Index

A

Adaptive processes, 2, 3, 10-11, 23-25, 26, 30-32, 34, 56

cultural, 220

glia, 16

mathematical models, 47-48

neural network models, 16

technological aids, general, 5, 11, 29-30, 35, 63, 166-188,

see Technological factors for specific subcategories

theory, 47

Adenosine monophosphate, see AMP

Affect, see Attitudes;

Emotion

African Americans, 26, 27, 33, 192, 194

Alcohol use, 190-191, 198

Alzheimer's disease, 2, 14, 15

anti-inflammatory drugs, 124

CREB levels, 118

genetic factors, 15, 133

hippocampus, 84-85, 89, 91, 92

homeostatic processes, 115, 116-117, 120, 122, 123, 125, 126, 129-130

neural circuits, 83, 84-85, 87, 89, 91-93 101, 105-106

neuron death, 15, 89, 91, 92, 120, 122, 123

oxidative stress, 122, 125, 126, 129-131

transplantation strategies, 101

AMP, 118, 121

AMPA, 95, 96, 99

Amygdala, 45

Animal colonies, 5, 56-57, 63, 134-135

Animal research, 5, 8, 20, 134-135

behavioral interventions, 7, 20, 122

behaviorally impaired animals, 97-100

estrogen replacement therapy, 97, 100

GluR receptor binding, 95

homeostatic processes, 121, 122, 125, 134-135

imaging, 5, 51, 57, 62, 63

primates, nonhuman, 5, 51, 62, 238-250

neural circuits, 88, 90, 95, 97-100, 101-102, 104

neurogenesis, 104, 121

oxidative stress, 130

structural studies, 45, 46

synaptic processes, 88, 90, 97

transgenic models, 18, 20, 94, 99, 118, 134-135, 240, 244, 249

see also Primates, nonhuman

Anti-inflammatory agents, 117, 124

Antioxidants, 7-8, 18, 40, 117, 128-129, 130, 134, 191



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The Aging Mind: Opportunities in Cognitive Research Index A Adaptive processes, 2, 3, 10-11, 23-25, 26, 30-32, 34, 56 cultural, 220 glia, 16 mathematical models, 47-48 neural network models, 16 technological aids, general, 5, 11, 29-30, 35, 63, 166-188, see Technological factors for specific subcategories theory, 47 Adenosine monophosphate, see AMP Affect, see Attitudes; Emotion African Americans, 26, 27, 33, 192, 194 Alcohol use, 190-191, 198 Alzheimer's disease, 2, 14, 15 anti-inflammatory drugs, 124 CREB levels, 118 genetic factors, 15, 133 hippocampus, 84-85, 89, 91, 92 homeostatic processes, 115, 116-117, 120, 122, 123, 125, 126, 129-130 neural circuits, 83, 84-85, 87, 89, 91-93 101, 105-106 neuron death, 15, 89, 91, 92, 120, 122, 123 oxidative stress, 122, 125, 126, 129-131 transplantation strategies, 101 AMP, 118, 121 AMPA, 95, 96, 99 Amygdala, 45 Animal colonies, 5, 56-57, 63, 134-135 Animal research, 5, 8, 20, 134-135 behavioral interventions, 7, 20, 122 behaviorally impaired animals, 97-100 estrogen replacement therapy, 97, 100 GluR receptor binding, 95 homeostatic processes, 121, 122, 125, 134-135 imaging, 5, 51, 57, 62, 63 primates, nonhuman, 5, 51, 62, 238-250 neural circuits, 88, 90, 95, 97-100, 101-102, 104 neurogenesis, 104, 121 oxidative stress, 130 structural studies, 45, 46 synaptic processes, 88, 90, 97 transgenic models, 18, 20, 94, 99, 118, 134-135, 240, 244, 249 see also Primates, nonhuman Anti-inflammatory agents, 117, 124 Antioxidants, 7-8, 18, 40, 117, 128-129, 130, 134, 191

