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Nutrient Requirements of Beef Cattle: Seventh Revised Edition, 1996 Appendix

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Nutrient Requirements of Beef Cattle: Seventh Revised Edition, 1996 Nutrient Requirements of Beef Cattle Seventh Revised Edition, 1996 A User’s Guide for NRC Model Application National Research Council Board on Agriculture Committee on Animal Nutrition Subcommittee on Beef Cattle Nutrition SUBCOMMITTEE ON BEEF CATTLE NUTRITION JOCK G.BUCHANAN-SMITH, Chair, University of Guelph, Canada LARRY L.BERGER, University of Illinois CALVIN FERRELL, U.S. Department of Agriculture, Agricultural Research Service, Clay Center, Nebraska DANNY G.FOX, Cornell University MICHAEL GALYEAN, Clayton Livestock Research Center, Clayton, New Mexico DAVID P.HUTCHESON, Animal Agricultural Consulting, Inc., Amarillo, Texas TERRY J.KLOPFENSTEIN, University of Nebraska JERRY W.SPEARS, North Carolina State University This guide was prepared by Danny G.Fox, with the assistance of Michael C.Barry.

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Nutrient Requirements of Beef Cattle: Seventh Revised Edition, 1996 Table of Contents     Chapter 1.   Introduction   155      Tutorials,   155      Computer Programs,   155      Hardware and Software Requirements and Installation,   156      Program Operation and Use,   156      Main Menu,   157     Chapter 2.   Feedlot Case Study   158      Tutorial Lesson 1: Feedlot Case Study,   158      Describe Units and Levels,   158      Describe Animal,   159      Describe Management,   160      Describe Environment,   161      Describe Feed,   162      NRC Model Diet Evaluation,   164      Execute a Diet Evaluation with NRC Model Level 1,   164      Execute a Diet Evaluation with NRC Model Level 2,   165      Differences Between NRC Model Levels 1 and 2,   166      Predicting Responses to Alternative Feedlot Conditions,   169      Evaluation of the Feedlot Case Study Using the Table Generator,   170      Adjusters,   171     Chapter 3.   Cow-Calf Ranch Case Study   172      Tutorial Lesson 2: Cow-Calf Ranch Case Study,   172      Describe Units and Levels,   172      Describe Animal,   173      Describe Management,   175      Describe Environment,   176      Describe Feed,   176      NRC Model Diet Evaluation,   179      Execute a Diet Evaluation with NRC Model Level 1,   179      Execute a Diet Evaluation with NRC Model Level 2,   180      Differences Between NRC Model Levels 1 and 2,   181      Evaluating Cow Herd Requirements over the Reproductive Cycle using the Table Generators,   183      Application of the Table Generators for the Cow Herd,   183

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Nutrient Requirements of Beef Cattle: Seventh Revised Edition, 1996      Bred Heifers Tutorial,   183      Mature Cow Tutorial,   185     Chapter 4.   Guideline Diet Nutrient Density Requirement Tables   188      Comparisons with the 1984 NRC Tables,   189 Appendix Tables 1   Feed Library—Tabular Energy Values and Carbohydrate and Protein Fractions, Digestibility Rates, Amino Acids, Minerals, and Vitamins,   192 2   Cow Condition Score,   204 3   Condition Score Resulting from Various Rates of Gain,   204 4   Breed Maintenance Requirement Multipliers, Birth Weights, and Peak Milk Production,   204 5   Additive Codes and Adjustment Factors,   204 6   Digestion Rates (%/hr) of Grains,   205 7   Digestion Rates (%/hr) of Proteinaceous Feeds,   206 8   Digestion Rates (%/hr) of Forages,   206 9   Effective NDF Values for Feeds,   207 10   Post-ruminal Starch Digestibilities (%),   207 11   Predicted Biological Values of Feeds with Different Digestion and Passage Rates,   208 12   Predicting Peak Milk in Beef Cows,   208 13   Energy Reserves for Cows with Different Body Sizes and Condition Scores,   209 14   Maintenance Requirement Multipliers for Representative Environmental Conditions,   209 15   Diet Nutrient Densities for Growing and Finishing Cattle (1,000 lb at finishing),   210 16   Diet Nutrient Densities for Growing and Finishing Cattle (1,100 lb at finishing),   211 17   Diet Nutrient Densities for Growing and Finishing Cattle (1,200 lb at finishing),   212 18   Diet Nutrient Densities for Growing and Finishing Cattle (1,300 lb at finishing),   213 19   Diet Nutrient Densities for Growing and Finishing Cattle (1,400 lb at finishing),   214 20   Diet Nutrient Density Requirements of Pregnant Replacement Heifers,   215 21   Diet Nutrient Density Requirements of Beef Cows (1,000 lb mature weight),   216 22   Diet Nutrient Density Requirements of Beef Cows (1,200 lb mature weight),   217 23   Diet Nutrient Density Requirements of Beef Cows (1,400 lb mature weight),   218

