apparent that some of the smaller programs received high mean ratings. Table 6.4 describes the 231 faculty members who participated in the evaluation of microbiology programs. These individuals constituted 58 percent of those asked to respond to the survey in this discipline and 11 percent of the faculty population in the 134 research-doctorate pro- grams being evaluated.5 About half of the evaluators identified their specialty field as microbiology/bacteriology; others were split among immunology, molecular biology, and other biological sciences. Two-thirds of the survey participants had earned their highest degree prior to 1970, and exactly half held the rank of full professor. To assist the reader in interpreting results of the survey evalua- tions, estimated standard errors have been computed for mean ratings of the scholarly quality of faculty in 131 microbiology programs {and are given in Table 6.11. For each program the mean rating and an as- sociated "confidence interval" of 1.5 standard errors are illustrated in Figure 6.3 {listed in order of highest to lowest mean rating). In comparing two programs, if their confidence intervals do not overlap, one may conclude that there is a significant difference in their mean ratings at a .05 level of significance.6 From this figure it is also apparent -that one should have somewhat more confidence In the accuracy of the mean ratings of higher-rated programs than lower-rated programs. This generalization results primarily from the fact that evaluators are not as likely to be familiar with the less prestigious programs, and consequently the mean ratings of these programs are usually based on fewer survey responses. s see Table 2.3 in Chapter II. 6 See pp. 31-33 for a discussion of the interpretation of mean ratings and associated confidence intervals.

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102 TABLE 6.1 Program Measures (Raw and Standardized Values) in Microbiology Prog No. University - Department/Academic Unit 001. Alabama, University of-Birmingham Microbiology 002. Albert Einstein College of Medicine Microbiology and Immunology 003. Arizona, University of-Tucson Microbiology and Medical Technology 004. Auburn University Botany, Plant Pathology, and Microbiology* 005. Auburn University Microbiology (School of Veterinary MedJ* 006. Baylor College of Medicine-Houston Microbiology and Immunology 007. Boston University Biology 008. Brigham Young University Microbiology 009. California, University of-Irvine Microbiol/Molec Biol & Biochem/Biol Chem* 010. California, University of-Berkeley Bacteriology 011. California, University of-Berkeley Immunology 012. California, University of-Berkeley Microbiology 013. California, University of-Berkeley Parasitology* 014. California, University of-Davis Microbiology 015. California, University of-Los Angeles Microbiology/Immunology 016. California, University of-San Diego Biology 017. California, University of-San Francisco Immunology* 018. California, University of-San Francisco Microbiology 019. Case Western Reserve University Microbiology 020. Catholic University of America Biology * indicates program was initiated since 1970. Program Size (01) (02) (03) 36 21 68 55 14 3 48 39 12 9 46 44 7 3 42 39 9 1 43 37 11 12 45 47 9 NA 43 10 44 13 47 s 40 5 12 40 47 5 1 40 37 17 6 51 42 78 44 99 75 34 59 66 88 18 46 51 77 4 3 39 39 19 5 52 41 7 15 42 49 6 9 41 44 Characteristics of Prouram Graduates (04) (05) (06) (07) 35 .53 57 52 3 NA 42 44 41 3 42 15 48 11 46 3 9 39 45 15 20 49 50 7 3 43 42 16 48 12 46 6 43 56 67 59 69 50 65 6 43 9 45 15 48 10 45 5.9 53 NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA .23 7.1 41 37 NA NA NA NA 1.00 5.9 68 53 1.00 6 68 NA 6.5 45 NA 75 6.2 59 49 .41 6.5 48 45 .67 6.1 57 50 .86 5.8 63 54 NA NA NA NA NA NA .20 NA 40 81 .44 51 47 NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA .62 .62 34 57 NA NA NA NA .82 .64 52 59 .80 .67 50 60 NA NA .69 .31 40 40 .71 .43 43 47 .80 .57 50 55 .93 .64 61 59 NA NA NA NA NA NA .90 .00 23 59 NOTE: On the first line of data for every program, raw values for each measure are reported; on the second line values are reported in standardized form, with mean = 50 and standard deviation = 10. "NA" indicates that the value for a measure is not available.

