Spacecraft Maximum Allowable Concentrations for Selected Airborne Contaminants

Volume 4

SUBCOMMITTEE ON SPACECRAFT MAXIMUM ALLOWABLE CONCENTRATIONS

COMMITTEE ON TOXICOLOGY

BOARD ON ENVIRONMENTAL STUDIES AND TOXICOLOGY

COMMISSION ON LIFE SCIENCES

NATIONAL RESEARCH COUNCIL

NATIONAL ACADEMY PRESS
WASHINGTON, D.C.



The National Academies | 500 Fifth St. N.W. | Washington, D.C. 20001
Copyright © National Academy of Sciences. All rights reserved.
Terms of Use and Privacy Statement



Below are the first 10 and last 10 pages of uncorrected machine-read text (when available) of this chapter, followed by the top 30 algorithmically extracted key phrases from the chapter as a whole.
Intended to provide our own search engines and external engines with highly rich, chapter-representative searchable text on the opening pages of each chapter. Because it is UNCORRECTED material, please consider the following text as a useful but insufficient proxy for the authoritative book pages.

Do not use for reproduction, copying, pasting, or reading; exclusively for search engines.

OCR for page R1
Spacecraft Maximum Allowable Concentrations for Selected Airborne Contaminants: Volume 4 Spacecraft Maximum Allowable Concentrations for Selected Airborne Contaminants Volume 4 SUBCOMMITTEE ON SPACECRAFT MAXIMUM ALLOWABLE CONCENTRATIONS COMMITTEE ON TOXICOLOGY BOARD ON ENVIRONMENTAL STUDIES AND TOXICOLOGY COMMISSION ON LIFE SCIENCES NATIONAL RESEARCH COUNCIL NATIONAL ACADEMY PRESS WASHINGTON, D.C.

OCR for page R1
Spacecraft Maximum Allowable Concentrations for Selected Airborne Contaminants: Volume 4 NATIONAL ACADEMY PRESS 2101 Constitution Ave., N.W. Washington, D.C. 20418 NOTICE: The project that is the subject of this report was approved by the Governing Board of the National Research Council, whose members are drawn from the councils of the National Academy of Sciences, the National Academy of Engineering, and the Institute of Medicine. The members of the committee responsible for the report were chosen for their special competences and with regard for appropriate balance. The project was supported by the National Aeronautics and Space Administration Grant No. NAGW-2239. Any opinions, findings, conclusions, or recommendations expressed in this publication are those of the author(s) and do not necessarily reflect the view of the organizations or agencies that provided support for this project. Library of Congress Catalog Card Number 95-73151 International Standard Book Number 0-309-06795-2 Additional copies of this report are available from: National Academy Press 2101 Constitution Ave., NW Box 285 Washington, DC 20055 800-624-6242 202-334-3313 (in the Washington metropolitan area) http://www.nap.edu Copyright 2000 by the National Academy of Sciences. All rights reserved. Printed in the United States of America

OCR for page R1
Spacecraft Maximum Allowable Concentrations for Selected Airborne Contaminants: Volume 4 THE NATIONAL ACADEMIES National Academy of Sciences National Academy of Engineering Institute of Medicine National Research Council The National Academy of Sciences is a private, nonprofit, self-perpetuating society of distinguished scholars engaged in scientific and engineering research, dedicated to the furtherance of science and technology and to their use for the general welfare. Upon the authority of the charter granted to it by the Congress in 1863, the Academy has a mandate that requires it to advise the federal government on scientific and technical matters. Dr. Bruce M. Alberts is president of the National Academy of Sciences. The National Academy of Engineering was established in 1964, under the charter of the National Academy of Sciences, as a parallel organization of outstanding engineers. It is autonomous in its administration and in the selection of its members, sharing with the National Academy of Sciences the responsibility for advising the federal government. The National Academy of Engineering also sponsors engineering programs aimed at meeting national needs, encourages education and research, and recognizes the superior achievements of engineers. Dr. William A. Wulf is president of the National Academy of Engineering. The Institute of Medicine was established in 1970 by the National Academy of Sciences to secure the services of eminent members of appropriate professions in the examination of policy matters pertaining to the health of the public. The Institute acts under the responsibility given to the National Academy of Sciences by its congressional charter to be an adviser to the federal government and, upon its own initiative, to identify issues of medical care, research, and education. Dr. Kenneth I. Shine is president of the Institute of Medicine. The National Research Council was organized by the National Academy of Sciences in 1916 to associate the broad community of science and technology with the Academy's purposes of furthering knowledge and advising the federal government. Functioning in accordance with general policies determined by the Academy, the Council has become the principal operating agency of both the National Academy of Sciences and the National Academy of Engineering in providing services to the government, the public, and the scientific and engineering communities. The Council is administered jointly by both Academies and the Institute of Medicine. Dr. Bruce M. Alberts and Dr. William A. Wulf are chairman and vice chairman, respectively, of the National Research Council.

