TABLE B-1 Antioxidant Interventions and Improvements in Cognitive Function—A Summary of the Existing Literature

Antioxidant

Subjects

Duration of Study

Cognition

PBN

Gerbils

14 days

Improved spatial memory in radial arm maze

Blueberry spinach strawberry

19-month-old rats

8 weeks

Improved one-trial learning in the water maze

Improved vitamin E levels in the hippocampus

PBN vitamin E

24-month-old rats

4–5 months

Improved memory retention on spatial memory task

Improved learning of a spatial memory task

Strawberry spinach vitamin E

6-month-old rats

8 months

Enhanced retention in a spatial water maze task

PBN

24-month-old rats

9.5 months

Improved memory retention on spatial memory task

Faster acquisition of a one-way activate avoidance task

Improved learning of a spatial memory task

PBN

Senescence-accelerated mice

12 months

Significantly lengthened life span

Vitamin E

Rats receiving intraventricular Aβ

7 days

Reduced spatial memory impairments induced by Aβ

Vitamin E

Patients with Alzheimer's disease

2 years

Significantly delayed institutionalization

behavior and age-related brain oxidative status. Furthermore, in normal aging, reducing oxidative stress through the use of nutritional supplements including vitamin E is beneficial for cognition and immune system function (Fryer, 1998; Reidel and Jorissen, 1998; Blumberg and Halpner, 1999; Meydani et al., 1995; Perrig et al., 1997). Table B-1 summarizes the striking efficacy of antioxidant interventions.

Antioxidants can also significantly aid the human brain. Over 4 years ago, the inclusion of Vitamin E into a clinical trial of patients with mild to moderate Alzheimer's disease resulted in the finding that Vitamin E supple-



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