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IV Economics Programs In this chapter 93 research-doctorate programs in economics are assessed. These programs, according to the information supplied by their universities, have accounted for 3,770 doctoral degrees awarded during the FY1976-80 period--approximately 92 percent of the aggregate number of economics and econometrics doctorates earned from U.S. uni- versities in this five-year span. On the average, 68 full-time and part-time students intending to earn doctorates were enrolled in a pro- gram in December 1980, with an average faculty size of 23 members.2 Two programs were initiated since 1970. Each of two institutions--the University of California (Davis) and Oklahoma State University--has two economics programs included in the assessment. In addition to the 91 institutions represented in this discipline, another 3 were initially identified as meeting the criteria3 for inclusion in the assessment: Colorado School of Mines SUNY at Buffalo Utah State University--Logan The Colorado School of Mines chose not to participate in the assessment in any discipline. Economics programs at the other two institutions have not been included in the evaluations in this discipline, since in each case the study coordinator either indicated that the institution did not at that time have a research-doctorate program in economics or failed to provide the information requested by the committee. data from the NRC's Survey of Earned Doctorates indicate that 3,966 research doctorates in economics and another 126 research doctorates in econometrics were awarded by U.S. universities between FY1976 and FY1980. 2See the reported means for measures 03 and 01 in Table 4.2. 3As mentioned in Chapter I, the primary criterion for inclusion was that a university had awarded at least 12 doctorates in economics dur- ing the FY1976-78 period. 51 1

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52 Before examining individual program results presented in Table 4.1, the reader is urged to refer to Chapter II, in which each of the 16 measures used in the assessment is discussed. Summary statistics de- scribing every measure are given in Table 4.2. For 14 of the measures, data are reported for at least 91 of the 93 economics programs. For measure 12, a composite index of the size of a university library, data are available for 75 programs; for measure 14, the total university ex- penditures for research in this discipline, data are available for 69 programs. The programs not evaluated on measures 12 and 14 are typi- cally smal~er--in terms of faculty size and graduate student enroll- ment--than other economics programs. Were data on these two measures available for all 93 programs, it is likely that their reported means would be appreciably lower {and that some of the correlations of these measures with others would be higher). Intercorrelations among the 16 measures (Pearson product-moment co- efficients) are given in Table 4.3. Of particular note are the high positive correlations of the reputational survey results with the total number of FY1976-80 program graduates (measure 02) and the total num- ber of 1978-80 articles by program faculty (measure 17~. Figure 4.1 illustrates the relation between the mean rating of the scholarly qual- ity of faculty (measure 08) and the number of faculty members (measure 01) for each of 93 programs in economics. Figure 4.2 plots the mean rating of program effectiveness (measure 09) against the total number of FY1976-80 program graduates (measure 02~. Although in both figures there is a significant positive correlation between program size and reputational rating, it is quite apparent that some of the smaller pro- grams received high mean ratings and that some of the larger programs received low mean ratings. Table 4.4 describes the 185 faculty members who participated in the evaluation of economics programs. These individuals constituted 66 percent of those asked to respond to the survey in this discipline and 9 percent of the faculty population in the 93 research-doctorate pro- grams being evaluated.4 A majority of the survey participants had earned their highest degree prior to 1970, and more than half held the rank of full professor. To assist the reader in interpreting results of the survey evalua- tions, estimated standard errors have been computed for mean ratings of the scholarly quality of faculty in 93 economics programs (and are given in Table 4.1~. For each program the mean rating and an associ- ated "confidence interval" of 1.5 standard errors are illustrated in Figure 4.3 (listed in order of highest to lowest mean rating). In comparing two programs, if their confidence intervals do not overlap, one may conclude that there is a significant difference in their mean ratings at a .05 level of significance.5 From this figure it is also apparent that one should have somewhat more confidence in the accuracy _ _ , _ 4 See Table 2.3 in Chapter II. ssee pp. 30-32 for a discussion of the interpretation of mean ratings and associated confidence intervals.

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53 of the mean ratings of higher-rated programs than lower-rated programs. This generalization results primarily from the fact that evaluators are not as likely to be familiar with the less prestigious programs, and consequently the mean ratings of these programs are usually based on fewer survey responses.