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Nutrient Requirements of Beef Cattle: Seventh Revised Edition, 1996 1 Introduction A computer disk containing two stand-alone programs is provided as a companion to the National Research Council’s (NRC’s) Nutrient Requirements of Beef Cattle, Seventh Revised Edition 1996 to demonstrate how to use the NRC model Levels 1 and 2. The two computer programs include (1) a table generator program and (2) the NRC model program containing two levels of equations. These programs allow the user to apply the equations summarized in Chapter 10 of the report. (See the report’s Glossary for definitions of acronyms used.) An understanding of ruminant nutrition and knowledge of the underlying biological concepts presented in this report are essential for use of the models. The programs predict requirements and energy and protein allowable production from the dietary ingredients fed. All programs use the same cattle requirement equations, which can be used to compute requirements over wide variations in body sizes and cattle types, milk production levels, and environmental conditions. Rate of gain or energy reserves balance are predicted based on ME available for productive purposes after maintenance, growth, gestation, and milk production requirements have been satisfied. We have attempted to make the software accurate and user friendly. The programs were developed as a Lotus 1–2–3® spreadsheet. Baler® was used to protect the spreadsheet and develop the user interface. Program help screens provide guidelines for choosing inputs and in interpreting and applying outputs. Pop-up evaluator screens in the NRC model program interpret output and provide application recommendations. TUTORIALS The focus of this user’s guide is to demonstrate how to apply the model Levels 1 and 2. Tutorials provide a quick overview of the program applications. Examples are provided that allow the user to input data from an actual feedlot and cow-calf ranch, analyze the diets, and evaluate the results. The user is referred to the following chapters for detailed information on biological bases for equations and assumptions used in the software: maintenance, Chapter 1; growth and energy reserves, Chapter 3; pregnancy and lactation, Chapter 4; rumen fermentation and protein metabolism, Chapters 2 and 10; minerals, Chapter 5; dry matter intake, Chapter 7; feed analysis and feed library, Chapter 10; analysis of common feeds by commercial laboratories, Chapter 11; and a list of all equations, Chapter 10. COMPUTER PROGRAMS Tables This program allows the user to compute tables of nutrient requirements and diet nutrient density required over a feeding period indicated. It also allows a rapid determination of how well a diet meets the requirements of the group of cattle being fed that diet and whether modifications are needed. NRC Model This program contains two levels of solution for predicting energy and protein supply from actual rations, using a feed library (Appendix Table 1). Level 1 uses tabular NEm, NEg, and DIP values to compute energy and protein supply, microbial growth, and nitrogen requirements for fermentation. Level 2 predicts feed carbohydrate and protein ruminal degradation, microbial growth, and fermentation nitrogen requirements, and