OCR for page R1
Spacecraft Maximum Allowable Concentrations for Selected Airborne Contaminants: Volume 4 This page in the original is blank.

OCR for page R1
Spacecraft Maximum Allowable Concentrations for Selected Airborne Contaminants: Volume 4 Subcommittee on Spacecraft Maximum Allowable Concentrations DONALD E. GARDNER (Chair), Consultant, Raleigh, North Carolina JOSEPH V. BRADY, The Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, Maryland RICHARD J. BULL, Washington State University, Pullman, Washington GARY P. CARLSON, Purdue University, West Lafayette, Indiana CHARLES E. FEIGLEY, University of South Carolina, Columbia, South Carolina MARY E. GAULDEN, University of Texas, Southwestern Medical Center, Dallas, Texas WILLIAM E. HALPERIN, National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health, Cincinnati, Ohio E. MARSHALL JOHNSON, Thomas Jefferson Medical College, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania RALPH L. KODELL, National Center for Toxicological Research, Jefferson, Arkansas ROBERT SNYDER, Environmental and Occupational Health Sciences Institute, Piscataway, New Jersey BERNARD M. WAGNER, Bernard M. Wagner Associates, Millburn, New Jersey G. DONALD WHEDON, Consultant, Clearwater Beach, Florida GAROLD S. YOST, University of Utah, Salt Lake City, Utah Staff LEE R. PAULSON, Project Director SUSAN N.J. PANG, Program Officer RUTH E. CROSSGROVE, Editor LUCY V. FUSCO, Project Assistant Sponsor: National Aeronautics and Space Administration

OCR for page R1
Spacecraft Maximum Allowable Concentrations for Selected Airborne Contaminants: Volume 4 This page in the original is blank.

OCR for page R1
Spacecraft Maximum Allowable Concentrations for Selected Airborne Contaminants: Volume 4 Committee on Toxicology BAILUS WALKER, JR. (Chair), Howard University Medical Center, Washington, D.C. MELVIN E. ANDERSEN, Colorado State University, Denver, Colorado GERMAINE M. BUCK, State University of New York at Buffalo GARY P. CARLSON, Purdue University, West Lafayette, Indiana JACK H. DEAN, Sanofi Pharmaceuticals, Inc., Malverne, Pennsylvania ROBERT E. FORSTER II, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania PAUL M.D. FOSTER, Chemical Industry Institute of Toxicology, Research Triangle Park, North Carolina DAVID W. GAYLOR, U.S. Food and Drug Administration, Jefferson, Arkansas JUDITH A. GRAHAM, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Research Triangle Park, North Carolina SIDNEY GREEN, Howard University, Washington, D.C. WILLIAM E. HALPERIN, National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health, Cincinnati, Ohio CHARLES H. HOBBS, Lovelace Respiratory Research Institute and Lovelace Biomedical and Environmental Research Institute, Albuquerque, New Mexico FLORENCE K. KINOSHITA, Hercules Incorporated, Wilmington, Delaware MICHAEL J. KOSNETT, University of Colorado Health Sciences Center, Denver, Colorado MORTON LIPPMANN, New York University School of Medicine, Tuxedo, New York THOMAS E. MCKONE, University of California, Berkeley, California ERNEST E. MCCONNELL, ToxPath, Inc., Raleigh, North Carolina DAVID H. MOORE, Battelle Memorial Institute, Bel Air, Maryland GÜNTER OBERDÖRSTER, University of Rochester, Rochester, New York JOHN L. O'DONOGHUE, Eastman Kodak Company, Rochester, New York GEORGE M. RUSCH, AlliedSignal, Inc., Morristown, New Jersey MARY E. VORE, University of Kentucky, Lexington, Kentucky ANNETTA P. WATSON, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