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54 TABLE 4.1 Program Measures (Raw and Standardized Values) in Economics Characteristics of Prog Program Size Program Graduates No. University - Department/Academic Unit (01) (02) (03) (04) (05) (06) (07) 001. American University 16 20 140 .17 9.5 .79 .04 Economics ' 43 43 66 46 31 51 35 002. Arkansas, University-Fayetteville 19 26 15 .12 7.5 .83 .21 Economics 46 45 38 42 48 55 47 003. Boston College 21 23 69 .16 7.3 .80 .24 Economics 48 44 50 46 50 52 49 004. Boston University 38 25 80 .11 9.7 .80 . 00 Economics 65 44 53 41 30 52 32 005. Brown University 15 34 50 .19 6.6 .70 .38 Economics 42 48 46 48 56 43 58 006. CUNY-Graduate School 13 40 57 .22 8.8 .56 .17 Economics 40 50 48 51 3 7 29 44 007. California Institute of Technology 19 10 18 NA NA NA NA Economics* 46 39 39 008. California, University of-Berkeley 26 118 135 . 28 7.0 . 85 .38 Economics 53 78 65 56 52 57 58 009. California, University of-Davis 26 33 61 . 19 6.0 .85 .46 Agricultural Economics 53 47 48 49 61 56 64 010. California, University of-Davis 19 23 61 .22 6.7 .83 .11 Economics 46 44 48 51 55 55 40 011. California, University of-Los Angeles 27 73 118 .14 7.0 .75 .35 Economics 54 62 61 44 52 47 56 012. California, University of-Riverside 10 17 33 . 07 7.0 .73 .20 Economics 36 42 42 37 52 46 46 013. California, University of-San Diego 20 19 56 .33 6.5 .56 .28 Economics 47 42 47 61 56 29 51 014. California, University of-Santa Barbara 25 30 51 . 13 7.3 .73 .13 Economics 52 46 46 43 50 46 41 015. Carnegie-Mellon University 17 13 22 .43 5.5 .94 .75 Industrial Administration 44 40 40 70 65 65 84 016. Case Western Reserve University 10 12 16 .42 9.9 .73 .18 Economics 36 40 38 69 28 45 45 017. Chicago, University of 27 121 120 .37 7.0 . 93 .44 Economics 54 79 62 65 53 64 63 018. Cincinnati, University of 16 29 53 .08 7.3 .68 .12 Economics 43 46 4 7 3 8 50 40 41 019. Claremont Graduate School 19 28 50 .27 8.9 .74 .06 Economics 46 46 46 56 36 46 36 020. Clark University 9 14 35 .26 7.0 .94 .28 Economics 35 40 43 55 52 66 51 * indicates program was initiated since 1970. NOTE: On the first line of data for every program, raw values for each measure are reported; on the second line values are reported in standardized form, with mean = 50 and standard deviation = 10. "NA" indicates that the value for a measure is not available.

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55 TABLE 4.1 Program Measures (Raw and Standardized Values) in Economics University Research Published Survey Ratings Prog Survey Results Library Support Articles _ Standard Error No. (08) (09) (10) (11) (12) (13) (14) (17) (18) (08) (09) (10) (11) 001. 1.3 0.7 1.1 0.5 NA .06 74 12 .31 .11 .11 .08 .06 42 40 49 42 46 41 40 29 002. 0.7 0.3 NA 0.2 NA .00 1043 13 .42 .09 .09 NA .04 36 33 36 42 52 40 3 7 003. 1.8 1.1 1.2 0.8 NA .14 NA 33 .48 .11 .09 .09 .06 46 47 51 48 52 45 40 004. 2.3 1.4 1.5 0.8 -0.4 .05 350 24 .29 .09 .09 .09 .06 50 50 63 49 45 45 44 43 28 005. 3.4 2.0 1.0 1.5 -1.1 .40 108 33 .67 .08 .06 .06 .06 59 60 44 63 3 8 71 42 45 53 006. 1.6 0.9 0.9 0.5 NA .00 280 10 .39 .11 .09 .11 .06 44 43 43 43 42 44 39 34 007. 3.0 1.9 1.5 1.1 NA .42 NA 65 .84 .09 .07 .08 .07 56 59 64 55 73 53 64 008. 4.1 2.3 0.4 1.6 2.2 .19 2612 67 .69 .07 .06 .06 .05 65 65 22 65 70 56 71 54 54 009. 2.6 1.9 1.1 0.3 0.6 .00 1063 77 .73 .22 .13 .13 .06 53 59 48 39 55 42 53 56 5 7 010. 2.4 1.3 1.2 0.9 0.6 .11 1063 60 .84 .08 .07 .08 .05 51 50 51 49 55 49 53 52 64 011. 4.1 2.1 1.4 1.8 2.0 .22 1117 64 .70 .06 .07 .06 .04 65 62 60 68 68 58 53 53 55 012. 1.1 0.5 0.5 0.5 -1.0 .00 NA 33 .80 .10 .09 .11 .06 40 3 7 28 42 39 42 45 61 013. 3.2 1.8 1.7 1.2 -0.0 .25 NA 31 .60 .08 .07 .06 .07 58 57 71 56 48 60 45 48 014. 2.2 1.3 1.4 0.9 -0.1 .00 5 78 .64 .09 .08 .09 .06 49 49 61 50 48 42 40 56 51 015. 3.1 2.1 0.8 1.2 NA .47 585 54 .82 .08 .07 .08 .07 57 62 37 55 77 47 50 63 016. 0.5 0.4 0.7 0.2 - 1.3 .10 NA 12 .50 .09 .09 .10 .04 35 35 35 36 36 49 40 42 017. 4.8 2.7 1.0 1.9 0.9 .22 617 94 .70 .04 .05 .06 .03 72 72 44 70 5 7 5 8 4 8 60 55 018. 1.0 0.6 1.0 0.2 -0.2 .06 NA 17 .56 .11 .14 .09 .04 39 38 44 37 46 46 41 46 019. 2.0 1.3 1.1 0.6 NA .00 NA 25 .37 .10 .11 .12 .06 48 49 48 45 42 43 33 020. 0.6 0.5 0.9 0.3 NA NA 18 9 NA .10 .09 .07 .05 36 36 41 38 41 39 NOTE: On the f irst line of data for every program, raw values for each measure are reported; on the second line values are reported in standardized form, with mean = 50 and standard deviation = 10. "NA" indicates that the value for a measure is not available.

