Miller, 1994; Sampson, 1977, 1988; Shweder and Bourne, 1984; Shweder and Sullivan, 1993; Triandis, 1989, 1995).
The mutually constructed relation between culture and the psyche is formed through human development. We are born into a culture with its own set of practices and meanings, laid out by generations of people who have created, carried, maintained, and altered them. To engage in culturally patterned relationships and practices and to become a mature, well-functioning adult in society, new members of the culture must come to coordinate their responses with their particular social milieu. That is, people must come to think, feel, and act with reference to local practices, relationships, institutions, and artifacts; to do so they must use the local cultural models, which consequently become an integral part of their psychological systems. Each person actively seeks to behave adaptively in the attendant cultural context, and, in the process, different persons develop their own unique set of response tendencies, cognitive orientations, emotional preparedness, and structure of goals and values. This perspective, then, encompasses both cross-cultural divergence in psychological functions and intracultural variation in them (see Culture and Psychology , special issue, 1998).
Notably, different individuals have different biological propensities, potentials, and temperamental inclinations. Furthermore, humans as a species have important biological propensities that have made cultural adaptation possible (Brown, 1991; Durham, 1991; Fiske et al., 1998). Yet virtually none of these biological propensities is likely to determine in full the nature of the cognitive, emotional, and motivational organizations the person develops in the course of becoming a mature adult. The psychological structures and processes are one's characteristic ways of "handling" and "living with" an assortment of cultural affordances. Thus, the ways in which any given biological propensities are appropriated for use in this or that psychological structure (e.g., how cardiovascular systems are implicated in coping with stress), the meanings assigned to such propensities (e.g., facial musculature as a spontaneous expression of emotion or as a social mask), and which temperamental inclinations (e.g., "extroversion" as marked by contraction of zygomatic muscles in infants) are valued, fostered, and reinforced or despised, inhibited, and suspended are all closely intertwined with the attendant cultural pattern. And as we shall see, there exists a distinct possibility that sociopsychological consequences of aging are also culturally mediated to some significant extent.
The preceding analysis conceptualizes culture as an assortment of cultural resources. These resources may be symbolic or material; personal, interpersonal, or institutional; relatively specific to concrete social settings or more generally encompassing the entire cultural group. Each individual is assumed to actively engage in cultural resources, which in turn have formative influences on his or her psychological processes. Hence, culture not only provides