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103 TABLE 6.1 Program Measures (Raw and Standardized Values) in Microbiology Prog No. (08) 001. 3.8 62 002. 3.7 60 003. 2.2 42 004. 1.7 35 005. 1.8 36 006. 3.1 53 007. 1.7 36 008. 2.0 40 009. 3.5 58 010. 3.2 55 011. 3.5 58 012. 3.3 56 013. NA 014. 4.0 64 015. 4.1 66 016. 4.3 68 017. 2.6 47 018. 3.8 62 019. 2.6 47 020. 0.8 25 (09) (10) (11) 2.3 1.8 1.2 62 73 68 2.0 1.2 0.8 55 52 54 1.4 1.0 0.4 40 43 42 1.1 NA 0.2 32 36 1.3 NA 0.2 37 37 1.9 53 1.3 38 1.2 36 2.0 55 2.0 56 2.2 - 60 1.8 50 NA 2.4 65 2.5 67 2.5 67 1.5 44 2.2 60 1.7 47 NA 1.1 0.7 46 52 NA 0.2 37 NA 0.3 40 1.5 0.9 64 57 0.8 0.7 35 50 1.0 0.7 43 53 0.8 0.7 37 51 NA 0.2 37 1.3 1.1 54 64 1.4 1.4 60 73 1.5 1.3 61 69 0.9 0.4 38 44 1.4 1.0 60 60 0.6 0.6 27 50 NA 0.2 37 NA University Research Library Supper t (12) (13) (14) NA .83 4467 67 43 .64 9184 58 51 .17 7828 38 49 NA NA NA NA 0.9 56 NA NA NA 0.4 43 0.6 41 NA 2.2 70 2.2 70 2.2 70 2.2 70 0.6 54 2.0 68 0.0 47 NA NA -1 .3 33 NA 60 58 41 42 42 60 41 42 54 60 60 60 60 57 76 55 64 Published Survey Ratings Articles Standard Error (15) (16) 83 59 47 50 40 40 40 .36 14051 108 46 59 65 NA NA 4 39 .00 NA 8 31 40 .92 6547 53 71 47 52 NA 18977 100 68 63 NA 18977 100 68 63 NA 18977 100 68 63 .06 18977 100 33 6 8 63 .40 18053 126 48 66 70 .7 1 15581 226 61 62 95 .78 8706 44 64 50 49 NA 13194 85 58 60 .58 13194 85 56 58 60 NA 7721 7 49 40 NA NA 1 39 64 42 41 (08) (09) .09 .07 .13 .10 .18 .12 .24 .15 .25 .15 .10 .05 .26 .21 .20 .16 .09 .06 .18 .10 .14 .14 .12 NA NA .10 .07 .08 .06 .09 .08 .20 .17 .12 .09 .14 .10 .18 NA NOTE: On the first line of data for every program, raw values for each measure are reported; on the second line values are reported in standardized form, with mean = 50 and standard deviation = 10. "NA" indicates that the value for a measure is not available. Since the scale used to compute measure 16 is entirely arbitrary, only values in standardized form are reported for this measure. (10) (11) .07 .08 .11 .08 .19 .07 NA NA .04 .05 .09 NA .05 NA .06 .10 .07 .12 .08 .07 .06 .08 .12 .08 NA .06 .09 .08 .07 .07 .09 .08 .16 .08 .10 .08 .11 .07 NA .05

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104 TABLE 6.1 Program Measures (Raw and Standardized Values) in Microbiology Characteristics of Prog Program Size Program Graduates No. University - Department/Academic Unit (01) (02) (03) (04) (05) (06) (07) 021. Chicago, University of 15 11 19 NA NA NA NA Inununology * 49 46 50 022. Chicago, University of 8 20 30 NA NA NA NA Microbiol ogy 42 54 55 023. Chicago, University of 13 9 12 NA NA NA NA Virol ogy * 4 7 44 46 024. Cincinnati, University of 13 16 12 .62 6.3 .92 .58 Microbiology 47 50 46 55 48 60 56 025. Colorado State University-Fort Collins 35 19 25 .08 6.5 .67 .33 Microbiology 67 53 53 36 45 38 42 026. Columbia University 22 16 28 .39 6.1 .77 .46 Microbiology 55 50 54 47 50 47 49 027. Connecticut, University of-Storrs 11 6 6 NA NA NA NA Biological Sciences 45 42 43 028. Cornell University-Ithaca 27 15 24 .29 6.0 .82 .41 Microbiology 60 49 52 44 51 52 46 029. Cornell University-Medical Center 17 15 15 .46 5.8 1.00 .62 Microbiol ogy 51 49 4 8 49 55 6 7 5 7 030. Duke University 39 35 55 .88 5~9 .82 .61 Microbiology and I'rununology 70 67 67 64 53 52 57 031. Emory University 8 4 9 NA NA NA NA - Nicrobiology 42 40 45 032. Florida, University of-Gainesville 46 48 54 .36 5.4 .69 .43 I~ununol & Ned Microbio/ Microbio & Cel l Sci 77 78 66 46 60 40 47 033. George Washington University 7 30 14 .14 10.5 .57 .07 Microbiology 42 63 47 38 1 30 27 034. Georgetown University 8 16 15 .80 6.5 .73 .07 Microbiology 42 50 48 61 45 44 26 035. Georgia, University of-Athens 10 34 14 .30 6.7 .83 .53 Microbiol ogy 44 66 4 7 44 43 53 53 036. Hahnemann Medical College 14 Microbiol ogy and Inununol ogy 4 8 037. Hawaii, University of 10 Microbiol ogy 44 038. Health Sciences, Univ of/Chicago Med School Med. ical Microbiol ogy 039. Idaho, University of-Moscow Bacterial ogy and Biochemistry 040. Illinois, University of-Medical Center Microbiol ogy and Ilranunol ogy * indicates program was initiated since 1970. 9 6 43 42 10 6 44 42 23 44 56 75 13 15 48 48 8 12 43 46 42 42 76 77 .09 6.5 37 45 NA NA NA NA NA NA .41 6.1 48 51 NOTE: On the first line of data for every program, raw values for each measure are reported; on the second line values are reported in standardized form, with mean = 50 and standard deviation = 10. "NA" indicates that the value for a measure is not available. .82 .36 52 43 NA NA NA NA NA NA .71 .50 42 51