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Nutrient Requirements of Beef Cattle: Seventh Revised Edition, 1996 escape of carbohydrate and protein to dynamically predict ME and MP derived from each feed fed, and amino acid balances. Feed Library (Appendix Table 1) A critical component of the NRC model program is the feed library developed from research data and the values in Table 11–1 of the report; Table 11–1 lists some of the same feeds and International Feed Numbers found in Appendix Table 1, and values correspond wherever possible. The feed library, Appendix Table 1, contains feed composition values needed to predict the supply of nutrients available to meet animal requirements in both model Levels 1 and 2. A detailed description of the feed library can be found in Chapter 10 of the report. Feeds can be added to the feed library, and any of the library composition values can be changed. The user should use actual values whenever possible. Appendix Table 1 differs from Table 11–1 of the report because of the additional carbohydrate and protein fractions needed for Level 2. When feeds are added to the library on the disk, use Appendix Tables 6 through 9 to assign digestion rates and effective NDF values. Because of the many variables involved and judgments that must be made in choosing inputs and interpreting outputs, the NRC makes no claim for the accuracy of this software and the user is solely responsible for risk of use. HARDWARE AND SOFTWARE REQUIREMENTS AND INSTALLATION This software is designed to operate on microcomputers that run MS-DOS. The NRC model requires the following hardware: an IBM personal computer or “compatible” running MS-DOS or PC-DOS Version 3.0 or later, at least one floppy-disk drive, at least one hard drive, and 640 KB random access memory (RAM). Additional memory (2MB), a hard disk, math co-processor, and printer are optional, but highly recommended. The NRC model requires the following software: PC-DOS or MS-DOS Version 3.0 or later, NRC disk. To install this software: Make a back-up copy of the original disk for safety and archival purposes, then use the back-up and store the original disk. Create a subdirectory on your hard drive to store the program files. For example, at the C:/ prompt, type MD NRC. Copy all the files from the backup copy of the distribution diskettes to that subdirectory. For example, at the C:/ prompt, type CD NRC, then type copy a:*.* (Enter) Type INSTALL. PROGRAM OPERATION AND USE Select the directory on your computer that contains the NRC files. If you installed the software on your C drive, you should be at the C:/NRC directory prompt. At the directory prompt, you may choose one of the three following options: To start the table generator program, type TABLES To start the NRC model program, type NRC To open the feed library, type FEEDS A “Welcome to the Software” screen will appear. Press any key to continue. To go from one program to the other, you must return to the NRC directory. After the program is loaded and the “Welcome to the Software” screen appears, press any key to continue. The main menu screen will appear. The program returns to this screen whenever the (ESC) key is pressed. This program contains a context-sensitive help system that is accessed by pressing the (F1) key when the cursor is on the input or output cell in question. Other “hot” keys have been defined and are shown below. Cell locations are shown above and to the left of each screen for reference. Key Description (F1) Access on-line help system (F6) Go to feed import screen (F7) Go to feed energy and protein values screen (F10) Go to feed amounts screen (F11) Go to detailed diet evaluation screen (ESC) Go to main menu

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Nutrient Requirements of Beef Cattle: Seventh Revised Edition, 1996 MAIN MENU “MAIN MENU” SCREEN 1996 Nutrient Requirements of Beef Cattle Describe Units and Levels Print Results Describe Animal   Describe Management View Feed Digestion Describe Environment View Requirements Describe Feed View Amino Acid Balances View Balance Screen View Mineral Balances   Save Inputs Quit Retrieve Inputs Press (F1) at any time for context sensitive help Press (ESC) at any time to escape to this screen Position the cursor over the appropriate option and press (ENTER) to select that option. Help is available for each option by pressing (F1) when the cursor is positioned on that option. The options are described below. Describe Units and Levels is used to name the diet, choose the grading system, solution level (Level 1 or Level 2), units (English or metric), and diet basis (dry matter or as fed). Describe Animal is used to describe the animal (type, age, sex, body weight, condition score, mature weight), and reproductive cycle (days pregnant, days in milk, lactation #, peak milk production, time of lactation peak, duration of lactation, milk composition, age @ puberty, calving interval, expected calf birth weight). Describe Management is used to describe feed additives used, grazing conditions, and to make adjustments to efficiency of use of ME and microbial yield. Describe Environment is used to describe environmental conditions (wind, temperature, hair coat condition). Describe Feed is used to bring in feeds from the feed library, view and change composition of feeds chosen from the feed library, and change amounts (actual consumption of each feed in the diet). View Balance Screen is used to view the supply-requirements balances of energy and protein for the animal, management, environment, and feed inputs, predicted performance, diet net energy, and protein concentrations. Quit is used to exit the program. Print Results is used to obtain a printout of this evaluation. View Feed Digestion is used to view each feed calculation from the rumen simulation in Level 2 (degradation and passage rates, carbohydrate and protein fraction amounts ruminally degraded and escaped, bacterial growth and nitrogen (N) balance, intestinal digestion, fecal output, predicted feed NE and MP values). View Requirements is used with both levels to view calculations of animal requirements by physiological function (maintenance, growth, lactation, pregnancy). View Amino Acid Balances is used to view each essential amino acid requirement, supply, balance (supply-requirement), and percent of requirement met. View Mineral Balances is used to view each mineral requirement, amounts supplied from the diet, balances, and percent in the diet. Save Inputs is used to save the inputs for this evaluation. Retrieve Inputs is used to retrieve inputs for previous evaluations saved ((I), (file get)) so they can be updated.