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The Aging Mind: Opportunities in Cognitive Research Apoptosis, 14, 15-17, 18, 19, 114, 119, 120, 122-131, 132 genetic factors, 123 glia, 16, 124-125 intervention strategies, 121; see also Antioxidants neural circuits and, 16, 114 plasticity and, 16, 114, 120, 123 see also Oxidative stress Artificial intelligence, 55, 56 Asians, see Cultural factors Assays, behavioral, 19 ATMs, see Automated teller machines Attention, 9, 33, 35, 190 cultural factors, 224, 225-226 driving motor vehicles, 175-176 nonneurological diseases and, 195, 196, 197, 201-202, 205 research recommendations, 56, 160 technological aids, 175-176, 179, 180 Attitudes, 230 decision making, (146.n1) depression, 43-44, 198 motivation, 25, 31, 34, 44, 152 toward technology, 29-30 see also Cultural factors; Emotion; Psychological factors Auditory perception, see Hearing Automated teller machines, 29, 170, 174, 175, 180 Automobiles, see Driving motor vehicles B Bayesian inference, 48 BDNF, see Brain-derived neurotrophic factor Behavioral factors, ix-x, 2, 4, 5, 13, 39-40 animals, behavioral interventions, 7, 20, 122 animals, behaviorally impaired, 97-100 assays, 19 conceptual framework, 9, 10 dynamic factor analysis, 49 homeostatic processes and, 121-122, 134, 135 interventions, 6-8, 13, 17, 20, 121-122, 134 environmental enrichment, 22-23, 104, 121-122, 134 physical exercise, 4, 7, 8, 37, 50, 104, 121, 134, 191, 194 life experiences, 1, 3, 5, 7, 8, 10, 13, 15, 18, 19, 22-23, 25-29, 34 models and, 49-50 multivariate analysis, 52-53 lifestyle, 59, 189, 190-191 alcohol use, 190-191, 198 physical exercise, 4, 7, 8, 37, 50, 104, 121, 134, 191, 194 smoking, 190, 198 stress, 49, 191, 194, 198 see also Diet memory, 86, 104 models, 47-50, 175-178 regional changes in the brain, 45-46 research recommendations, 3, 4, 5, 17-18, 19-20, 35, 51, 52, 55, 56, 61 structure of the mind, 5, 37, 45-47, 49-50, 51, 52-53 theory development, 46-47 see also Cultural factors; Psychological factors; Social factors Behavioral science, ix-x, 1, 8-11, 19 conceptual framework, 9-11 neuroscience and, 19, 22, 46 Biochemical processes, general, 7, 19 behavioral factors, 19, 85 free radicals, 15-16, 17, 114, 123, 125 homeostatic processes, 116, 130 hypertension, 199 interventions, 17-18; see also Drugs memory loss, 15, 83-85, 87, 88-89, 92-94, 97-100 neural circuits, 15, 84, 85, 87-89, 92-99, 101-102, 105 neuroanatomy and, 83-85, 95, 97-100 neurotoxicity, 117, 122, 123, 126, 190, 192 see also Apoptosis; Inflammation; Molecular processes; Oxidative stress; Receptor-mediated processes

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The Aging Mind: Opportunities in Cognitive Research Black persons, see African Americans Blood flow, 51, 193-194, 199, 238, 242, 243 Blood pressure, see Hypertension; Low blood pressure Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), 118, 119, 121 C Cardiovascular system, 42-43, 192, 193-203, 205 cognitive functioning, 194-195, 197-199, 200, 201-203 hormones, 43 hypertension, 42-43, 192, 193, 194-201, 203 intervention strategies, 44, 192, 198, 200, 202-203 low blood pressure, 200-201 myocardial infarction, 192, 202, 205 stroke, 6, 49, 62-63, 193, 194, 202 see also Hypertension; Low blood pressure; Stroke Caudate nucleus, 45 Cellular processes, 12-13, 19-20 cytokines, 119, 125, 131-134 loss, 2, 14-17; see Apoptosis stem cells, 102-103 T cells, 131-133 see also Genetic factors; Homeostasis; Neurons Cerebellum, 45 Chemical processes, see Biochemical processes Chip technology, 19 global positioning systems, 169 Cognition in context, 2, 3, 9-10, 13, 18, 21-36 see also Behavioral factors; Cultural factors; Social factors; Technological factors Cognitive functioning and performance, 1, 7, 23-24, 37 cardiovascular diseases, 194-195, 197-199, 200, 201-203 conceptual framework, 9 decision processes and judgment, 9, 29, 31-32, 144-165 education and training, 26-27 executive functions, 52, 190, 195, 196, 201-202, 206 health status, nonneurological, 27-28, 42-44, 189-207 (passim) hypertension, 194-195, 197-199, 200, 201-202, 203 life histories, variations, 38-39 low blood pressure, 200-201 problem-solving processes, 24, 25, 31, 146-151 research recommendations, 2, 3, 4, 5, 17-19, 30-36, 50-53 theory development, 46-47, 146 wisdom, 24, 39, 153-154 see also Cultural factors; Health status; Social factors; specific functions (e.g., Attention; Language abilities; Memory) Cognitive science, general, ix-x, 1, 9, 11, 12, 21, 55, 59 conceptual framework, 9-11 models and theories, 1, 8, 46-50 neuroscience and, 1, 55-56 social factors, 34-35 technological aids, 180-181 Collaboration across institutes, 5-6, 60, 62-63 Computer technology aids, 29, 48 automated teller machines, 29, 170, 174, 175, 180 databases, 57-61, 89, 94 Connectionist models, 48-49, 124 Control theory, 179 Cortical processes, 15, 45, 88, 116-117, 246-247 GABA, 84 life experiences and, 22 neural circuits, 84, 86, 88, 91, 92, 93, 95, 104 neurogenesis, 104 Cortisol, 191, 193

