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TESTS AND Teaching Quality: Interim Report TESTS AND Teaching Quality Interim Report Committee on Assessment and Teacher Quality Board on Testing and Assessment National Research Council NATIONAL ACADEMY PRESS Washington, DC
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TESTS AND Teaching Quality: Interim Report NATIONAL ACADEMY PRESS 2101 Constitution Avenue, NW Washington, DC 20418 NOTICE: The project that is the subject of this report was approved by the Governing Board of the National Research Council, whose members are drawn from the councils of the National Academy of Sciences, the National Academy of Engineering, and the Institute of Medicine. The members of the committee responsible for the report were chosen for their special competences and with regard for appropriate balance. The study was supported by U.S. Department of Education (award R215U990004). Any opinions, findings, conclusions, or recommendations expressed in this publication are those of the author(s) and do not necessarily reflect the view of the organizations or agencies that provided support for this project. International Standard Book Number 0-309-06946-7 Additional copies of this report are available from: National Academy Press 2101 Constitution Avenue, NW Washington, DC 20418 Call (800) 624-6242 or (202) 334-3313 (in the Washington metropolitan area). This report is also available online at http://www.nap.edu Suggested citation: National Research Council (2000) Tests and Teaching Quality: Interim Report. Committee on Assessment and Teaching Quality, Board on Testing and Assessment. Washington, DC: National Academy Press. Printed in the United States of America Copyright 2000 by the National Academy of Sciences. All rights reserved.
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TESTS AND Teaching Quality: Interim Report THE NATIONAL ACADEMIES National Academy of Sciences National Academy of Engineering Institute of Medicine National Research Council The National Academy of Sciences is a private, nonprofit, self-perpetuating society of distinguished scholars engaged in scientific and engineering research, dedicated to the furtherance of science and technology and to their use for the general welfare. Upon the authority of the charter granted to it by the Congress in 1863, the Academy has a mandate that requires it to advise the federal government on scientific and technical matters. Dr. Bruce M. Alberts is president of the National Academy of Sciences. The National Academy of Engineering was established in 1964, under the charter of the National Academy of Sciences, as a parallel organization of outstanding engineers. It is autonomous in its administration and in the selection of its members, sharing with the National Academy of Sciences the responsibility for advising the federal government. The National Academy of Engineering also sponsors engineering programs aimed at meeting national needs, encourages education and research, and recognizes the superior achievements of engineers. Dr. William A. Wulf is president of the National Academy of Engineering. The Institute of Medicine was established in 1970 by the National Academy of Sciences to secure the services of eminent members of appropriate professions in the examination of policy matters pertaining to the health of the public. The Institute acts under the responsibility given to the National Academy of Sciences by its congressional charter to be an adviser to the federal government and, upon its own initiative, to identify issues of medical care, research, and education. Dr. Kenneth I. Shine is president of the Institute of Medicine. The National Research Council was organized by the National Academy of Sciences in 1916 to associate the broad community of science and technology with the Academy's purposes of furthering knowledge and advising the federal government. Functioning in accordance with general policies determined by the Academy, the Council has become the principal operating agency of both the National Academy of Sciences and the National Academy of Engineering in providing services to the government, the public, and the scientific and engineering communities. The Council is administered jointly by both Academies and the Institute of Medicine. Dr. Bruce M. Alberts and Dr. William A. Wulf are chairman and vice chairman, respectively, of the National Research Council.
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TESTS AND Teaching Quality: Interim Report This page in the original is blank.
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TESTS AND Teaching Quality: Interim Report COMMITTEE ON ASSESSMENT AND TEACHER QUALITY DAVID Z. ROBINSON (Chair), Carnegie Corporation of New York ANDY BAUMGARTNER, William Robinson Center, Augusta, GA JOHN T. BRUER, James S. McDonnell Foundation, St. Louis, MO CARL A. GRANT, Department of Teacher Education, University of Wisconsin-Madison MILTON D. HAKEL, Department of Psychology, Bowling Green State University LINDA DARLING-HAMMOND, School of Education, Stanford University ABIGAIL L. HUGHES, Connecticut State Department of Education MARY M. KENNEDY, College of Education, Michigan State University STEPHEN P. KLEIN, RAND, Santa Monica, CA KATE MANSKI, Department of English, University of Illinois-Chicago C. FORD MORISHITA, Clackamas High School, Milwaukie, OR PAMELA A. MOSS, Department of Education, University of Michigan BARBARA STERRETT PLAKE, Buros Institute of Mental Measurements, University of Nebraska-Lincoln DAVID L. ROSE, Rose and Rose, Attorneys at Law, Washington, DC PORTIA HOLMES SHIELDS, Ofice of the President, Albany State University JAMES STIGLER, Psychology Department, University of California, Los Angeles KEN I. WOLPIN, Department of Economics, University of Pennsylvania ROBERT ROTHMAN, Study Director KAREN MITCHELL, Senior Program Officer KAELI KNOWLES, Program Officer DOROTHY MAJEWSKI, Senior Project Assistant
