integrity obviously have to come first, it is important that experimental payloads not be shut down when there are other options, just because shutting down is the easiest thing to do. NASA has historically demonstrated a certain rigidity about protocols for such things as the timing of missions, the manifesting of various experiments, and access to astronauts, and this rigidity has had a negative impact on investigators ' ability to carry out experiments. In the future, decision-making processes should be more flexible to accommodate the needs of biotechnology researchers. The research community would be reassured by seeing NASA place bioengineers and biological scientists with the appropriate appreciation of research goals and scientifically oriented reflex responses in high enough decision-making positions to ensure that research opportunities are optimally utilized.

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