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105 TABLE 6.1 Program Measures (Raw and Standardized Values) in Microbiology Prog No. (08) 021. 3.4 57 022. 3.7 61 023. 4.2 68 024. 2.5 46 025. 2.4 44 026. 4.0 64 027. 2.9 51 028. 3.5 58 029. 3.6 60 030. 4.2 67 031. 2.7 49 032. 3.3 56 033. 2.3 44 034. 2.6 47 035. 2.8 50 036. 2.2 42 037. 2.5 46 038. 1.7 35 039. 1.6 34 040. 3.0 52 Survey Results (09) (10) 2.1 1.4 59 60 2.2 1.2 60 50 2.3 1.5 64 63 1.5 0.9 43 40 1.7 1.0 48 43 2.3 1.5 63 61 1.8 1.1 50 47 2.1 1.3 58 56 2.1 1.2 57 52 2.5 1.4 67 59 .6 1.8 46 73 2.0 1.6 56 65 1.5 0.9 44 39 1.5 0.8 43 36 1.8 1.3 51 53 1.5 1.2 42 51 1.4 1.1 41 45 NA NA 1.2 1.1 35 48 2.0 1.1 54 45 University Library (11) (12) 0.6 0.9 48 56 1.0 0~9 61 56 1.1 0.9 64 56 0.6 -0.2 47 44 0.5 -1.1 44 35 1.1 1.7 62 65 0.7 -0.5 53 42 0.8 1.6 54 64 0.8 NA 56 1.3 70 0.6 49 0.7 51 0.4 42 0.5 46 0.8 55 0.5 46 0.4 43 0.2 37 0.3 38 0.7 52 0.3 50 -0.6 41 0.8 55 NA 0.6 40 0.4 52 NA O . 1 46 NA NA NA Research Published SuPpOr t Art icles (13) (14) (15) (16) .80 17589 88 65 65 60 NA 17589 88 65 60 .85 17589 88 67 65 60 .39 9365 43 47 52 49 .11 8863 17 35 51 43 .73 11090 63 62 54 54 .6 4 15199 18 5 8 61 43 .3 3 14597 71 45 60 56 .18 14597 45 38 60 50 .54 11320 98 54 55 63 NA 2874 15 41 42 .48 3486 62 51 42 54 NA 2641 17 40 43 NA 4200 26 43 45 .50 10714 68 52 54 55 .43 NA 13 49 42 .20 4440 13 39 43 42 NA NA 3 39 .2 0 1842 14 39 39 42 .35 4393 95 46 43 62 NOTE: On the first line of data for every program, raw values for 60 60 60 46 42 52 44 49 57 63 45 49 Survey Ratings Standard Error (08) (09) (10) (11) .13 .08 .11 .08 .11 .08 .09 .07 .15 .09 .13 .08 .11 .07 .24 .15 .10 .08 .13 .13 .27 NA .24 .15 .09 .09 .10 .10 .07 .09 tog .11 .08 .13 .08 .09 .07 .08 .09 .10 .14 .12 .09 .11 NA .17 .11 .08 .13 each measure are reported; on the second line values are reported in standardized form, with mean = 50 and standard deviation = 10. "NA" indicates that the value for a measure is not available. Since the scale used to compute measure 16 is entirely arbitrary, only values in standardized form are reported for this measure. .08 .09 .07 .07 .07 .07 .09 .09 .08 .08 .08 .07 .06 .08 .07 .06 .05 .06 .06

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106 TABLE 6.1 Program Measures (Raw and Standardized Values) in Microbiology Characteristics of Prog Program Size Program Graduates No. Univer s ity - Depar tment/Academic Uni t ( 01 ) ( 0 2) (03) (04) ( O. S ) (06) (07) 041. Illinois, University-Urbana/Champaign 20 26 58 .71 6.5 .83 .53 Microbiology 53 59 68 58 45 53 53 042. Indiana State University-Terre Haute 13 8 7 NA NA NA NA Life Sciences 4 7 43 44 043. Indiana University-Bloomington 11 12 18 .67 5.9 .87 .53 Biology 45 47 49 56 52 56 53 044. Indiana University-Purdue University 14 16 10 .46 6.3 .92 .39 Microbiology and Immunology 48 50 45 49 47 61 44 045. Iowa State University-Ames 7 14 26 .00 6.3 .75 .50 Microbiology 42 49 53 33 48 46 51 046. Iowa, University of-Iowa City 21 20 15 .11 5.4 .95 .67 Microbiology 54 54 48 37 59 63 60 047. Johns Hopkins University 11 14 9 .89 6.5 .81 .75 Microbiology 45 49 45 64 45 51 65 048. Kansas State University-Manhattan 13 11 15 NA NA NA NA Biology 4 7 46 4 8 049. Kansas, University of 12 24 17 .67 4.9 .88 .75 Microbiology (Graduate SchoolJ 46 57 49 56 66 56 65 050. Kansas, University of 12 11 14 .73 NA .91 . 55 Microbiology (Schl of Medicine-Kansas City J 46 46 47 58 59 54 051. Kentucky, University of 18 8 8 NA NA NA NA Biological Sciences 51 43 44 052. Louisiana State University-Baton Rouge 10 10 5 .09 5.8 .46 .27 Microbiology 44 45 43 3 7 55 20 3 8 053. Louisiana State Univ-School of Medicine 26 7 11 NA NA NA NA Microbiology and Immunology 59 43 46 054. Louisville, University of 15 12 28 NA NA NA NA Microbiology and Immunology 49 47 54 055. Loyola University of Chicago 12 11 17 NA NA NA NA Microbiology 46 46 49 056. Maryland, University of-Baltimore Prof Schl 7 12 11 NA NA NA NA Dental Microbiology 42 47 46 057. Maryland, University of-Baltimore Prof Schl 14 8 4 NA NA NA NA Microbiology (School of MedicineJ 4 8 43 42 058. Maryland, University of-College Park 13 NA 24 .11 7.0 .67 .11 Microbiology 47 52 37 39 38 29 059. Massachusetts Institute of Technology 16 28 27 .88 5.8 .87 .57 Biology 50 61 54 64 54 56 55 060. Massachusetts, University of-Amherst 12 20 29 .42 5.7 .92 .83 Microbiology 46 54 54 48 56 60 70 * indicates program was initiated since 1970. NOTE: On the first line of data for every program, raw values for each measure are reported; on the second line values are reported in standardized form, with mean = 50 and standard deviation = 10. "NA" indicates that the value for a measure is not available.