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The Aging Mind: Opportunities in Cognitive Research CREB, 118-119, 120, 121 Cross-sectional studies, 2, 38, 49, 57, 58, 59, 189 dynamic factor analysis, 49 hypertension, 194-195, 199, 200-201 Cultural factors, 2, 13, 21-22, 23, 27, 28, 33, 39-40, 218-237 adaptive processes, 220 Asians, 27, 221-225, 226-227, 228-229 230-231, 232 attention, 224, 225-226 concepts about aging across cultures, 21-22, 221-224 conceptual framework, 9, 10 cultural learning, 218 culturally bound theories, 225, 228-22 cultural psychology, 219-221, 225, 233 decision making, (146.n1) defined, 219 European background, 27, 223-224, 228-229, 230, 232-233 inference, means of, 224, 225-226, 229-230, 231, 232 interventions, 8, 13 language, contextual effects, 225-229, 232 research recommendations, 3, 32-35, 56, 231-233 see also Race/ethnicity; Social factors Cyclic AMP response element binding protein, see CREB Cytokines, 119, 125, 131-134 D Databases, 57-61 neural circuits, 89, 94 Decision processes, 31-32, 144-165 competence criteria, 156-160 conceptual framework, 9 cultural factors, (146.n1) financial, 144, 145, 147, 153, 155, 158 heuristic processing, 146-151 medical and surgical treatments, decisions regarding, 145, 147, 148 , 149-150, 156-157, 158-159 wisdom, 32, 39, 153-154 see also Judgment; Problem-solving processes Dementia, 11, 14, 92, 117, 120, 193 see also Alzheimer's disease Dendrites, 7, 15, 88, 95-96 Depression, 43-44, 198 Diabetes mellitus, 42, 192, 197, 198, 201, 202 Diet, 4, 39-40, 50, 191 antioxidants, 7-8, 18, 40, 117, 128-129, 130, 134, 191 caloric restriction studies, 133 hypertension, 194 nutritional supplements, 18, 129 vitamins, 117, 129-130, 191 Disabled persons, 5, 63 Diseases, see Alzheimer's disease; Cardiovascular system; Dementia; Diabetes mellitus; Health status; Hypertension; Parkinson's disease Displays, 170-173, 178 decision making, (146.n1) head-mounted, 170, 171-172 head-up, 171, 178 three-dimensional sound, 172-173 variable message signs, 172 DNA, 127, 130-131, 133 free radical damage, 125 TUNEL, 121, 130 Driving motor vehicles, 41, 145, 168-179 (passim) Drugs antihypertensive agents, 192, 198, 203 anti-inflammatory agents, 117, 124 estrogen replacement therapy (ERT), 32, 96-97, 100, 104, 244 nonprescription, 18 nutritional supplements, 18, 129 Dynamical systems theory, 47-48 Dynamic factor analysis, 49 E Education and training, 18, 26-27 educational attainment, 26, 28, 32-33, 56, 192, 196-197, 198, 200

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The Aging Mind: Opportunities in Cognitive Research structure of the mind and, 4, 26-27, 42 technological aids, professional education, 27, 167, 181 Electroencephalography, 45 Electron microscopy, 19, 88, 90 Electrophysical techniques, 17-18, 19, 44-45, 52, 61-62, 243, 248 neural circuits and memory, 84, 85, 89 Embryonic tissue transplantation, 100-103 Emotion, 30-31, 34, 151-156 decision processes and, 150, 151-156 depression, 43-44, 198 motivation, 25, 31, 34, 44, 152 see also Attitudes Endocrine system, 32, 59, 191 cardiovascular disease and, 43 corticosteroids, 104 estrogen replacement therapy (ERT), 32, 96-97, 100, 104, 244 Environmental enrichment, 22-23, 104, 121-122 Epidemiologic research, 18, 116, 195, 201, 205 see also Cross-sectional studies; Longitudinal studies Estrogen replacement therapy (ERT), 32, 96-97, 100, 104, 244 Ethnicity, see Race/ethnicity European cultural background, 27, 223-224, 228-229, 230, 232-233 Executive functions, 52, 190, 195, 196, 201-202, 205-206 Exercise, see Physical exercise Eyes, see Visual perception Eye trackers, 170 F FasL, 124, 125, 131-132 Financial decision processes, 144, 145, 147, 153, 155, 158 automated teller machines, 29, 170, 174, 175, 180 fMRI, see Magnetic resonance imaging Free radicals, 15-16, 17, 114, 123, 125 Functional magnetic resonance imaging, see Magnetic resonance imaging Funding, 1, 4, 5, 11, 54 animal colonies, 56-57, 134-135 caloric restriction studies, 133 clinical trials, 18-19 interdisciplinary research, 4, 36, 55-56, 62-63 G GABA (gamma-aminobutyric acid), 84 GDNF, 102 Gender differences, 32 hypertension, 194 Genetic factors, 9, 15, 33, 41, 123, 191-192 Alzheimer's disease, 15, 133 apoptosis, 123 DNA, 121, 125, 127, 130-131, 133 gene expression, 19, 84, 87, 92-93, 94, 95, 101-102, 130-131, 133, 244, 249 hypertension, 194, 195, 200, 201 intervention strategies, genetic engineering, 100-103, 249 learning, 99-100, 191 magnetic resonance imaging and, 244 memory, 191 mRNA, 94, 96-97, 118 neural circuits, 84, 87, 92-93, 94, 95, 99-100 RNA, 118, 127; see also ''mRNA" supra sensory-motor functions, 191 stem cells, 102-103 transcription, 118, 119, 120, 124 transduction, 41, 117-120 transgenic animal models, 18, 20, 94, 99, 118, 134-135, 240, 244, 249 Glia apoptosis, 16, 124-125 oxidative stress, 124-125 Global changes in the brain, 19, 240, 248 depression, 44 Global positioning systems, 169 Glutamate receptors (GluRs), 95-96, 98 Group membership, 25-29, 32-33 see also Cultural factors; Race/ethnicity; Socioeconomic status