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56 TABLE 4.1 Program Measures (Raw and Standardized Values) in Economics Characteristics of Prog Program Size Program Graduates No. University - Department/Academic Unit (01) (02) (03) (04) (05) (06) (07) 021. Colorado State University-Fort Collins 39 28 22 .18 8.3 .78 .33 Economics 66 46 40 47 42 50 55 022. Colorado, University of 20 62 15 .16 6.7 .71 .16 Economics 4 7 5 8 3 8 46 55 43 44 023. Columbia University 28 53 213 .21 7.6 .84 .26 Economics 55 54 82 50 48 56 50 024. Connecticut, University of-Storrs 19 32 45 .27 9.1 .73 . 06 Economics 46 4 7 45 56 35 45 3 7 025. Cornell University-Ithaca 24 55 67 .23 6.2 .84 .32 Economics 51 55 50 52 59 56 55 026. Duke University 22 57 60 .40 6.7 .80 .21 Economics 49 56 48 68 55 52 47 027. Florida State University-Tallahassee 16 28 60 .27 7.3 .78 .19 Economics 43 46 4 8 56 50 50 45 028. Florida, University of-Gainesville 20 22 32 .12 5.4 .64 .04 Economics 4 7 43 42 42 66 3 7 35 029. Fordham University 14 14 57 .14 9.5 .62 .08 Economics 41 40 4 8 44 31 34 3 8 030. George Washington University 24 51 157 .09 9.3 .61 .00 Economics 51 54 70 39 34 34 32 031. Georgetown University 15 18 47 .05 8.8 .70 .05 Economics 42 42 45 36 37 42 36 032. Georgia State University-Atlanta 20 25 46 .12 9.1 .84 .16 Economics 47 44 45 42 35 56 43 033. Harvard University 34 123 130 .37 6.7 .91 .46 Economics 61 80 64 64 55 62 64 034. Hawaii, University of 21 36 70 .09 7.0 .78 .16 Economics* 48 48 50 39 52 50 43 035. Illinois, University-Urbana/Champaign 56 77 98 .15 5.4 .87 .40 Economics 83 63 57 45 66 59 60 036. Indiana University-Bloomington 21 53 66 .26 8.9 .88 . 23 Economics 48 54 50 55 36 59 48 037. Iowa State University-Ames 32 99 122 . 10 6.2 .70 .33 Economics 59 71 62 41 59 42 55 038. Iowa, University of-Iowa City 23 21 36 .25 6.3 .83 .42 Economics 50 43 43 54 58 55 61 039. Johns Hopkins University 7 51 41 .26 6.2 .89 .24 Political Economy 33 54 44 54 59 60 49 040. Kansas, University of 17 8 32 .30 6.3 .70 .40 Economics 44 38 42 58 59 42 60 * indicates program was initiated since 1970. NOTE: On the f irst line of data for every program, raw values for each measure are reported; on the second line values are reported in standardized form, with mean = 50 and standard deviation = 10. "NA" indicates that the value for a measure is not available.

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57 TABLE 4.1 Program Measures (Raw and Standardized Values) in Economics Survey Results (08) (09) (10) (11) 1.2 0.7 1.1 0.3 41 40 49 3 8 1.6 1.1 0.9 0.5 44 46 42 43 4.2 2.1 1.4 1.7 66 62 59 65 1.4 0.8 1.2 0.5 43 42 53 42 3.2 1.8 1.3 1.3 57 57 56 59 026. 3.0 1.8 1.4 1.3 56 58 60 58 027. 1.5 1.0 1.0 0.5 43 45 45 42 028. 2.2 1.2 1.6 0.9 49 47 67 51 029. 0.6 0.4 1.1 0.2 35 35 49 3 7 030. 1.7 1.0 1.1 0.7 45 45 49 4 7 1.0 0.7 39 40 1.2 0.7 41 40 4.9 2.4 72 67 1.0 0.6 39 39 2.8 1.6 54 54 036. 1.9 46 037. 2.4 51 038. 2.1 48 039. 3.1 57 040. 1.4 42 1.0 44 1.1 48 1.0 45 1.0 44 0.9 42 1.2 0.8 48 38 1.8 0.8 57 40 1.3 1.5 50 65 1.9 0.6 59 31 0.8 0.8 42 38 0.3 38 0.4 40 1.9 70 0.2 37 1.1 55 0.7 46 0.8 47 0.9 50 1.4 60 0.5 42 0.3 52 -0.4 45 0.8 56 NA NA -0.6 43 NA Univers ity Research Library Suppor t (12) (13) (14) -1. 1 .00 1064 3 8 42 53 -0.9 .10 132 40 49 42 1.7 .21 2992 66 57 75 -0.5 .00 108 44 42 42 1.6 .29 1591 64 63 59 .18 99 55 42 .00 165 42 42 .05 396 45 45 .00 NA 42 .04 200 45 43 .00 NA 42 .00 NA 42 .27 1647 61 59 .00 436 42 45 .13 2858 51 73 3.0 78 - O. . 1 47 2.0 68 0.9 58 0.5 44 0.3 51 0.4 45 0.1 50 NOTE: On the f irst line of data for every program, .10 49 49 41 .13 1795 51 61 .09 51 48 41 NA 38 41 .00 315 42 44 Published Survey Ratings Articles Standard Error (17) (18) (08) (09) (10) (11) 62 .49 52 41 41 .70 47 55 72 .71 55 56 14 .42 40 37 42 .7 1 47 55 90 59 21 42 52 50 4 38 34 45 15 41 22 42 197 86 34 45 158 76 .12 .12 .12 .11 .06 .06 ..0 9 . 11 .0 6 .0 5 .0 6 .06 .09 .05 .10 .06 .07 .05 .08 .05 .07 .06 07 .06 .77 60 .69 54 .85 65 .14 18 .50 42 .47 40 .50 42 .79 .03 .07 .07 .03 61 .76 .11 .11 .09 .04 59 .75 .08 .08 .08 .05 58 .11 .08 .09 .09 .11 .11 .09 .09 .11 .10 .12 .11 .08 .08 23 .67 43 53 92 .69 60 54 26 .61 43 49 12 NA 40 10 .35 39 32 .10 .10 .09 .08 .08 .08 .11 .08 .11 .10 .07 .10 .08 .07 .11 raw values for each measure are reported; on the second line values are reported in standardized form, with mean = 50 and standard deviation = 10. "NA" indicates that the value for a measure is not available. .08 .06 .08 .06 .12 .05 .08 .06 .07 .05 .12 .06 .06 .06 .06 .06