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107 TABLE 6.1 Program Measures (Raw and Standardized Values) in Microbiology University Research Published Survey Ratings Prog Survey Results Library Support Articles Standard Error No. (08) (09) (10) (11) (12) (13) (14) (15) (16) (08) (09) (10) (11) 041. 4.0 2.5 1.2 1.2 2.0 .65 6074 38 .10 .06 .08 .08 65 67 52 65 68 59 46 48 47 042. 1.6 NA NA 0.2 NA .39 NA 0 .23 NA NA .06 34 37 47 38 41 043. 3.2 2.0 1.1 0.9 0.9 .55 NA 15 .11 .08 .11 .08 54 55 45 58 57 54 42 44 044. 2.5 1.7 1.1 0.5 NA .43 2940 NA .12 .08 .11 .07 46 48 46 45 49 41 NA 045. 2.6 1.8 0.7 0.6 -0.5 NA 5287 39 .13 .10 .10 .07 47 50 33 48 42 45 48 47 046. 3.0 2.1 1.3 0.8 0.3 .71 7088 59 .08 .06 .12 .07 52 57 55 54 50 62 48 53 48 047. 4.3 2.5 1.2 1.3 -0.4 .46 19837 122 .09 .07 .09 .07 68 67 52 70 43 50 69 69 68 048. 2.6 1.7 1.2 0.5 NA .39 2496 25 .13 .09 .10 .07 47 47 51 47 47 40 45 44 049. 2.5 1.8 1.0 0.6 0.1 .25 3161 5 .13 .09 .10 .08 46 49 45 48 48 41 41 40 41 050. 2.1 1.4 1.0 0.3 0.1 .25 3161 42 .15 .14 .14 .06 41 41 43 39 4 8 41 41 49 4 7 051. 2.1 1.4 0.8 0.6 -0.1 .56 484 35 .12 .10 .11 .07 41 40 36 4 8 46 5 5 3 7 4 7 46 052. 2.3 1.4 1.2 0.5 -0.3 .10 5116 8 .18 .12 .11 .08 43 41 49 44 43 35 44 40 41 053. 2.5 1.4 1.3 0.4 NA .23 5116 37 .15 .11 .12 .06 45 41 55 44 41 44 4 8 45 054. 2.6 1.6 1.1 0.4 NA .40 NA 15 .14 .12 .10 .06 47 44 45 43 48 42 43 055. 2.4 1.7 1.5 0.4 NA .00 NA 10 .13 .10 .11 .06 45 4 7 61 43 31 41 42 056. 1.7 1.2 0.9 0.3 NA NA 6061 62 .17 .11 .08 .05 35 35 3 8 3 8 46 54 49 057. 2.1 1.4 0.8 0.4 NA .21 6061 62 .16 .14 .11 .07 41 40 36 44 40 46 54 49 058. 3.0 1.9 1.0 0.7 0.2 .31 1623 10 .14 .09 .11 .09 52 53 44 52 49 44 39 41 42 059. 4.9 2.9 1.4 1.7 -0.3 .94 17348 85 .03 .04 .06 .06 77 77 59 83 43 71 65 60 65 060. 3.2 1.9 1.1 0.7 -0.7 .83 3022 41 .11 .07 .10 .08 55 53 48 52 39 67 41 49 48 NOTE: On the f irst line of data for every program, raw values for each measure are reported; on the second line values are reported in standardized form, with mean = 50 and standard deviation = 10. "NA" indicates that the value for a measure is not available. Since the scale used to compute measure 16 is entirely arbitrary, only values in standardized form are reported for this measure.

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108 TABLE 6.1 Program Measures (Raw and Standardized Values) in Microbiology Prog No. University - Department/Academic Unit 061. Medical College of Wisconsin Microbiology 062. Medical University of South Carolina Basic & Clinical Immunology & Microbiology* 063. Miami University-Ohio Microbiology* 0 64 . Miami, Univers ity of-Flor Ida Microbiology 065. Michigan State University-East Lansing Microbiology and Public Health 066. Michigan, University of-Ann Arbor Microbiology 067. Minnesota, University of Microbiology 068. Mississippi State University-Starkville Biological Sciences 069. Mississippi, University of-Oxford Biology 070. Missouri, University of-Columbia Microbiology 071. Montana State University-Bozeman Microbiology 072. Nebraska, University of-Lincoln Life Sciences 073 New Hampshire, University of Microbiology 074. New Jersey, College of Medicine & Dentistry Microbiology* 075. New York University Basic Medical Sciences 076. North Carolina State University-Raleigh Microbiology 077. North Carolina, University of-Chapel Hill Bacteriology and Immunology 078. Northwestern University Microbiology/I~rununology 079. Notre Dame, University of Nicrobiology/Biology 080. Ohio State University-Columbus Medical Microbiology and Immunology* * indicates program was initiated since 1970. Character ist ics of Program Size Program Graduates (01) (02) (03) (04) (05) (06) (07) 11 9 45 44 19 8 52 43 7 13 42 48 17 24 51 57 33 30 6~ 63 26 24 59 57 18 23 51 56 11 7 45 43 4 6 39 42 23 23 56 56 10 7 44 43 10 15 44 49 7 12 42 47 20 8 53 43 31 22 63 56 16 20 50 54 24 24 57 57 17 12 51 47 11 19 45 53 18 11 51 46 8 44 15 48 6 43 14 47 29 54 19 .60 50 54 39 .65 59 56 7 NA 44 4 42 10 45 8 44 19 50 8 44 15 48 27 54 25 53 36 58 12 46 18 49 15 48 NA NA NA NA NA NA .21 5.2 41 61 .59 6.2 54 49 5.9 53 6.3 48 NA NA NA .16 5.0 39 64 NA NA .07 6.1 36 50 .18 6.0 40 51 NA NA .77 7.5 1 60 32 .21 5.4 41 59 .93 5.0 65 64 .94 5.3 66 61 43 6.2 48 49 .25 5.5 42 58 NOTE: On the f irst line of data for every program, raw values for each measure are reported; on the second line values are reported in standardized form, with mean = 50 and standard deviation = 10. "NA" indicates that the value for a measure is not available. NA NA NA NA NA NA .83 .72 53 64 .83 .48 52 50 .93 .67 61 60 .69 .50 40 51 NA NA NA NA .84 .53 54 52 NA NA .67 .53 38 53 .91 .55 59 54 NA NA .00 .54 67 53 .74 .47 45 49 .93 .79 61 67 .94 .78 62 67 .89 .50 58 51 .67 .33 38 42