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The Aging Mind: Opportunities in Cognitive Research H Head-mounted displays, 170, 171-172 Head-up displays, 171, 178 Health status, general, 27-28, 42-44, 189-217 alcohol use, 190-191, 198 attention effects of nonneurological diseases, 195, 196, 197, 201-202, 205 cardiovascular system, 42-43, 192, 193-203, 205 hypertension, 42-43, 192, 193, 194-201 low blood pressure, 200-201 myocardial infarction, 192, 202, 205 stroke, 6, 49, 62-63, 193, 194, 202 cognitive effects, 27-28, 42-44 diabetes, 42, 192, 197, 198, 201, 202 disabled persons, 5, 63 lifestyle and, 59, 189, 190-191; see also Diet; Physical exercise; Stress, pschological longitudinal studies, 189, 195-199 (passim), 201 medical and surgical treatments, 203, 205 decision processes regarding, 145, 147, 148, 149-150, 156-157, 158 -159 effect on cognitive abilities, 192-193 memory aids, 171-172, 173 multivariate analysis, 52 research recommendations, 52, 59-60 smoking, 190, 198 Hearing, 40-41, 42, 166 aids, 29, 42, 170, 172, 173 Heart attack, see Myocardial infarction Heuristic processing, 146-151 High blood pressure, see Hypertension Hippocampus, 41, 45 Alzheimer's disease, 84-85, 89, 91, 92 intervention strategies, 103-105 memory decrement, other, 84, 85, 86, 94-100 (passim) neurogenesis, 103-105 synaptic processes, 88, 90 Homeostasis, 15-17, 18, 114-143 Alzheimer's disease, 115, 116-117, 120, 122, 123, 125, 126, 129-130 animal research, 121, 122, 125, 134-135 behavioral factors, 121-122, 134, 135 biochemical processes, general, 116, 130 intervention strategies, 114, 116, 121-122, 134; see also Antioxidants molecular processes, general, 19, 114, 116, 135 neural circuits, 114, 134 neuroanatomy, 125, 130 plasticity, 16, 114, 118-119, 120, 123, 124, 134-135 receptor-mediated processes, 119-120, 123, 124, 125, 131-133 see also Apoptosis; Inflammation; Oxidative stress Hormones, see Endrocrine system Hypertension, 42-43, 192, 193, 194-201 antihypertensive agents, 192, 198, 203 biochemical processes, general, 199 cognitive functioning and performance, 42-43, 194-195, 197-199, 200 , 201-202, 203 cross-sectional studies, 194-195, 199, 200-201 diet and, 194 gender differences, 194 genetic factors, 194, 195, 200, 201 intelligence and, 195 intervention strategies, 192, 198, 200, 203 language abilities and, 195 learning abilities and, 195 longitudinal studies, 195-199 (passim), 201 memory and, 195, 201-202 sensory-motor functions and, 195, 196, 202 visual impairment, 195, 196, 202