OCR for page R1
Spacecraft Maximum Allowable Concentrations for Selected Airborne Contaminants: Volume 4 COT Staff KULBIR S. BAKSHI, Program Director SUSAN N.J. PANG, Program Officer ABIGAIL STACK, Program Officer RUTH E. CROSSGROVE, Publications Manager KATHRINE J. IVERSON, Manager, Toxicology Information Center LUCY V. FUSCO, Project Assistant LEAH PROBST, Project Assistant EVELYN SIMEON, Project Assistant

OCR for page R1
Spacecraft Maximum Allowable Concentrations for Selected Airborne Contaminants: Volume 4 Board on Environmental Studies and Toxicology GORDON ORIANS (Chair), University of Washington, Seattle, Washington DONALD MATTISON (Vice Chair), March of Dimes, White Plains, New York DAVID ALLEN, University of Texas, Austin, Texas INGRID C. BURKE, Colorado State University, Fort Collins, Colorado WILLIAM L. CHAMEIDES, Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta, Georgia JOHN DOULL, University of Kansas Medical Center, Kansas City, Kansas CHRISTOPHER B. FIELD, Carnegie Institute of Washington, Stanford, California JOHN GERHART, University of California, Berkeley, California J. PAUL GILMAN, Celera Genomics, Rockville, Maryland BRUCE D. HAMMOCK, University of California, Davis, California MARK HARWELL, University of Miami, Miami, Florida ROGENE HENDERSON, Lovelace Respiratory Research Institute, Albuquerque, New Mexico CAROL HENRY, Chemical Manufacturers Association, Arlington, Virginia BARBARA HULKA, University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, North Carolina JAMES F. KITCHELL, University of Wisconsin, Madison, Wisconsin DANIEL KREWSKI, University of Ottawa, Ottawa, Ontario JAMES A. MACMAHON, Utah State University, Logan, Utah MARIO J. MOLINA, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, Massachusetts CHARLES O'MELIA, Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, Maryland WILLEM F. PASSCHIER, Health Council of the Netherlands KIRK SMITH, University of California, Berkeley, California MARGARET STRAND, Oppenheimer Wolff Donnelly & Bayh, LLP, Washington, D.C. TERRY F. YOSIE, Chemical Manufacturers Association, Arlington, Virginia

OCR for page R1
Spacecraft Maximum Allowable Concentrations for Selected Airborne Contaminants: Volume 4 Senior BEST Staff JAMES J. REISA, Director DAVID J. POLICANSKY, Associate Director and Senior Program Director for Applied Ecology CAROL A. MACZKA, Senior Program Director for Toxicology and Risk Assessment RAYMOND A. WASSEL, Senior Program Director for Environmental Sciences and Engineering KULBIR BAKSHI, Program Director for Toxicology LEE R. PAULSON, Program Director for Resource Management ROBERTA WEDGE, Program Director for Risk Analysis

OCR for page R1
Spacecraft Maximum Allowable Concentrations for Selected Airborne Contaminants: Volume 4 Commission on Life Sciences MICHAEL T. CLEGG (Chair), University of California, Riverside, California PAUL BERG (Vice Chair), Stanford University, Stanford, California FREDERICK R. ANDERSON, Cadwalader, Wickersham & Taft, Washington, D.C. JOANNA BURGER, Rutgers University, Piscataway, New Jersey JAMES E. CLEAVER, University of California, San Francisco, California DAVID EISENBERG, University of California, Los Angeles, California JOHN EMMERSON, Fishers, Indiana NEAL FIRST, University of Wisconsin, Madison, Wisconsin DAVID J. GALAS, Keck Graduate Institute of Applied Life Science, Claremont, California DAVID V. GOEDDEL, Tularik, Inc., South San Francisco, California ARTURO GOMEZ-POMPA, University of California, Riverside, California COREY S. GOODMAN, University of California, Berkeley, California JON W. GORDON, Mount Sinai School of Medicine, New York, New York DAVID G. HOEL, Medical University of South Carolina, Charleston, South Carolina BARBARA S. HULKA, University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, North Carolina CYNTHIA KENYON, University of California, San Francisco, California BRUCE R. LEVIN, Emory University, Atlanta, Georgia DAVID LIVINGSTON, Dana-Farber Cancer Institute, Boston, Massachusetts DONALD R. MATTISON, March of Dimes, White Plains, New York ELLIOT M. MEYEROWITZ, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, California ROBERT T. PAINE, University of Washington, Seattle, Washington RONALD R. SEDEROFF, North Carolina State University, Raleigh, North Carolina ROBERT R. SOKAL, State University of New York, Stony Brook, New York CHARLES F. STEVENS, The Salk Institute, La Jolla, California SHIRLEY M. TILGHMAN, Princeton University, Princeton, New Jersey RAYMOND L. WHITE, University of Utah, Salt Lake City, Utah