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Nutrient Requirements of Beef Cattle: Seventh Revised Edition, 1996 2 Feedlot Case Study TUTORIAL LESSON 1: FEEDLOT CASE STUDY Begin the tutorial by opening the NRC model program (at the NRC directory prompt, type NRC); select the Describe Units and Levels option on the main screen. Press (Enter) This case study is a 20,000 head capacity western Canada feedlot. Cattle are fed in open dirt lots surrounded by windbreaks. Typical pens contain 250 head. The basal ration is dry rolled barley and barley silage. The questions are as follows. Should the roughage level in the ration be lowered to increase energy intake? Should the barley silage be chopped finer, and is the barley grain rolled fine enough? Are feed “bypass” protein or protected amino acids needed? How can I adjust gain predictions for cattle type and weather conditions? Data from closeouts will be used to adjust the model so it predicts accurately for that feedlot, and then inputs will be changed to answer the questions. The data base is 1969 Hereford×Charolais crossbred steers fed in 8 pens in the fall with an initial weight of 837 lb and final weight of 1,284 lb with an average grade of Canadian AA. The cattle received an estrogenic implant and were fed an ionophore. The average weight during the feeding period was 1,060 lb, with an ADG of 3.48 and conversion of 6.98 lb DM/lb gain. The average diet DMI was 5 lb coarse chopped barley silage, 19 lb coarse rolled barley grain, and 0.3 lb minerals. Feed analysis available indicated the barley silage was 48.7% NDF with 65% estimated to be eNDF, 10.4% CP, 3% fat, and 8% ash; and barley grain was 19% NDF with 34% estimated to be eNDF, 13% CP, 2.1% fat, and 3% ash. Environmental conditions were 5 mph average wind on the cattle in the pens; the previous month’s average temperature was 40° F and average temperature during the feeding period was 30° F. Other inputs were average hide thickness, hair depth of 0.2 inch (typical of early summer-fall; 0.5 inch is typical of winter), and average hair coat condition is clean and dry. Describe Units and Levels “DESCRIBE UNITS AND LEVELS” SCREEN 1996 NRC Nutrient Requirements of Beef Cattle Describe Units and Levels Diet NRC Feedlot1 Grading System 2 Level 1 Tabular System   Units 1 English   Feed H2O 0 Dry Matter Main Menu Press (F1) at any time for context sensitive help Press (ESC) at any time to escape to the main menu Diet: Enter an identifying name for the particular diet being evaluated in cell C1024. Entry for the example is NRC feedlot1. (Enter) Grading System: In cell H1024 enter the grading system. Choices are 1 (USDA Standard or Canadian A, which are related to 25.2% body fat), 2 (USDA Select or Canadian AA, which are related to 26.8% body fat), and 3 (USDA Choice or Canadian AAA, which are related to 27.8% body fat). The program uses this grade to identify the standard reference weight. The standard reference weight is divided by the finished weight, and this result is multiplied by the actual weight. These calculations provide the weight used