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109 TABLE 6.1 Program Measures (Raw and Standardized Values) in Microbiology Prog SurveY Results No. (08) (09) (10) (11) 061. 2.3 1.6 1.1 0.4 44 46 45 44 062. 2.6 1.7 1.6 0.7 47 48 67 51 063. 1.8 1.4 1.1 0.4 37 42 47 41 064. 2.4 1.6 1.1 0.4 44 45 45 44 065. 3.4 2.2 1.3 1.0 5 7 60 56 62 066. 3.8 2.4 1.6 1.2 62 65 64 6 7 067. 3.6 2.3 1.2 1.1 60 62 51 63 068. 1.5 0.9 1.0 0.2 33 28 43 37 069. 0.8 0.7 NA 0.2 24 22 36 070. 2.8 1.8 1.7 0.8 49 50 69 55 University Library (12) NA NA 0.8 39 NA 0.3 50 1.8 66 1.2 59 NA NA 0.2 45 Research Published Support Articles (13) (14) (15) (16) .36 2085 20 46 39 43 .37 3178 55 47 41 52 NA NA 5 40 .29 6101 17 43 46 43 .70 10357 77 61 53 58 .65 15431 54 59 62 52 .61 13696 151 57 59 76 .00 2839 7 31 41 40 NA NA 4 39 .22 4628 NA 40 44 43 50 42 44 52 51 63 42 41 Survey Ratings Standard Error (08) (09) (10) (11) .13 .10 .15 .10 .17 .16 .13 .09 .09 .06 .07 .06 .06 .07 .09 .08 .08 .10 .11 .11 .08 .06 .08 .07 .08 .06 .09 .09 .20 .16 .10 .05 .19 .15 NA .05 .11 .07 .09 .07 071. 2.3 1.4 1.6 0.3 NA .20 766 19 .21 .15 .15 .06 44 41 66 40 39 3 7 43 42 072. 2.1 1.6 1.1 0.4 -0.5 .50 2965 37 .18 .13 .14 .06 41 45 45 42 42 52 41 48 45 073. 2.1 1.4 1.2 0.5 NA NA NA 9 .17 .12 .15 .07 41 41 50 44 41 42 074. 2.5 1.4 1.4 0.4 NA .30 4529 37 .14 .12 .13 .07 46 41 59 43 44 43 48 48 075. 4.0 2.2 1.2 1.0 0.5 .32 9934 98 .09 .07 .11 .08 65 60 50 61 52 45 52 63 68 076. 2.7 1.9 1.3 0.6 NA .13 6741 38 .12 .07 .11 .09 49 52 53 48 36 47 48 46 077. 3.7 2.1 1.3 1.1 1.0 .75 9849 72 .09 .05 .09 .08 60 57 56 65 57 63 52 56 51 078. 2.8 1.8 1.1 0.5 0.3 .53 4760 48 .13 .10 .11 .07 49 51 47 46 50 54 44 50 48 079. 2.7 1.7 1.0 0.5 -1.3 .55 NA 8 .14 .10 .08 .07 49 4 7 42 46 33 54 40 42 080. 2.6 1.6 1.1 0.6 0.9 .17 8330 31 .11 .09 .10 .07 47 45 45 49 56 38 50 46 46 NOTE: On the first line of data for every program, raw values for each measure are reported; on the second line values are reported in standardized form, with mean = 50 and standard deviation = 10. "NA" indicates that the value for a measure is not available. Since the scale used to compute measure 16 is entirely arbitrary, only values in standardized form are reported for this measure.