OCR for page R1
Spacecraft Maximum Allowable Concentrations for Selected Airborne Contaminants: Volume 4 CLS Staff WARREN R. MUIR, Executive Director JACQUELINE K. PRINCE, Financial Officer BARBARA B. SMITH, Administrative Associate

OCR for page R1
Spacecraft Maximum Allowable Concentrations for Selected Airborne Contaminants: Volume 4 Other Reports of the Board on Environmental Studies and Toxicology Waste Incineration and Public Health (1999) Hormonally Active Agents in the Environment (1999) Research Priorities for Airborne Particulate Matter: II. Evaluating Research Progress and Updating the Portfolio (1999) Ozone-Forming Potential of Reformulated Gasoline (1999) Risk-Based Waste Classification in California (1999) Arsenic in Drinking Water (1999) Research Priorities for Airborne Particulate Matter: I. Immediate Priorities and a Long-Range Research Portfolio (1998) Brucellosis in the Greater Yellowstone Area (1998) The National Research Council's Committee on Toxicology: The First 50 Years (1997) Toxicologic Assessment of the Army's Zinc Cadmium Sulfide Dispersion Tests (1997) Carcinogens and Anticarcinogens in the Human Diet (1996) Upstream: Salmon and Society in the Pacific Northwest (1996) Science and the Endangered Species Act (1995) Wetlands: Characteristics and Boundaries (1995) Biologic Markers (5 reports, 1989-1995) Review of EPA's Environmental Monitoring and Assessment Program (3 reports, 1994-1995) Science and Judgment in Risk Assessment (1994) Ranking Hazardous Waste Sites for Remedial Action (1994) Pesticides in the Diets of Infants and Children (1993) Issues in Risk Assessment (1993) Setting Priorities for Land Conservation (1993) Protecting Visibility in National Parks and Wilderness Areas (1993) Dolphins and the Tuna Industry (1992) Hazardous Materials on the Public Lands (1992) Science and the National Parks (1992) Animals as Sentinels of Environmental Health Hazards (1991) Assessment of the U.S. Outer Continental Shelf Environmental Studies Program, Volumes I-IV (1991-1993) Human Exposure Assessment for Airborne Pollutants (1991) Monitoring Human Tissues for Toxic Substances (1991) Rethinking the Ozone Problem in Urban and Regional Air Pollution (1991) Decline of the Sea Turtles (1990) Copies of these reports may be ordered from the National Academy Press (800) 624-6242 or (202) 334-3313 www.nap.edu

OCR for page R1
Spacecraft Maximum Allowable Concentrations for Selected Airborne Contaminants: Volume 4 This page in the original is blank.