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58 TABLE 4.1 Program Measures (Raw and Standardized Values) in Economics Prog No. University - Department/Academic Unit Program Size (01) (02) Characteristics of Prouram Graduates (03) (04) (05) (06) (07) 041. Kentucky, University of 17 30 46 .19 6.4 .89 .30 Economics 44 46 45 4 8 5 7 60 53 042. Maryland, University of-College Park 40 45 213 .14 8.3 .77 .20 Economics 6 7 52 82 44 42 49 46 043. Massachusetts Institute of Technology Economics 044. Massachusetts, University of-Amherst Economics 045. Michigan State University-East Lansing Economics 046. Michigan, University of-Ann Arbor Economics 047. Minnesota, University of Economics 048. Missouri, University of-Columbia Economics 049. Nebraska, University of-Lincoln Economics 37 129 64 82 25 20 52 43 29 40 56 50 45 82 72 65 33 71 60 61 15 21 42 43 20 27 47 45 129 64 94 56 52 46 143 67 100 57 42 44 35 43 .63 5.6 88 64 .16 7.7 45 47 .06 8.0 37 44 .36 6.6 64 56 .20 8.2 4g 43 .29 7.0 57 52 .07 7.8 37 46 .91 62 .42 16 .74 46 .85 57 .80 52 .79 51 .53 68 .11 40 .24 49 .30 53 .39 59 .33 55 .77 .17 49 44 050. New School for Social Research 11 43 214 .06 10.1 .61 .17 Economics 3 7 51 83 36 26 34 44 051. New York University 29 38 82 .05 8.3 .55 .05 Economics 56 49 53 36 42 28 36 052. North Carolina State University-Raleigh 44 41 45 .32 6.9 .90 .24 Economics and Business 71 50 45 60 53 62 49 053. North Carolina, University of-Chapel Hill Economics 054. Northern Illinois University-De Kalb Economics 055. Northwestern University Economics 056. Notre Dame, University of Economics 057. Ohio State University-Columbus Economics 058. Oklahoma State University-Stillwater Agricultural Economics 059. Oklahoma State University-Stillwater Economics and Finance 26 55 53 55 16 18 43 42 41 53 68 54 12 31 38 47 24 30 51 46 23 35 50 48 17 28 44 46 65 49 30 41 101 57 60 48 77 52 26 41 29 41 .18 6.3 48 58 .06 9~5 36 31 .41 5.6 68 64 .19 5.8 48 62 .12 6.3 42 58 NA NA .26 7.0 55 52 .86 57 .89 60 .81 53 .59 32 .82 54 NA .42 61 .11 40 .36 57 .17 44 .35 57 NA .78 .28 50 51 060. Oklahoma, University of-Norman 15 20 23 .08 8.3 .63 .21 Economics 42 43 40 3 8 41 35 4 7 * indicates program was initiated since 1970. NOTE: On the first line of data for every program, raw values for each measure are reported; on the second line values are reported in standardized form, with mean = 50 and standard deviation = 10. "NA" indicates that the value for a measure is not available.