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112 TABLE 6.1 Program Measures (Raw and Standardized Values) in Microbiology Characteristics of Prog Program Size Program Graduates No. University - Department/Academic Unit (01) (02) (03) (04) (05) (06) (07) 101. Rockefeller University 33 20 23 .42 6.1 .84 .76 Microbiology 65 54 52 48 50 53 66 102. Rutgers, The State University-New Brunswick 65 66 198 .56 5.8 .83 .44 Microbiology 94 94 99 53 54 53 47 103. SUNY Upstate Medical Center 8 9 10 NA NA NA NA Microbiol ogy 42 44 45 104. SUNY at Buffalo 18 12 5 NA NA NA NA Microbiology (Roswel l Park Graduate Div) 51 47 43 105. SUNY at Buffalo 28 28 49 .57 6.0 .78 .30 Microbiology (School of Medicine J 61 61 64 53 51 48 40 106. SUNY-Downstate Medical Center 13 7 10 NA NA NA NA Microbiology and Immunology 4 7 43 45 107. Saint Louis University 9 5 7 NA NA NA NA Microbiology 43 41 44 108. Southern California, University of 16 3 7 NA NA NA NA Microbiology 50 39 44 109. Southern Illinois University-Carbondale 16 5 9 NA NA NA NA Microbiology 50 41 45 110. Stanford University 9 22 10 .71 5.9 .83 .54 Medical Microbiology 43 56 45 58 53 53 53 111. Syracuse University 9 9 11 NA NA NA NA Biology* 43 44 46 112. Temple University 17 23 28 .82 5.9 .82 .25 Microbiology and I~rununology 51 56 54 62 53 52 37 113. Tennessee, Univ of-Ctr for Health Sciences 16 4 5 NA NA NA NA Microbiology and Immunology 50 40 43 114. Tennessee, University of-Knoxville 15 12 21 NA NA NA NA Microbiology 49 4 7 51 115. Texas A & M University 6 7 12 NA NA .60 .20 Biology 41 43 46 33 34 116. Texas, U of-Health Science Center, Houston 26 14 24 .30 NA .80 .40 Virology/ Devl T]2erapeut/ Organ Transplant 59 49 52 44 50 45 117. Texas, University of-Austin 19 32 58 .83 6.8 .86 .55 Microbiology 52 64 68 62 42 55 54 118. Texas, U of-Health Science Ctr, San Antonio 25 13 12 .09 7.5 .91 .46 Microbiology* 58 48 46 37 32 59 48 119. Texas, University of-Mea Branch, Galveston 17 7 18 NA NA NA NA Microbiology* 51 43 49 120. Thomas Jefferson University 12 9 13 .00 5.8 .70 .40 Microbiology 46 44 47 33 54 41 45 * indicates program was initiated since 1970. NOTE: On the first line of data for every program, raw values for each measure are reported; on the second line values are reported in standardized form, with mean = 50 and standard deviation = 10. "NA" indicates that the value for a measure is not available.

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113 TABLE 6.1 Program Measures (Raw and Standardized Values) in Microbiology Prog Survey Results No. (08) (09) (10) (11) 101. 4.8 2.7 1.2 1.5 75 72 51 76 102. 3.8 2.3 1.2 1.3 62 63 52 70 103. 2.0 1.6 NA 0.3 40 44 39 104. 2.6 1.7 1.2 0.5 47 47 52 46 105. 3.1 1.9 1.2 0.7 53 53 50 52 2.5 46 2.6 47 3.2 55 1.8 37 4.0 64 111. 2.5 46 112. 2.7 49 113. 2.9 51 114. 2.6 47 115. 1.5 33 116. 3.1 53 117. 3.3 56 118. 2.6 47 2.7 48 120. 2.~0 40 1.5 43 1.6 46 1.7 48 1.2 36 2.2 61 1.7 - 4 8 1.7 47 1.6 44 1.9 52 0.9 27 1.8 51 2.1 57 1.6 45 1.7 47 1.4 39 1.1 0.3 47 40 0.8 0~5 35 46 1.3 0.7 55 52 1.2 0.5 49 46 1.4 1.0 58 62 0.8 0~7 36 52 0.9 0.8 38 54 1.3 0.7 55 52 1.3 0.7 55 52 NA 0.3 40 1.3 0.8 56 54 1.2 0.9 52 57 1.5 0.6 62 49 1.7 0.4 70 44 0.9 0.4 39 42 0.8 55 NA 0.3 50 0.3 50 NA Un iver s i ty Research Library Supper t (12) (13) (14) NA .79 27299 65 81 .26 7505 42 48 NA NA .0 0 6799 31 47 .29 6799 43 47 .46 3077 51 41 NA 3674 42 .56 2405 55 40 .19 NA 39 NA 12514 57 NA 0.4 51 0.2 45 2.0 68 0.3 43 0.4 42 NA 0.4 43 0.5 42 NA 1.6 64 NA NA NA NA NA .53 6914 54 47 .13 2127 36 39 .60 NA 57 94 45 43 42 55 50 46 50 43 75 42 46 46 42 45 NA 50 NA NA Published Survey Ratings Articles Standard Error tl5) (16) (08) (09) (10) 120 .05 .05 .06 69 37 48 17 43 6 40 82 59 39 48 25 45 49 51 11 41 112 66 6 40 27 45 30 46 8 40 NA 3199 23 41 44 .50 4151 NA 52 43 .74 5757 53 63 46 52 .32 6064 NA 44 46 .47 4581 51 44 .17 1851 38 39 NA 25 45 49 (11) .06 .09 .07 .24 .14 .16 .09 .13 .08 .09 NA .12 .11 .08 .06 .06 .07 .18 .10 .10 .05 .14 .10 .08 .07 .14 .10 .10 .07 .14 .13 .14 .07 .08 .08 .10 .07 .13 .09 .12 .10 .11 .08 .12 .08 .09 .08 .08 .12 .07 .10 .08 .23 .22 NA .07 .08 .11 .07 .09 .08 .10 .08 .12 .09 .12 .07 .18 .13 .10 .07 .17 .11 .11 .06 NOTE: On the f irst line cuff data for Very program. raw values for each measure are reported on the second line values are reported in standardized form, with mean = 50 and standard deviation = 10. "NA" indicates that the value for a measure is not available. Since the scale used to compute measure 16 is entirely arbitrary, only values in standardized form are reported for this measure.

