• Funding—mathematics, materials, and immunology.

  • Innovation process and industry—materials and immunology.

  • Infrastructure—materials and immunology.

COSEPUP finds that degree of overlap to be significant, partly because other recent National Academies reports9 on science and engineering have identified the importance of these same factors.

3.5 Future Relative Position of US Research

With respect to the likely future position of the United States in research relative to other countries, a more diverse set of factors was identified, largely by qualitative techniques:

  • Intellectual quality of researchers and ability to attract talented researchers-mathematics, materials, and immunology.

  • Ability to strengthen interdisciplinary research-mathematics and materials.

  • Maintenance of strong, research-based graduate education-mathematics, immunology, and materials.

  • Maintenance of a strong technological infrastructure-materials.

  • Cooperation among government, industrial, and academic sectors-materials.

  • Increased competition from Europe and other countries-immunology and materials.

  • Effect of the shift toward health-maintenance organizations on clinical research-immunology.

  • Adequate funding and other resources-mathematics, materials, and immunology.


Examples of these reports include Science, Technology, and the Federal Government: National Goals for a New Era, Evaluating Federal Research Programs: Research and the Government Performance and Results Act, and Allocating Federal Funds for Science and Technology.

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