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The Aging Mind: Opportunities in Cognitive Research I Imaging data, 5, 13, 17, 44-45, 56, 61-62, 204 animal research, 5, 51, 57, 62, 63 primates, nonhuman, 5, 51, 62, 238-250 magnetic resonance imaging, 5, 19, 44-45, 51, 59, 61-62, 238-250 memory, 46, 238-239, 248 Inference, 48, 224, 225-226, 229-230, 231, 232 Inflammation, 15-16, 17, 18, 19, 114, 116, 119, 122, 124-125 anti-inflammatory agents, 117, 124 Infrastructure, research, 5, 56-62 Intelligence, 23-24, 38, 206-207, 218, 233 artificial intelligence, 55, 56 hypertension and, 195 sensory-motor decline and, 40-41 Interactive interfaces, 175-177, 179 automated teller machines, 29, 170, 174, 175, 180 Interdisciplinary research, 4, 11, 13, 34-35, 54-56, 62-63 funding, 4, 36, 55-56, 62-63 neural circuits, 89, 97-100 nonneurological health status, 204, 205 sensory-motor functions, 42 technological aids, 35-36, 179-180, 181 Interfaces, 174-177, 179 Intervention strategies, 18, 19, 44, 85, 134-135, 192-193 anti-inflammatory agents, 117, 124 antioxidants, 7-8, 18, 40, 117, 128-129, 130, 134, 191 behavioral, 6-8, 13, 17, 20, 121-122, 134 environmental enrichment, 22-23, 104, 121-122, 134 physical exercise, 4, 7, 8, 37, 50, 104, 121, 134, 191, 194 biochemical, general, 17-18; see also Drugs cardiovascular disease, 44, 192, 198, 200, 202-203 cultural, 8, 13 environmental enrichment, 22-23, 104, 121-122 estrogen replacement therapy (ERT), 32, 96-97, 100, 104, 244 genetic engineering, 100-103, 249 hippocampus, 103-105 homeostatic processes, 114, 116, 121-122, 134; see also Antioxidants hypertension, 192, 198, 200, 203 initiation of brain aging and, 121-122, 134 magnetic resonance imaging in evaluation of, 244, 248-249 medical and surgical treatments, 203, 205 neural circuits, 17, 83, 85, 91, 100-105, 106 physical exercise, 4, 7, 8, 37, 50, 104, 121, 134, 191, 194 stem cells, 102-103 transplantation strategies, 100-103 see also Drugs; Technological factors J Judgment, 9, 29, 144-165 heuristic processing, 146-151 L Language abilities, 1, 8, 38, 45, 56 cultural factors, contextual effects, 225-229, 232 defined, 206 hearing, 40-41, 42, 166 aids, 29, 42, 170, 172, 173 hypertension, 195 magnetic resonance imaging, 238-239 regional impacts on brain, 26 speech, 46, 173, 206, 227-228 see also Hearing Learning processes, 31 conceptual framework of study at hand, 9 cultural learning, 218 decision processes, 159

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The Aging Mind: Opportunities in Cognitive Research defined, 206 depression and, 43-44 genetic factors, 99-100, 191 hypertension and, 195 multiple-cue probability learning, 159 spatial, 98 see also Education and training; Memory Life experience cognitive effects, 25-29, 38-40 life histories of cognitive functions, 38-39 neural health, 18 neurobiology of, 22-23, 34-35 see also Cultural factors; Health status; Race/ethnicity; Sensory-motor functions; Social factors Longitudinal studies, 2, 5, 53, 57, 58-61, 63 neural circuits, 98 nonneurological diseases, 189, 195-199 (passim), 201 Low blood pressure, 200-201 M Magnetic resonance imaging, 5, 19, 44-45, 51, 59, 61-62, 238-250 genetic factors, 244 intervention strategies, evaluation of, 244, 248-249 language abilities, 238-239 memory, 46, 238-239, 248 neurons, 5, 19, 44-45, 51, 59, 61-62, 238-250 neuropsychology, 242-243 neuroscience, general, 241-242, 248 sensory-motor functions, 238-239 visual perception, 238-239, 246-247, 248 Magnetoencephalography, 44-45 Markov models, 48 Mathematical models, 4, 47-50, 52, 54, 175 Measurement, 44-46, 51-52, 61 see also Imaging data; Performance indicators Medications, see Drugs Memory, 1, 8, 38, 52, 56 behavioral factors, 86, 104 biochemical factors, general, 15, 83-85, 87, 88-89, 92-94, 97-100 connectionist models, 48 cultural factors, contextual information, 225-226 decision processes, 150, 151-152, 157 defined, 206 depression and loss of, 43-44 electrophysical measurement of neural circuits, 84, 85, 89 genetic factors, 191 hippocampus, 84, 85, 86, 94-100 (passim) hypertension, 195, 201-202 magnetic resonance imaging, 46, 238-239, 248 medical treatment, memory aids, 171-172, 173 neural circuits, 15, 83-113 phases of brain aging, 115-117 receptor-mediated actions, 84, 85, 88, 94-97, 99 regional changes in the brain, 84-86, 89, 91-92 social factors, 24 synaptic processes, 84, 85, 88-89, 94, 95, 97, 98-99 technological aids, 27, 84, 85, 88-89, 94, 95, 97, 98-99, 169, 171 -172, 173, 179 theory of working, 46, 48 Microchip technology, see Chip technology Mind, use of the term, 9-10 Minority groups, see Race/ethnicity Mitochondria, 123, 128 Models and modeling, 1, 8, 18, 47-50, 59 adaptive processes, 16, 47-48 behavioral, 49-50, 175-178 cognitive science, general, 1, 8, 46-47 connectionist, 48-49, 124 interactive interfaces, 175-177, 179 Markov, 48, 176-177 mathematical, 4, 47-48, 52, 54, 175