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114 TABLE 6.1 Program Measures (Raw and Standardized Values) in Microbiology Characteristics of Prog Program Size Program Graduates No. University - Department/Academic Unit (01) (02) (03) (04) (05) (06) (07) 121. Tufts University 19 8 16 NA NA NA NA I~rununology* 52 43 48 122. Tulane University 6 4 8 NA NA NA NA Microbiol ogy and I~ununol ogy 41 40 44 123. Tulane University 7 7 10 NA NA NA NA Parasitology 42 43 45 124. Vanderbilt University 11 9 13 NA NA NA NA Nicrobiol ogy 45 44 4 7 125. Virginia Commonwealth University/Medical Col 25 25 32 .65 6.8 .80 .50 Microbiology 58 58 56 56 42 50 51 Virginia Polytechnic Institute & State Univ Biol ogy & Anaerobic Microbiol ogy 127. Virginia, University of Microbiol ogy 128. Wake Forest University Microbiol ogy and Inununol ogy 129. Washington State University-Pullman Bacteriology and Public Health 130. Washington, University of-Seattle Microbiol ogy and IIrununol ogy 15 16 49 48 13 21 47 55 14 8 48 43 10 13 44 48 25 28 58 61 24 52 21 51 15 48 20 .81 50 61 .14 5.5 1.00 38 58 67 .95 5.3 66 61 NA NA NA NA 5.6 .87 57 56 .57 55 1.00 .61 67 57 NA NA NA NA .55 54 131. Wayne State University 32 16 14 .27 5.3 .73 .27 - Inununol ogy and Microbiol ogy 64 50 4 7 43 60 44 3 8 132. West Virginia University 17 22 8 .21 6.4 .85 .45 Microbiology 51 56 44 41 47 54 48 133. Wisconsin, University of-Madison 11 37 36 . 58 5.3 . 75 .39 Bacteriology 45 69 58 53 60 46 45 134. Yale University 25 22 35 .86 7.7 .62 .43 Epidemiology and Public Health/ Biology 58 56 57 63 30 34 47 * indicates program was initiated since 1970. NOTE: On the first line of data for every program, raw values for each measure are reported; on the second line values are reported in standardized form, with mean = 50 and standard deviation = 10. "NAT indicates that the value for a measure is not available.

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115 TABLE 6.1 Program Measures (Raw and Standardized Values) in Microbiology University Research Published Survey Ratings Prog survey Results Library Support Articles Standard Error No. (08) (09) (10) (11) (12) (13) (14) (15) (16) (08) (09) (10) (11) 121. 3.3 1.9 1.5 0.7 NA .63 3518 48 .16 .08 .10 .08 56 54 62 50 58 42 50 52 122. 1.9 1.2 0.8 0.4 -1.0 NA 3690 25 .22 .15 .15 .06 38 35 36 44 36 42 45 43 123. 2.2 NA NA 0.1 - 1.0 NA 3690 25 .35 NA NA .04 43 35 36 42 45 43 124. 3.4 2.0 1.1 0.9 -0.7 .82 5204 26 .11 .06 .08 .08 58 55 47 56 39 66 45 45 46 125. 2.9 1.9 1.5 0.6 NA .48 6556 52 .11 .06 .10 .08 50 52 63 48 51 47 51 48 126. 3.1 2.1 1.5 0.6 -0.0 .41 3108 46 .12 .10 .11 .08 54 57 64 50 47 48 41 50 47 127. 3.3 2.0 1.2 0.8 0.7 .77 6224 48 .11 .06 .11 .08 56 56 52 55 55 64 46 50 49 128. 2.5 1.6 1.2 0.6 NA .50 3010 32 .13 .10 .10 .07 45 46 52 47 52 41 46 45 129. 2.4 1.6 NA 0.3 -0.3 .30 998 34 .20 .17 NA .07 44 46 40 44 44 38 47 46 130. 4.3 2.4 1.5 1.3 1.5 .52 14164 112 .06 .07 .08 .08 69 66 61 70 62 53 60 66 65 131. 3.0 1.9 1.5 0.7 -0.4 .34 6372 37 .12 .07 .11 .07 52 53 61 51 43 45 47 48 48 132. 2.4 1.4 1.2 0.5 NA .24 NA 15 .15 .12 .14 .07 44 40 50 44 41 42 42 133. 3.8 2.5 1.3 1.2 1.6 .73 19738 124 .11 .07 .09 .08 62 66 53 65 63 62 69 70 62 134. 3.9 2.2 0.9 1.0 2.1 .56 4337 100 .10 .06 .10 .08 63 61 40 61 69 55 43 63 67 NOTE: On the first line of data for every program, raw values for each measure are reported; on the second line values are reported in standardized form, with mean = 50 and standard deviation = 10. "NA" indicates that the value for a measure is not available. Since the scale used to compute measure 16 is entirely arbitrary, only values in standardized form are reported for this measure.