OCR for page R1
Spacecraft Maximum Allowable Concentrations for Selected Airborne Contaminants: Volume 4 Preface The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) is aware of the potential toxicological hazards to crew members that might be associated with prolonged spacecraft missions. Despite major engineering advances in controlling the atmosphere within spacecraft, some contamination of the air appears inevitable. NASA has measured numerous airborne contaminants during space missions. As the missions increase in duration and complexity, ensuring the health and well-being of astronauts traveling and working in this unique environment becomes increasingly difficult. As part of its efforts to promote safe conditions aboard spacecraft, NASA requested the National Research Council (NRC) to develop guidelines for establishing spacecraft maximum allowable concentrations (SMACs) for contaminants, and to review SMACs for various spacecraft contaminants to determine whether NASA's recommended exposure limits are consistent with the guidelines recommended by the subcommittee. In response to this request, the NRC first developed criteria and methods for preparing SMACs for spacecraft contaminants, published in its 1992 report Guidelines for Developing Spacecraft Maximum Allowable Concentrations for Space Station Contaminants. Since then, the NRC's Subcommittee on Spacecraft Maximum Allowable Concentrations has been reviewing NASA's documentation of chemical-specific SMACs. This report is the fourth volume in the series Spacecraft Maximum Allowable Concentrations for Space Station Contaminants. The first volume was published in 1994 and the second and third in 1996. This report has been reviewed in draft form by individuals chosen for their technical expertise and diverse perspectives in accordance with procedures approved by the NRC's Report Review Committee for reviewing NRC and Institute of Medicine reports. The purpose of that independent review was to provide candid and critical comments to assist the NRC in making the published report as sound as possible and to ensure that the report meets institutional standards for objectivity, evidence, and responsiveness to the study charge. The review comments and draft manuscript remain confidential to

OCR for page R1
Spacecraft Maximum Allowable Concentrations for Selected Airborne Contaminants: Volume 4 protect the integrity of the deliberative process. We wish to thank the following individuals, who are neither officials nor employees of the NRC, for their participation in the review of this report: Rogene Henderson, Lovelace Respiratory Research Institute; Loren Koller, Oregon State University; and George Rusch, AlliedSignal, Inc. The individuals listed above have provided many constructive comments and suggestions. It must be emphasized, however, that responsibility for the final content of this report rests entirely with the authoring committee and the NRC. The subcommittee gratefully acknowledges the valuable assistance provided by the following personnel from NASA and its contractors: John James, Martin Coleman, Jay Perry, Kenneth Mitchell (all from NASA), King Lit Wong (U.S. Department of Commerce, Patent and Trademark Office), Hector Garcia, Chiu Wing Lam, and Ragupathy Ramanathan (all from Wyle Laboratories). Lucy Fusco was the senior project assistant. Ruth Crossgrove edited the report. The subcommittee particularly acknowledges Lee Paulson, project director for the subcommittee, and Susan Pang, program officer, for bringing the report to completion. Donald E. Gardner, Chair Subcommittee on Spacecraft Maximum Allowable Concentrations Bailus Walker, Chair Committee on Toxicology

OCR for page R1
Spacecraft Maximum Allowable Concentrations for Selected Airborne Contaminants: Volume 4 Contents     SPACECRAFT MAXIMUM ALLOWABLE CONCENTRATIONS FOR SELECTED AIRBORNE CONTAMINANTS: INTRODUCTION   1     Summary of Report on Guidelines for Developing SMACS   3     Review of SMAC Reports   4     References   6 APPENDIX A   GUIDELINES FOR DEVELOPING SPACECRAFT MAXIMUM ALLOWABLE CONCENTRATIONS FOR SPACE STATION CONTAMINANTS: EXECUTIVE SUMMARY   9 APPENDIX B   REPORTS ON SPACECRAFT MAXIMUM ALLOWABLE CONCENTRATIONS FOR SELECTED AIRBORNE CONTAMINANTS   15     B1 Actone   17     B2 C3 to C8 Aliphatic Saturated Aldehydes   42     B3 Hydrogen Chloride   60     B4 Isoprene   89     B5 Methylhydrazine   119     B6 Perfluoropropane and Other Aliphatic Perfluoroalkanes   137     B7 Polydimethylcyclosiloxanes   151     B8 Dichlorofluoromethane (Freon 21)   175     B9 Chlorodifluoromethane (Freon 22)   190     B10 Trichlorofluoromethane (Freon 11)   211     B11 Dichlorodifluoromethane (Freon 12)   227     B12 4-Methyl-2-Pentanone   240     B13 Chloroform   264     B14 Furan   307     B15 Hydrogen Cyanide   330

OCR for page R1
Spacecraft Maximum Allowable Concentrations for Selected Airborne Contaminants: Volume 4 This page in the original is blank.

OCR for page R1
Spacecraft Maximum Allowable Concentrations for Selected Airborne Contaminants: Volume 4 Spacecraft Maximum Allowable Concentrations for Selected Airborne Contaminants Volume 4

OCR for page R1
Spacecraft Maximum Allowable Concentrations for Selected Airborne Contaminants: Volume 4 This page in the original is blank.