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The Aging Mind: Opportunities in Cognitive Research neural circuits/networks, 48, 89 oxidative stress, 126, 127 person-environment fit, 24-25 sensory-motor functions, 41-42 sociocultural, 34 task structure, 2, 9, 10, 24, 31, 37, 181, 231-232 see also Animal research; Theoretical issues Molecular processes, general, 12-13, 17, 19-20 homeostatic processes, 19, 114, 116, 135 neural circuits, 84, 88-89, 92 regional changes in the brain, 45-46 synaptic, 88-89, 90 see also Genetic factors; Receptor-mediated processes Monkeys, see Nonhuman primates Motor functions, see Sensory-motor functions Motor vehicles, see Driving motor vehicles mRNA, 94, 96-97, 118 Multidisciplinary research, see Interdisciplinary research Multiple-cue probability learning, 159 Multivariate analysis, 4, 52-53 Myocardial infarction, 192, 202, 205 N National Center for Complementary and Alternative Medicine, 19 National Eye Institute, 6, 62-63 National Institute of Mental Health, 6, 62-63 National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke, 6, 62-63 National Institute on Aging, ix, 1 cognition in context, 3, 30-36 neural health, 2-3, 17-19, 135 research recommendations for, 2-6, 17-19, 30-36, 50-53, 54-63, 135 structure of the aging mind, 3-4, 50-53 technological aids, 26 National Science Foundation, 36, 181 N-dimethyl-D-aspartate, see NMDA Nerve growth factor (NGF), 7, 101 Neural circuits Alzheimer's disease, 83, 84-85, 87, 89, 91-93, 101, 105-106 animal research, 88, 90, 95, 97-100, 101-102, 104 apoptosis, 16, 114 biochemical processes, general, 15, 84, 53, 87-89, 92-99, 101-102 , 105 cortex, 84, 86, 88, 91, 92, 93, 95, 104 databases, 89, 94 electrophysical measurements, 84, 85, 89 genetic factors, 84, 87, 92-93, 94, 95, 99-100 homeostatic processes, 114, 134 interdisciplinary research, 89, 97-100 intervention strategies, 17, 83, 85, 91, 100-105, 106 longitudinal studies, 98 memory, 15, 83-113 models, 48, 89 molecular processes, general, 84, 88-89, 92 neuroanatomy and, 83-89, 92, 94, 95, 96, 97-100, 105 primates, nonhuman, 62, 88, 95, 96, 97, 100, 101, 104 technological factors, 84, 85, 89 see also Neural networks; Synaptic processes Neural health and neural functioning, 2-3, 12-13, 14-20 conceptual framework, 9 indicators, 17-18, 19, 23-24, 30-31, 41, 46-47 interventions, 18-19 research recommendations, 2-3, 12-13, 59, 135 Neural networks, 15, 17, 124, 134 apoptosis, 16 interventions, 2-3, 18-19 models, 48, 116 see also Neural circuits