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59 TABLE 4.1 Program Measures (Raw and Standardized Values) in Economics Prog Survey Results No. (08) (09) (10) (11) 041. 042. 1.5 44 3.2 58 043. 5.0 73 044. 2.3 50 045. 2.9 55 046. 3.9 63 047. 4.4 68 048. 1.3 42 049. 1.2 40 050. 1.4 42 0.8 41 1.6 54 2.9 74 1.2 48 1.7 56 2.1 63 2.5 68 0.9 42 0.7 40 0.8 41 051. 3.4 1.6 60 54 052. 1.9 1.3 47 50 053. 2.8 1.7 54 56 054. 0.7 0.3 36 34 055. 4.1 2.2 65 64 1.0 46 1.5 65 1.2 52 0.9 41 1.3 55 1.1 51 1.4 61 0.9 42 1.0 46 0.9 41 1.6 68 0.9 43 1.1 50 0.7 36 1.5 64 0.9 0.6 0.9 38 39 41 2.3 1.4 1.0 50 51 46 058. 1.3 0.8 NA 42 42 059. 1.4 1.0 1.0 43 44 47 060. 0.8 0.6 1.0 38 38 46 Univers ity Library (12) 0.5 -0.1 43 48 1.4 0.2 60 50 1.9 -0.3 70 46 1.1 -0.7 54 42 1.1 0.3 54 52 1.6 1.8 64 66 1.7 1.2 65 60 0.4 -0.2 41 47 0.3 -0.5 38 44 0.8 NA 49 1.5 61 0.5 43 1.1 55 0.2 36 1.8 67 0.4 41 1.0 52 0.2 36 0.6 43 0.3 38 0.5 53 NA 1.0 58 NA .14 747 52 49 .02 NA 43 .15 265 53 43 .00 181 42 42 0.3 .3 2 272 52 65 44 -1.3 .00 NA 36 42 0.9 .17 1061 57 54 53 -1.9 .00 389 30 42 45 -1.9 .00 389 30 42 45 -0.6 .00 468 43 42 46 Research Published Support Articles (13) (14) (17) (18) .00 NA 22 .53 42 42 44 .13 1162 46 .65 51 54 48 52 .54 1731 161 .78 82 60 77 60 .00 370 37 .56 42 45 46 46 .03 2812 119 .69 44 73 67 54 .27 1108 123 .80 61 53 68 61 .24 1847 90 .67 60 62 59 53 .00 1670 31 .73 42 60 45 57 .00 1204 39 .60 42 54 47 48 .00 NA 14 .55 42 40 45 75 .69 56 54 80 .64 57 51 90 .81 59 62 28 .75 44 58 76 .68 56 54 30 1.00 44 74 60 .75 52 58 37 .57 46 46 12 .35 40 32 27 .53 44 44 Survey Ratings Standard Error (08) (09) (10) (11) .10 .09 .10 .06 .07 .06 .05 .03 .08 .07 .00 .04 .10 .09 .08 .06 .08 .07 .07 .07 .06 .06 .07 .06 .06 .05 .06 .05 .12 .10 .06 .06 .05 .06 .12 .11 .12 .10 .07 .07 .07 .06 .12 .11 .09 .06 .08 .07 .06 .06 .09 .08 .12 .04 .06 .05 .07 .04 .12 .09 .07 .06 .09 .07 .07 .06 .19 .19 NA .04 .11 .11 .05 .06 .09 .10 .07 .04 NOTE: On the first line of data for every program, raw values for each measure are reported; on the second line values are reported in standardized form, with mean = 50 and standard deviation = 10. "NA" indicates that the value for a measure is not available.

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60 TABLE 4.1 Program Measures (Raw and Standardized Values) in Economics Characteristics of Prog Prouram Size Program Graduates No. University - Department/Academic Unit (01) (02) (03) (04) (05) (06) (07) 061. Oregon, University of-Eugene 17 32 35 .13 6.6 .76 .17 Economics 44 47 43 43 56 48 44 062. Pennsylvania State University 24 26 42 .21 8.8 .73 .21 Economics 51 45 44 50 38 45 47 063. Pennsylvania, University of 41 87 148 .17 7.0 .83 .22 Economics 68 67 68 47 52 55 47 064. Pittsburgh, University of 23 54 61 .20 6.6 .84 .20 Economics 50 55 48 49 55 55 46 065. Princeton University 41 75 76 .32 6.3 .89 .39 Economics 68 62 52 60 58 60 59 066. Purdue University-West Lafayette 21 45 45 .27 5.3 .85 .40 Economics 48 52 45 55 66 57 60 067. Rice University 12 23 33 .20 6.4 .73 .27 Economics 38 44 42 49 57 46 51 068. Rochester, University of 15 38 59 .14 7.1 .78 .46 Economics 42 49 48 43 51 50 64 069. Rutgers, The State University-New Brunswick 35 27 71 .20 7.0 .92 .42 Economics 62 45 51 49 52 63 61 070. SUNY at Albany 16 34 67 .08 7.0 .74 .09 Economics 43 48 50 39 52 46 38 071. SUNY at Binghamton 20 27 61 .14 7.0 .89 .15 Economics 47 45 48 44 52 60 43 072. SUNY at Stony Brook 18 21 83 .14 5.2 .95 .67 Economics 45 43 53 44 67 66 78 073. South Carolina, University of-Columbia 16 15 29 .12 8.8 .77 .12 Economics 43 41 41 42 38 49 40 074. Southern California, University of 26 26 66 .17 8.8 .70 .15 Economics 53 45 50 47 38 42 43 075. Southern Illinois University-Carbondale 13 21 19 .17 6.8 .72 .11 Economics 40 43 39 46 54 44 40 076. Southern Methodist University 13 25 30 .14 8.2 .67 .14 Economics 40 44 41 44 43 39 42 077. Stanford University 32 81 131 .23 7.6 .87 .29 Economics 59 65 64 52 47 59 52 078. Syracuse University 17 26 55 .18 6.7 .74 .37 Economics 44 45 47 47 55 46 58 079. Texas A & M University 24 52 58 .18 5.9 .77 .35 Economics 51 54 48 47 62 49 57 080. Texas, University of-Austin 29 24 84 .15 9.0 .75 .20 Economics 56 44 54 45 36 47 46 * indicates program was initiated since 1970. NOTE: On the first line of data for every program, raw values for each measure are reported; on the second line values are reported in standardized form, with mean = 50 and standard deviation = 10. "NA" indicates that the value for a measure is not available.