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TESTS AND Teaching Quality: Interim Report BOARD ON TESTING AND ASSESSMENT ROBERT L. LINN (Chair), School of Education, University of Colorado, Boulder CARL F. KAESTLE (Vice Chair), Department of Education, Brown University RICHARD C. ATKINSON, President, University of California PAUL J. BLACK, School of Education, King's College, London, England RICHARD P. DURÁN, Graduate School of Education, University of California, Santa Barbara CHRISTOPHER F. EDLEY, JR., Harvard Law School, Harvard University RONALD FERGUSON, John F. Kennedy School of Public Policy, Harvard University ROBERT M. HAUSER, Institute for Research on Poverty, University of Wisconsin PAUL W. HOLLAND, Graduate School of Education, University of California, Berkeley RICHARD M. JAEGER, Center for Educational Research and Evaluation, University of North Carolina BARBARA M. MEANS, SRI International, Menlo Park, CA LORRAINE MCDONNELL, Department of Political Science, University of California, Santa Barbara KENNETH PEARLMAN, Lucent Technologies, Inc., Warren, NJ ANDREW C. PORTER, Wisconsin Center for Education Research, University of Wisconsin, Madison CATHERINE E. SNOW, Graduate School of Education, Harvard University WILLIAM L. TAYLOR, Attorney at Law, Washington, DC WILLIAM T. TRENT, Associate Chancellor, University of Illinois, Champaign VICKI VANDAVEER, The Vandaveer Group, Inc., Houston, TX LAURESS L. WISE, Human Resources Research Organization, Alexandria, VA KENNETH I. WOLPIN, Department of Economics, University of Pennsylvania MICHAEL J. FEUER, Director VIOLA C. HOREK, Administrative Associate LISA ALSTON, Administrative Assistant
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TESTS AND Teaching Quality: Interim Report Acknowledgments This report benefited from the insights and support of a number of people, and the committee is grateful for their contributions. We want first of all to acknowledge our sponsors, who made the project possible and kept it going. At the U.S. Department of Education, Terry K. Dozier backed the project enthusiastically and made it a priority at the department. Thelma Leenhouts showed a continuing interest in the project and kept us apprised of events and publications that would assist us in our work. The committee was also aided greatly by individuals who participated in our meetings and helped us understand the complex issues involved in teacher licensure testing. Carolyn Maidon of the North Carolina Department of Public Instruction, Maureen Carvan of the Ohio Department of Education, Pat Glenn of the Illinois Department of Education, and Raymond Pecheone of the Connecticut State Department of Education provided information about their states' systems for licensing teachers, and Drew Gitomer of the Educational Testing Service, Richard Allan of National Evaluation Systems Inc., and Jean Miller of the Interstate New Teachers Assessment and Support Consortium helped us understand the role of testing organizations. At our third meeting, a panel of recent graduates from Albany State University—Joycelyn Hagans, Tesharra Starling, and VaShaun Harper —described for us their experience as test takers. Joan Baratz-Snowden of the American Federation of Teachers and Nesa Chappelle of the National Education Association discussed testing issues from the perspective of their memberships. The committee also commissioned several papers to provide a range of
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TESTS AND Teaching Quality: Interim Report perspectives on criteria for evaluating licensure systems. Linda Crocker of the University of Florida, Mary Hatwood Futrell of George Washington University, Dan Goldhaber of the Urban Institute, Richard Jaeger of the University of North Carolina-Greensboro, P. Richard Jeanneret of Jeanneret and Associates, and Diana Pullin of Boston University were generous in sharing their thoughts and research on the issues involved. Within the National Research Council, a number of individuals helped us keep the project moving forward. Barbara Boyle Torrey, executive director of the Commission on Behavioral and Social Sciences and Education, enthusiastically backed the project and lent us her wisdom and advice at key stages. Michael J. Feuer, director of the Board on Testing and Assessment, was a guiding force behind the project and provided substantive advice and moral support throughout the process. Eugenia Grohman's skillful editing was indispensible, and her knowledge and experience guided us through the NRC's report review process. The committee's staff worked extremely hard and skillfully to enable us to produce this report. Robert Rothman, Karen Mitchell, and Kaeli Knowles helped ensure that the meetings were informative and productive, and developed numerous drafts and revisions. Dorothy Majewski, the senior project assistant, handled the logistics of our work with dexterity and good humor. This report has been reviewed in draft form by individuals chosen for their diverse perspectives and technical expertise, in accordance with procedures approved by the NRC's Report Review Committee. The purpose of this independent review is to provide candid and critical comments that will assist the institution in making the published report as sound as possible and to ensure that the report meets institutional standards for objectivity, evidence, and responsiveness to the study charge. The review comments and draft manuscript remain confidential to protect the integrity of the deliberative process. We wish to thank the following individuals for their participation in the review of this report: Edward Haertel, School of Education, Stanford University; Robert Hauser, Center for Demography, University of Wisconsin-Madison; Henry M. Levin, Departments of Economics and Education, Teachers College, Columbia University; Robert L. Linn, School of Education, University of Colorado, Boulder; Duncan Luce, Institute for Mathematical Behavioral Science, University of California, Irvine; Carolyn Morse, Department of Chemistry, University of North Carolina; Richard Murnane, Graduate School of Education, Harvard University; Edward Rossiter, Newton North High School, Newton, MA; and Paul Sackett, Department of Psychology, University of Minnesota. Although these individuals provided many constructive comments and suggestions, responsibility for the final content of this report rests solely with the authoring committee and the institution. David Z. Robinson, Chair Committee on Assessment and Teacher Quality
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TESTS AND Teaching Quality: Interim Report Contents Executive Summary 1 Introduction 4 Current Licensure Testing 6 The Development and Quality of Licensure Tests 13 Disparate Impact 17 Conclusions 19 Appendix 21 References 29 Bibliography 31 Biographical Sketches 37
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TESTS AND Teaching Quality: Interim Report