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Nutrient Requirements of Beef Cattle: Seventh Revised Edition, 1996 in the equations that compute net energy and protein in the gain. (See Chapter 3 for the biological basis and validation of this method.) Entry for the example is 2. (Enter) Level: In cell C1026 enter either a 1 (uses tabular feed net energy and protein degradability values) or 2 (feed energy and absorbed protein values based on feed carbohydrate and protein fractions and their digestion rates). It is often practical to adjust the diet until balanced with Level 1, then evaluate it with Level 2 to get predicted feed net energy values and amino acid balances, based on actual feed analysis for carbohydrate and protein fractions. Entry for the example is 1 (will later be changed to 2 for further evaluation). (Enter) Units: In cell C1028 enter either a 0 for metric or 1 for English. Be sure all data are entered in the same units as chosen here. Value for the example is 1 (English). (Enter) Feed H20: In cell C1030 enter 0 (dry matter) or 1 (as fed). This is used to determine DMI from the feed amounts fed that is entered later. Value for the example is 0 (Dry Matter). (Enter) Context sensitive help ((F1)) is available to guide the user in selecting appropriate values to enter in these cells. After you are satisfied with the inputs for this section, press (Enter) to return to the main menu. Then select Describe Animal (Enter). Describe Animal “DESCRIBE ANIMAL” SCREEN Describe Animal Animal Type 1 Growing/Finishing Age 14 Months Sex 2 Steer Body Weight 1060 lb Condition Score 5 1=emaciated 9=very fat Mature Weight 1284 lb at 27% fat (slight marbling) Breeding System     2 2-way cross       1   Dam’s Breed     11 Hereford Sire’s Breed     6 Charolais       1         1   Next Press (F1) at any time for context sensitive help Press (ESC) at any time to escape to the main menu When entering values, press (Enter) twice to move to the next input cell and to cause chosen category to be displayed. Animal Type: In cell D1043 enter the correct code for the class of cattle. Choices are 1 (growing and finishing), 2 (lactating cow), 3 (dry cow), 4 (herd replacement heifer), 5 (breeding bull). This invokes the inputs and equations needed to compute requirements, predict DMI, and evaluate the diet for that class. The entry for this example is 1. (Enter) Animal Age: In cell D1044 enter the average age in months. This value influences expected DMI and tissue insulation. The entry for this example is 14. (Enter) Sex: In cell D1045 enter the code for the sex of the animal. Choices are 1 for a bull, 2 for a steer, 3 for a heifer, and 4 for a cow. A heifer is entered as a cow after calving the first time. The entry for this example is 2. (Enter) Body Weight: In cell D1046 enter the shrunk body weight that best represents the group being fed together. Body weight is a major determinant of DMI, maintenance, and growth requirements. The entry for this example is 1060. (Enter) Condition Score: In cell D1047 enter the average condition score of the cattle in the group (Appendix Table 2). See Chapters 1 and 3 for a detailed discussion of the 1 to 9 condition scoring system used and its biological basis. The choices are 1 through 9 (1=emaciated, 5=moderate, 9=very fat). Condition score is used to describe tissue insulation, the potential for compensatory growth in growing cattle, and energy reserves in cows. Appendix Table 3 gives estimates of the relationship between previous nutrition and body condition score in growing cattle. Entry for the example is 5. (Enter) Mature Weight: In cell D1048 enter the expected average weight at the grade chosen in the Units and Levels screen. For cows, replacement heifers, or breeding bulls, enter the expected mature weight at condition score 5. The weight that best corresponds to the cattle in question based on the user’s experience for the type of growing animal, implant strategy, and ration should be entered. A general guide is that the finishing weight should be reduced 50–75 lb if rations that contain more than 70% grain are fed continuously after weaning or if anabolic steroids are not used. Finishing weight should be increased 50–75 lb if animals are grown slowly or if they are implanted with estrogen in combination with trenbolone acetate. Entry for the example is 1284. (Enter)

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Nutrient Requirements of Beef Cattle: Seventh Revised Edition, 1996 APPENDIX TABLE 11 Predicted Biological Values of Feeds with Different Digestion and Passage Ratesa Item Unit Corn Sil 40% Grain Brome Hay Midbloom Alfalfa Hay Midbloom Corn Dry Grain 56 Corn HM Grain 56 Soybean Meal-49 Soybean Whole Soybean Whl Roast   @ Passage Rate of 2%/h DIP % CP 79 63 71 64 77 84 87 58 UIP % CP 21 37 29 36 23 16 13 42 TDN % DM 70 60 60 85 86 86 86 84 NEg Mcal/kg 1.13 0.79 0.78 1.59 1.63 1.62 1.64 1.57 MTPb g/kg 62 48 51 71 79 73 60 48   @ Passage Rate of 4%/h DIP % CP 75 58 63 52 72 75 81 46 UIP % CP 25 42 37 48 28 25 19 54 TDN % DM 65 53 57 82 85 85 85 84 NEg Mcal/kg 0.96 0.52 0.68 1.52 1.59 1.60 1.61 1.57 MTP g/kg 55 36 46 61 74 66 55 43   @ Passage Rate of 6%/h DIP % CP 72 54 58 45 68 68 76 38 UIP % CP 28 46 42 55 32 32 24 62 TDN % DM 62 49 56 80 83 84 84 84 NEg Mcal/kg 0.86 0.36 0.61 1.46 1.56 1.58 1.58 1.57 MTP g/kg 50 33 43 54 70 61 51 39   @ Passage Rate of 8%/h DIP % CP 69 51 54 39 65 63 72 33 UIP % CP 31 49 46 61 35 37 28 67 @ pH=6.5 TDN % DM 60 47 54 79 83 84 84 84 NEg Mcal/kg 0.79 0.26 0.57 1.42 1.53 1.57 1.57 1.56 MTP g/kg 46 30 41 48 66 57 48 36 @ pH=5.7c TDN % DM 52 36 49 78 82 83 82 84 NEg Mcal/kg 0.49 -0.25 0.36 1.39 1.50 1.55 1.51 1.58 MTP g/kg 21 10 20 27 38 33 27 21 aAll values are predicted by the Level 2 model. bMTP is microbial true protein yield, cMicrobial yield is reduced by 40% at pH 5.7. APPENDIX TABLE 12 Predicting Peak Milk in Beef Cowsa Peak Milk lb/day Mature Weight (lb) 6 12 18 24 30   Avg. expected 7 month male calf weight (lb) 880 398 444 477 — — 950 416 460 493 — — 1030 431 475 510 546 574 1100 449 491 526 561 590 1170 464 506 541 576 607 1250 477 521 557 590 623 1320 491 537 572 605 638 1400 504 550 587 620 656 1470 517 565 601 634 671 aFox et al., 1988.