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116 TABLE 6.2 Summary Statistics Describing Each Program Measure--Microbioloov Pleasure = Program Size 01 Raw Value Std Value 02 Raw Value Std Value 03 Raw Value Std Value Program Graduates 04 Raw Value Std Value 05 Raw Value Std Value 06 Raw Value Std Value 07 Raw Value Std Value Survey Results 08 Raw Value 131 Std Value 131 09 Raw Value 125 Std Value 125 10 Raw Value 116 Std Value 116 11 Raw Value 134 Std Value 134 University Library 12 Raw Value 85 Std Value 85 Research Support 13 Raw Value 102 Std Value 102 14 Raw Value 108 Std Value 108 Publication Records 15 Raw Value 129 Std Value 129 16 Std Value 129 Number of Programs Standard F.v~lil~t-~ M - an nc`'r;:~! ;~ - 134 134 132 132 134 134 75 .48 75 50 71 6.1 71 50 76 .80 76 50 76 .48 76 50 .6 50 16 11 50 10 16 11 50 10 20 21 50 10 .29 10 e 10 .12 10 .18 10 2.8 .8 50 10 1.8 .4 50 10 1.2 .3 50 10 .3 10 .9 50 10 .45 .23 50 10 8449 6012 50 10 46 4 50 10 50 10 In 7 9 42 43 4 7 40 43 5 8 43 44 .10 .19 37 40 7.0 6.5 39 45 .65 .70 38 42 .25 .33 37 42 1.8 2.2 37 42 1.3 1.4 38 41 .8 1.0 35 43 .2 .4 37 43 38 42 .16 .22 37 40 2612 3161 40 41 7 10 40 41 42 42 D E C I L E S 3 4 5 6 10 12 44 46 ~ 10 43 45 10 12 45 46 .24 .30 42 44 6.3 6.2 48 49 .75 .80 46 50 .40 .45 46 48 2.4 2.6 45 47 1.6 1.7 46 48 1.1 1.1 47 47 .4 .5 43 46 13 47 12 47 14 47 .44 49 6.0 51 .82 52 .50 51 2.7 48 1.7 48 1.2 51 .6 49 .4 -.1 .2 43 46 49 30 .37 .46 43 47 50 4359 5381 6462 43 45 47 17 26 43 45 43 45 16 50 15 49 16 48 .59 54 5.9 53 .83 53 .53 53 3.0 52 1.9 53 1.2 51 .7 52 .4 51 .51 53 7807 49 37 43 48 49 46 48 7 8 17 22 51 55 20 23 54 56 21 27 51 54 .67 .81 57 61 5.8 5.5 54 58 .87 .91 56 59 57 .62 55 58 3.2 3.6 55 60 2.0 2.2 55 60 1.3 1.4 55 58 .7 .9 52 58 .8 .9 55 56 .56 .65 55 59 9 29 61 28 61 36 58 .87 63 5.3 60 .93 61 .72 63 4.0 65 2.3 63 1.5 62 1.1 64 1.8 66 .77 64 9900 14096 17682 52 59 65 54 83 52 59 50 58 100 63 63 NoTE: Standardized values reported in the preceding table have been computed from exact values of the mean and standard deviation and not the rounded values reported here. Since the scale used to compute measure 16 is entirely arbitrary, only data in standardized form are reported for this measure.

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117 TABLE 6.3 Intercorrelations Among Program Measures on 134 Programs in Microbiology Measure 01 02 03 04 05 06 07 08 09 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 Program Size 01 .61 .64 .12 .05 .00 .03 .50 .50 .42 .51 .23 .07 .24 .44 .38 02 .80 .18 .02 .07 .12 .48 .55 .19 .58 .27 .20 .18 .44 .29 03 .17 .06 .02 .04 .42 .46 .15 .50 .22 .14 .08 .29 .18 Program Graduates 04 .09 .37 .37 .57 .54 .07 .48 .41 .42 .43 .52 .51 05 .33 .41 .08 .12 .19 .13 -.03 .00 .05 .02 -.03 06 .58 .23 .30 .16 .24 .08 .25 .12 .10 .13 07 .38 .37 .12 .31 .13 .35 .27 .26 .27 Survey Results 08 .96 .46 .91 .54 .64 .68 .72 .75 09 .46 .90 .54 .65 .65 .69 .68 10 .39 .23 .26 .12 .27 .27 11 .39 .61 .50 .63 .62 University Library 12 e 16 .48 .63 .54 Research Support 13 14 Publication Records 15 16 .29 .39 .40 .73 .78 .90 NOTE: Since in computing correlation coefficients program data must be available for both of the measures being correlated, the actual number of programs on which each coefficient is based varies.

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118 5.0++ + + + + 4.0++ + + * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * + * * * * * Measure + 3.0++ * * * * 08 + * * * + * * * * * + * * ** + * * * * * * ** * + * * ** * * * + * * * ** + * * * * * + * * * * * + * * * * * 2.0++ * * * + * * + * * * + * * * * + 1 . 0~+ * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * O.O +/+++++++++++/+++++++++++/+++++++++++/+++++++++++/+++++++++++/+++++++++++/+++++++++++/+++++++++++/ 1 4 9 16 25 36 49 64 81 Measure 01 (square root scale) FIGURE 6.1 Mean rating of scholarly quality of faculty (measure 08) versus number of faculty members (measure 01)--131 programs in microbiology.

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119 3.0++ + * + + * + + * * * * * * + * * * * + * * ** * * + * * * * * * + * * * * * * 2~0++ * * * * * * * * + * * * * * * * * * * +* * * * ** * + * * * * * * * * * * * * Measure + * * * * + * * * * * * * 09 + * * * * * ** * +* * 1. 0++ * + + + * * * * * * * r = .56 O ~ O +/+++++++++++/+++++++++++/+++++++++++/+++++++++++/+++++++++++/+++++++++++/+++++++++++/+++++++++++/ 1 4 9 16 25 36 49 64 81 Measure 02 (square root scale) FIGURE 6.2 Mean rating of program effectiveness in educating research scholars/scientists (measure 09) versus number of graduates in last five years (measure 02)--123 programs in microbiology.

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1 120 TABLE 6.4 Characteristics of Survey Participants in Microbiology Respondents N Field of ialization % Immunology 49 21 Microbiology/Bacteriology 108 47 Molecular Biology 32 14 Other/Unknown 42 18 Faculty Rank Professor 116 50 Associate Professor 65 28 Assistant Professor 50 22 Year of Highest Degree Pre-1950 11 5 1950-59 55 24 1960-69 89 39 Post-1969 76 33 Evaluator Selection ~ _ Nominated by Institution 196 85 Other 35 15 Survey Form With Faculty Names 213 92 Without Names 18 8 Total Evaluators 231 100

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121 x 5.0 4.0 3.0 2.0 1.0 0.0 Mean Survey Rating (measure 08) FIGURE 6.3 Mean rating of scholarly quality of faculty in 131 programs in microbiology. NOTE: Programs are listed in sequence of mean rating, with the highest-rated program appearing at the top of the page. The broken lines (---) indicate a confidence interval of +1.5 standard errors around the reported mean (x) of each program.

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