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61 TABLE 4.1 Program Measures (Raw and Standardized Values) in Economics University Research Published Survey Ratings Prog Survey Results Library Support Articles Standard Error No. (08) (09) (10) (11) (12) (13) (14) (17) (18) (08) (09) (10) (11) 061. 1.7 1.2 1.1 0.5 -0.9 .00 NA 19 .53 .11 .10 .08 .06 45 48 49 43 40 42 42 44 062. 2.0 1.2 1.1 0.6 0.7 .08 1751 80 .75 .09 .09 .07 .06 47 47 48 45 56 48 61 57 58 063. 4.3 2.2 1.4 1.8 0.7 .51 1578 136 .76 .07 .06 .07 .04 67 64 61 67 55 80 59 71 58 064. 2.1 1.3 1.1 0.8 0.1 .00 25 42 .57 .08 .07 .07 .06 48 50 49 49 49 42 41 47 46 065. 4.8 2.6 1.6 1.8 0.9 .20 733 138 .66 .04 .05 .06 .04 71 70 67 68 57 56 49 71 52 066. 2.5 1.6 0.8 0.9 -0.5 .05 3348 35 .48 .08 .07 .07 .07 51 54 37 50 44 45 79 46 40 067. 1.7 1.2 0.7 0.7 - 1.4 .00 NA 26 .58 .10 .09 .07 .07 45 47 36 46 35 42 43 47 068. 3.9 2.3 1.1 1.6 - 0.6 .20 NA 57 .53 .08 .06 .07 .06 64 65 49 64 43 56 51 44 069. 1.8 1.0 1.1 0.7 0.8 .00 800 70 .66 .09 .09 .09 .07 46 44 50 47 56 42 50 54 52 070. 1.1 0.8 1.2 0.4 - 1.0 .13 NA 31 .69 .11 .10 .11 .06 40 41 54 41 39 51 45 54 071. 1.6 1.0 1.0 0.6 NA .00 56 20 .55 .09 .10 .11 .05 44 44 46 44 42 41 42 45 072. 2.3 1.4 1.5 1.0 -0.6 .22 92 21 .61 .09 .08 .09 .06 50 50 63 52 42 58 41 42 49 073. 1.3 0.6 1.5 0.4 -0.4 .00 NA 19 .56 .10 .11 .10 .05 42 39 63 40 45 42 42 46 074. 2.7 1.4 1.8 1.1 0.4 .15 137 75 .65 .08 .08 .05 .06 54 51 76 54 52 53 42 56 52 075. 0.6 0.3 0.9 0.3 -0.2 .00 96 13 .46 .10 .09 .12 .05 35 34 43 39 47 42 41 40 39 076. 1.9 1.1 1.1 0.7 NA .00 NA 34 .77 .11 .10 .12 .06 46 47 50 46 42 45 59 077. 4.8 2.6 1.6 1.8 2.0 .28 1011 121 .94 .04 .05' .06 .04 72 70 69 68 68 62 52 67 70 078. 1.8 1.3 1.1 0.7 -0.3 .06 171 17 .59 .13 .11 .08 .07 45 49 49 46 45 46 42 41 47 079. 2.5 1.5 1.3 1.0 -0.5 .17 1361 58 .75 .09 .08 .08 .06 52 53 56 52 44 54 56 51 58 080. 2.2 1.2 1.1 0.9 1.6 .17 760 62 .62 .08 .08 .07 .06 49 48 48 50 64 54 49 52 50 NOTE: On the f irst line of data for every program, raw values for each measure are reported; on the second line values are reported in standardized form, with mean = 50 and standard deviation = 10. "NA" indicates that the value for a measure is not available.

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62 TABLE 4.1 Program Measures (Raw and Standardized Values) in Economics Character istics of Prog Prouram Size Prouram Graduates No. University -. Department/Academic Unit (01) (02) (03) (04) (05) (06) (07) 081. Tulane University 11 14 16 .47 5.2 .94 .59 Economics 37 40 38 74 67 65 73 082. Utah, University of-Salt Lake City 21 23 60 .10 6.8 .70 .20 Economics 48 44 48 40 54 42 46 083. Vanderbilt University 23 39 49 .22 7.6 .75 .11 Economics and Business Administration 50 49 46 51 48 47 40 084. Virginia Polytechnic Institute & State Univ 15 46 50 .16 5.7 .79 .35 Economics 42 52 46 46 63 51 56 085. Virginia, University of 30 34 60 .42 7.5 .93 .40 Economics 57 48 48 69 48 64 60 086. Washington State University-Pullman 19 21 37 .26 8.5 .91 .39 Economics 46 43 43 55 40 63 59 087. Washington University-Saint Louis 20 46 53 .44 7.4 .87 .31 Economics 47 52 47 70 49 58 54 088. Washington, University of-Seattle 30 31 57 .29 7.3 .79 .32 Economics 57 47 48 57 50 51 54 089. Wayne State University 21 23 25 .25 7.8 .60 .08 Economics 48 44 40 54 45 33 38 090. West Virginia University 24 18 72 .15 7.3 .85 .15 Business and Economics 51 42 51 45 50 5 7 43 091. Wisconsin, University of-Madison 45 126 172 .41 6.1 .86 .35 Economics 72 81 73 68 60 58 56 092. Wisconsin, University of-Milwaukee 17 13 24 .08 8.3 .64 .14 Economics 44 40 40 3 8 42 3 7 42 093. Yale University 51 99 147 .21 6.2 .90 .41 Economics 78 71 68 50 59 62 60 * indicates program was initiated since 1970. NOTE: On the f irst line of data for every program, raw values for each measure are reported; on the second line values are reported in standardized form, with mean = 50 and standard deviation = 10. "NA" indicates that the value for a measure is not available.