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The Aging Mind: Opportunities in Cognitive Research Neuroanatomy, 14, 17-18, 19 biochemical processes and, 83-85, 95, 97-100 homeostatic processes, 125, 130 magnetic resonance imaging, 240, 241, 243, 248-249 neural circuits, 83-89, 92, 94, 95, 96, 97-100, 105 see also Imaging; Neurons; Regional changes in the brain; specific regions Neurochemical processes, see Biochemical processes Neurodegeneration, 15-16 see also Apoptosis; inflammation; Neural circuits; Neural health and functioning; Oxidative stress Neurofibrillary tangle (NFT), 91-92, 93, 115, 116 Neurons, 2-3, 10, 12-13, 19-20, 41, 51-52, 84, 86-87, 97-98, 116-117 cytokines, 119, 125, 131-134 dendrites, 7, 15, 88, 95-96 embryonic, transplantation of, 100-103 environmental enrichment, 121-122 estrogen, impacts on plasticity, 32, 97 intracellular processes, 84, 87-88, 89, 91-92, 123, 128 loss of, 2, 14, 15, 17, 51, 86, 87-88, 89, 91-92, 105-106, 117-118 , 121-131; see also Apoptosis Alzheimer's disease, 15, 89, 91, 92, 120, 122, 123 magnetic resonance imaging, 5, 19, 44-45, 51, 59, 61-62, 238-250 neurogenesis, 7, 15, 17, 103-105, 121 regional changes in the brain, 45-46 stem cells therapy, 102-103 see also Synaptic processes Neuropsychology, 56, 99, 135, 205, 239, 242-243 magnetic resonance imaging, 242-243 testing methods, 45, 92, 190, 205-207 Neuroscience, general, ix-x, 8-11, 14-20 behavioral science and, 1, 19, 22, 46, 55-56 cognitive science and, 1, 55-56 conceptual framework, 9-11 education in, 56 high-resolution measures, 4, 19 magnetic resonance imagery of nonhuman primates, 241-242, 248 research recommendations, 2-6, 11-12, 17-19, 34-35, 54-63 (passim) social science and, 22, 34-35 structure of the mind, 3-4 technological aids, 180-181 Neurotoxicity, 117, 122, 123, 126, 190, 192 NFT, see Neurofibrillary tangles NMDA (N-dimethyl-D-aspartate), 90, 94-95, 96, 97, 99, 125 Nonhuman primates, 62, 88, 95, 96, 97, 100, 101, 104 Nonprescription drugs, 18 Nutrition, see Diet Nutritional supplements, 18, 129 vitamins, 117, 129-130, 191 O Oxidative stress, 18, 122, 123, 124-128 Alzheimer's disease, 122, 125, 126, 129-131 animal research, 130 antioxidants, 7-8, 18, 40, 117, 128-129, 130, 134, 191 models of, 126, 127 see also Antioxidants P Parkinson's disease, 87, 101 Performance, life activities, 9, 30-32 Performance indicators, 2, 17-18, 19, 23-24, 30-31, 41 theory development, 46-47 Personality, 2, 24, 59, 225 Personalized interfaces, 174-175 Pharmaceuticals, see Drugs Physical exercise, 4, 7, 8, 37, 50, 104, 121, 134, 191, 194 Pituitary hormones, 191

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The Aging Mind: Opportunities in Cognitive Research Plasticity, 2, 7, 10 apoptosis, 16, 114, 120, 123 CREB levels, 118-119, 120 estrogen, 32, 97 homeostatic processes, 16, 114, 118-119, 120, 123, 124, 134-135 life experiences and, 22 synaptic processes, 88 Positron emission tomography, 44-45 Presenilin, 123 Primates, nonhuman, 5, 23, 51, 57, 241 imaging techniques, 5, 51, 62, 238-250 neural circuits, 62, 88, 95, 96, 97, 100, 101, 104 Problem-solving processes, 31 adaptivity and, 24, 25 heuristic processing, 146-151 Programmed cell death, see Apoptosis Psychological factors cultural psychology, 219-221, 225, 233 depression, 43-44, 198 emotion, general, 30-31, 34, 151-156 motivation, 25, 31, 34, 44, 152 neuropsychological testing, 45, 92, 190, 205-207 neuropsychology, general, 56, 99, 135, 205, 239, 242-243 personality, 2, 24, 59, 225 stress, 49, 191, 194, 198 see also Attitudes; Cultural factors; Social factors Psychomotor functions, see Sensory-motor functions R Race/ethnicity, 26, 27, 28, 33, 34, 58, 192, 198 African American, 26, 27, 33, 192, 194 Asian, 27, 221-225, 226-227, 228-229, 230-231, 232 European, 27, 223-224, 228-229, 230, 232-233 Receptor-mediated processes glutamate receptors (GluRs), 95-96, 98 homeostasis, 119-120, 123, 124, 125, 131-133 memory, 84, 85, 88, 94-97, 99 MRI data, 240, 243-244, 248-249 TNFR (tumor necrosis factor receptor), 132-133 Regional changes in the brain, 19, 23, 45-46 behavioral factors, 45-46 language factors, 26 memory loss, 84-86, 89, 91-92 see also specific regions RNA, 118, 127 see also mRNA S Senile plaques, 117, 122, 124 Sensory-motor functions, 1, 5, 8, 23, 25, 37, 38, 39, 40-42, 44, 52, 87, 116 conceptual framework, 10 defined, 206 driving motor vehicles, 41, 145, 168-179 (passim) genetic factors, 191 hearing, 40-41, 42, 166 aids, 29, 42, 170, 172, 173 hypertension, 195, 196, 202 intelligence and decline of, 40-41 magnetic resonance imaging, 238-239 models of, 41-42 multivariate analysis, 52 spatial perception, 98, 168-169, 172-173, 195, 202, 206, 246-247 speech, 46, 173, 206, 227-228 technological support for, 29-30, 35, 42, 167, 168-181 walking, 168-169 see also Visual perception Sex-based differences, see Gender differences Signal transduction, see Transduction Smoking, 190, 198 Social factors, 22, 25-26, 27, 31, 34-35, 144-145, 228-229 adaptive processes, 11, 24-25 conceptual framework, 9, 11, 13 decision making, (146.n1)