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TABLE 4.1 Program Measures (Raw and Prog No. (08) 081. 1.8 45 082. 1.4 42 083. 2.4 51 084. 2.9 55 085. 3.0 56 086. 1.0 39 087. 2.7 53 088. 2.9 55 089. 1.8 46 090. 1.1 39 091. 4.1 65 092. 1.4 43 093. 4.7 71 Survey Results I) (09) (10) 1.0 1.3 45 58 0.8 1.2 42 51 1.4 1.0 51 45 1.6 1.3 55 55 1.7 1.4 56 59 0.6 1.3 38 58 1.6 1.0 54 44 1.8 1.3 57 56 1.1 1.1 47 49 0.7 1.0 41 47 2.3 66 0.8 41 2.5 68 1.5 63 1.2 53 0.9 43 University Library (11) (12) 0.8 -1 .0 48 39 0.4 -0.6 40 43 0.9 -0.7 51 42 1.4 -0.0 59 48 1.2 0.7 57 56 0.3 38 1.1 55 1.2 56 0.8 49 0.4 40 1.8 67 0.6 44 1.8 69 0.3 46 0.4 45 1.5 63 0.4 45 NA 1.6 64 NA 2.1 69 63 ' Standardized Values) in Economics Research SuPPOr t (13) (14) 09 NA 48 .00 42 .04 45 .47 76 .17 54 NA NA 829 50 263 43 .11 49 .10 49 .10 248 49 43 .00 190 42 43 .04 714 45 49 51 41 NA .36 3388 68 80 .06 32 46 41 .33 1245 66 55 26 43 34 45 78 56 27 44 30 44 .53 43 .70 55 .73 57 .48 40 .33 31 142 .80 72 61 32 .59 45 47 145 .65 73 51 Published Survey Ratings Articles Standard Error (17) (18) (08) (09) (10) 21 .82 .11 .10 42 63 20 .43 .11 .09 42 37 58 .74 51 57 69 .73 54 57 83 .53 58 44 (11) .11 .07 .09 .05 .09 .08 .08 .06 .09 .08 .08 .06 .08 .06 .08 .06 .15 .13 .07 .07 .16 .05 .06 .06 .08 .07 .07 .06 .0 8 .06 tog .10 .11 .13 .09 .05 .05 .06 .07 .04 .10 .09 .08 .05 .0 5 .06 .06 .04 NOTE: On the f irst line of data for every program, raw values for each measure are reported; on the second line values are reported in standardized form, with mean = 50 and standard deviation = 10. "NA" indicates that the value for a measure is not available.

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64 TABLE 4.2 Summary Statistics Describing Each Program Measure--Economics Number of Programs Standard D E C I L E S Measure Evaluated Mean Deviation 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 Program Size 01 Raw Value 93 23 10 13 16 17 19 21 23 26 29 39 Std Value 93 SO 10 40 43 44 46 48 50 53 56 66 02 Raw Value 93 41 28 16 21 23 27 30 35 45 53 80 Std Value 93 50 10 41 43 44 45 46 48 52 54 64 03 Raw Value 93 68 45 23 33 42 50 57 61 70 96 134 Std Value 93 50 10 40 42 44 46 48 48 50 56 65 Program Graduates 04 Raw Value 91 .21 .11 .08 .12 .14 .16 .18 .21 .25 .28 .37 Std Value 91 50 10 38 42 44 45 47 50 54 56 65 05 Raw Value 91 7.3 1.2 9.1 8.5 7.8 7.3 7.0 6.9 6.6 6.3 5.8 Std Value 91 50 10 35 40 46 50 52 53 56 58 62 06 Raw Value 91 .78 .11 .62 .70 .73 .76 .79 .82 .84 .87 .91 Std Value 91 50 10 35 43 45 48 51 54 55 58 62 07 Raw Value 91 .26 .15 .08 .12 .17 .20 .23 .28 .34 .38 .42 Std Value 91 50 10 38 41 44 46 48 51 55 58 61 Survey Results 08 Raw Value 93 2.3 1.2 1.0 1.3 1.4 1.8 2.1 2.4 2.8 3.2 4.1 Std Value 93 50 10 39 42 42 46 48 51 54 58 65 09 Raw Value 93 1.3 .6 .6 .7 .9 1.1 1.2 1.4 1.6 1.9 2.3 Std Value 93 50 10 38 40 43 46 48 51 54 59 65 10 Raw Value 91 1.1 .3 .8 .9 1.0 1.0 1.1 1.1 1.2 1.4 1.5 Std Value 91 50 10 38 42 46 46 49 49 53 60 64 11 Raw Value 93 .9 .5 .3 .4 .5 .6 .8 .9 1.1 1.4 1.7 Std Value 93 50 10 39 41 43 45 48 50 54 60 66 University Library 12 Raw Value 75 .1 1.0 -1.1 -.6 -.5 -.4 -.1 .3 .7 .9 1.7 Std Value 75 50 10 38 43 44 45 48 52 55 57 65 Research Support 13 Raw Value 91 .11 .13 .00 .00 .00 .04 .06 .10 .15 .21 .29 Std Value 91 50 10 42 42 42 45 46 49 53 58 64 14 Raw Value 69 832 863 51 106 187 301 452 776 1063 1404 1800 Std Value 69 50 10 41 42 43 44 46 49 53 57 61 Publication Records 17 Raw Value 93 52 40 13 20 26 31 35 54 65 78 112 Std Value 93 50 10 40 42 43 45 46 50 53 56 65 18 Raw Value 91 .63 .15 .42 .50 .55 .59 .65 .69 .71 .75 .80 Std Value 91 50 10 36 41 45 47 51 54 55 58 61 NOTE: Standardized values reported in the preceding table have been computed from exact values of the mean and standard deviation and not the rounded values reported here.