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The Aging Mind: Opportunities in Cognitive Research educational attainment, 26, 28, 32-33, 56, 192, 196-197, 198, 200 environmental enrichment, 22-23, 104, 121-122, 134 independence, 144-145, 149-150 memory, 24 nonneurological diseases, 192 neurogenesis, 104 research recommendations, 3, 32-35, 56, 57-58 technology and, 30 toxins, exposure to, 192 see also Cultural factors; Race/ethnicity Socioeconomic status, 25-26, 27, 56, 192, 196-197, 198, 204, 207 Spatial perception, 98, 168-169, 172-173, 195, 202, 206, 246-247 Speech, 46, 173, 206, 227-228 Stem cells, 102-103 Stress, psychological, 28, 49, 191, 194, 198 Stroke, 6, 49, 62-63, 193, 194, 202 Structural factors (mind), 3-4, 9, 13, 37-53 animal research, 45, 46 attention and, 40, 41, 42 behavioral factors, 5, 37, 45-47, 49-50, 51, 52-53 connectionist models, 48 education and, 4, 26, 42 high-resolution measures, 4, 19 research recommendations, 3-4, 19, 50-53, 56, 59 Synaptic processes, 16, 116-117, 125 animal research, 88, 90, 97 hippocampus, 88, 90 life experiences and, 22 loss of, 14 memory, 84, 88-89, 94, 95, 97, 98-99 molecular processes, general, 88-89, 90 plasticity, 88 synaptophysin, 98-99 see also Receptor-mediated processes Systems theory, 47-48 T Task structure, 2, 9, 10, 31, 37, 181, 231-232 ambiguous tasks, 24 T cells, 131-133 Technological factors, 2, 8, 13, 22, 29-30, 35-36, 63, 166-188 adaptive processes, general, 5, 11, 29-30, 35, 63, 166-188 attention, 175-176, 179, 180 automated teller machines, 29, 170, 174, 175, 180 computer aids, general, 29, 48 decision processes, 172 displays, (146.n1), 170-173, 178 driving motor vehicles, 168-179 (passim) electron microscopy, 19, 88, 90 electrophysical techniques, 17-18, 19, 44-45, 52, 61-62, 243, 248 hearing aids, 29, 42, 170, 172, 173 interfaces, 174-177, 179; see also "automated teller machines" supra Markov models, 48 memory aids, 27, 84, 85, 88-89, 94, 95, 97, 98-99, 169, 171-172, 173, 179 miniaturization, 168, 169, 170, 180 neural circuits and memory, 84, 85, 89 positron emission tomography, 44-45 professional training about aids, 27, 167, 181 research recommendations, 3, 12, 30, 35-36, 55, 177-178, 179-181 sensory-motor functions, general, 29-30, 35, 42, 167, 168-181 three-dimensional sound, 172-173 time perception, 154-155 visual perception, 166, 168-169, 170, 172-173, 177 walking, 168-169 see also Imaging data Theoretical issues, 1, 4, 8, 58 adaptive processes, 47 cognitive functions and performance, 46-47, 146 cognitive science, general, 1, 8, 46-47 conceptual framework, 9-11 control theory, 179 culturally bound theories, 225, 228-229 cultural psychology, 219-221, 225, 233 decision processes, 146-155 (passim)

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The Aging Mind: Opportunities in Cognitive Research dynamical systems theory, 47-48 memory, working, 46, 48 structure of the mind, 3-4, 9-11, 46-49 systems theory, 47-48 time perception, 154-155 see also Models and modeling Three-dimensional sound, 172-173 Thyroid hormones, 191 Time perception, 154-155 TNFR (tumor necrosis factor receptor), 132-133 Tobacco use, see Smoking Training, see Education and training Transcranial magnetic stimulation, 45 Transcription, 118, 119, 120, 124 Transduction, 84, 117-120 Transgenic animals, 18, 20, 94, 99, 118, 134-135, 240, 244, 249 Transplantation strategies, 100-103 Treatment, see Intervention strategies V Variable message signs, 172 Visual perception, 24-25, 40-41, 46, 206 hypertension, 195, 196, 202 magnetic resonance imaging, 238-239, 246-247, 248 spatial perception, 98, 168-169, 172-173, 195, 202, 206, 246-247 technological aids, 166, 168-169, 170, 172-173, 177 Vitamin B, 191 Vitamin C, 191 Vitamin E, 117, 129-130 Voice, see Speech W Walking, technological aids, 168-169 Wisdom, 24, 39, 153-154 see also Judgment