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65 TABLE 4.3 Intercorrelations Among Program Measures on 93 Programs in Economics Measure 01 02 03 04 05 06 07 08 09 10 11 12 13 14 17 18 Program Size 01 .61 .53 .20 .17 .30 .23 .61 .58 .32 .55 .61 .39 .49 .79 .22 02 .63 .36 .29 .32 .33 .75 .74 .00 .71 .57 .54 .52 .76 .37 03 .05 -.06 .09 .07 .56 .50 .17 .59 .62 .38 .45 .47 .16 Program Graduates 04 .33 .43 .52 .42 .46 .03 .40 .15 .45 .11 .32 .21 05 .35 .62 .36 .42 .01 .35 .06 .39 .25 .32 .47 06 .59 .31 .34 -.03 .25 .38 .35 .18 .33 .24 07 .48 .53 -.01 .44 .25 .54 .27 .38 .34 Survey Results 08 .98 .35 .97 .67 .76 .44 .78 .47 09 .30 .93 .60 .76 .44 .75 .47 10 .36 .21 .31 -.05 .26 .12 11 .63 .78 .38 .72 .45 University Library 12 .45 .41 .67 .41 Research Support 13 14 Publication Records 17 18 .29 .60 .45 .54 .31 .54 NOTE: Since in computing correlation coefficients program data must be available for both of the measures being correlated, the actual number of programs on which each coefficient is based varies.

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66 5.0++ * + * + * * * + + + * + * + * + * * * * 4. 0++ + * + + + + * * + * * Measure + 3.0++ * * * 08 + + * + + * * + * * * + * ** * + * * * + * 2.0++ * * + + * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * + * * * 1.0++ * * * * r = .62 + * + * + * * . * * * * * O +/+++++++++++++/+++++++++++++/+++++++++++++/+++++++++++++/++++++++++ ~ ++/+++++++++++++/+++++++++++++/ 1 4 9 16 25 36 49 64 Measure 01 (square root scale) FIGURE 4.1 Mean rating of scholarly quality of faculty (measure 08) versus number of faculty members (measure 01)--93 programs in economics.

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67 3 . 0++ + + + 2.0++ Measure + 09 + 1. 0++ + * * * * * * ** * * * * ** * *** * * * * ** * * * * * * *** * * * * ** * * * * * * * ** * * * * * * * ** * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * r ~ .74 + * * * + + O. O +/++++++++/++++++++/++++++++/++++++++/++++++++/++++++++/++++++++/++++++++/++++++++/++++++++/++++++++/ 1 4 9 16 25 36 49 64 81 100 121 144 Measure 02 (square root scale) FIGURE 4.2 Mean rating of program effectiveness in educating research scholars/scientists (measure 09) versus number of graduates in last f ive years (measure 02) --93 programs in economics.

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68 TABLE 4.4 Characteristics of Survey Participants in Economics Respondents N % Field of Specialization Econometrics 17 9 Economics 155 84 Other/Unknown 13 7 Faculty Rank Professor 101 55 Associate Professor 52 28 Assistant Professor 32 17 Year of Highest Degree Pre-1950 7 4 1950-59 27 15 1960-69 68 37 Post-1969 82 44 Unknown 1 1 Evaluator Selection Nominated by Institution 167 90 Other 18 10 Survey Form With Faculty Names 169 91 Without Names 16 9 Total Evaluators 185 100

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69 x x x x x ~ X x ~ X _______y _____ __ 3.0 2.0 1.0 Mean Survey Rating (measure 08) FIGURE 4.3 Mean rating of scholarly quality of faculty in 93 programs in economics. NOTE: Programs are listed in sequence of mean rating, with the highest-rated program appearing at the top of the page. The broken lines (---) indicate a confidence interval of +1.5 standard errors around the reported mean (x) of each program.

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