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Nutrient Requirements of Beef Cattle: Seventh Revised Edition, 1996 APPENDIX TABLE 13 Energy Reserves for Cows with Different Body Sizes and Condition Scores Mature weight (lb) at body condition score 5 Body CS 800 900 1,000 1,100 1,200 1,300 1,400 1,500 1,600     Meal NE required or provided for each CSa,b 2 101 114 126 139 151 164 177 189 202 3 114 129 143 157 172 186 200 214 229 4 131 147 163 180 196 212 229 245 261 5 151 170 188 207 226 245 264 283 301 6 176 198 220 242 264 286 308 330 351 7 208 234 260 285 311 337 363 389 415 8 249 280 311 342 373 405 436 467 498 9 304 342 380 418 456 494 532 570 608 aRepresents the energy mobilized in moving to the next lower score, or required to move from the next lower score to this one. Each kg of SBW change contains 5.82 Mcal, and SBW at CS 1 through 9 are 76.5, 81.3, 86.7, 92.9, 100, 108.3, 118.1, 129.9, and 144.3% of CS 5 weight, respectively. APPENDIX TABLE 14 Maintenance Requirement Multipliers for Representative Environmental Conditionsa,b   Hair coat codec at 30° F Hair coat codec at 10° F Hair coat codec at -10° F 1 3 1 3 1 3 Beef cow wintering ration (.60 Mcal NEm/lb DM) Wind @ 1.0 mph Hide coded 1 1.19 1.19 1.29 1.68 1.58 2.07 2 1.19 1.19 1.29 1.55 1.41 1.92 3 1.19 1.19 1.29 1.45 1.39 1.79 Wind @ 10 mph 1 1.22 1.48 1.60 1.94 1.98 2.39 2 1.19 1.41 1.47 1.84 1.82 2.27 3 1.19 1.34 1.36 1.75 1.69 2.17 Typical calf wintering ration (.35 Mcal NEg/lb DM) Wind @ 1.0 mph 1 1.19 1.47 1.50 1.93 1.87 2.39 2 1.19 1.37 1.36 1.80 1.69 2.23 3 1.19 1.28 1.29 1.69 1.55 2.09 Wind @ 10 mph 1 1.41 1.69 1.85 2.20 2.29 2.72 2 1.30 1.61 1.71 2.10 2.12 2.59 3 1.21 1.54 1.60 2.01 1.98 2.48 Typical finishing ration (.62 Mcal NEg/lb DM) Wind @ 1.0 mph 1 1.19 1.19 1.33 1.76 1.69 2.21 2 1.19 1.19 1.29 1.63 1.51 2.05 3 1.19 1.19 1.29 1.51 1.39 1.92 Wind @ 10 mph 1 1.24 1.52 1.67 2.03 2.11 2.54 2 1.19 1.44 1.54 1.93 1.95 2.42 3 1.19 1.36 1.42 1.83 1.81 2.31 aThis table was developed from the Level 2 model on the computer disk, assuming a winter hair depth of 0.5 inches. bValues given are NEm required for conditions described, divided by no stress maintenance requirement (77 kcal/BWkg.75). c1 is dry and clean and 3 is wet and matted. d1 is thin (typical of Holstein and Zebu types), 2 is average, 3 is thick (hide thickness similar to Hereford types).

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Nutrient Requirements of Beef Cattle: Seventh Revised Edition, 1996 APPENDIX TABLE 15 Diet Nutrient Densities for Growing and Finishing Cattle 1000 @ finishing (28% body fat—for feedlot steers and heifers) or maturity (replacement heifers). Body Weight (lb) TDN % DM NEm Mcal/lb NEg Mcal/lb DMI lb/day ADG lb/day CP % DM Ca % DM P % DM 550 50 0.45 0.20 15.2 0.64 7.1% 0.21% 0.13%   60 0.61 0.35 16.1 1.77 9.8% 0.36% 0.19% 70 0.76 0.48 15.7 2.68 12.4% 0.49% 0.24% 80 0.90 0.61 14.8 3.34 14.9% 0.61% 0.29% 90 1.04 0.72 13.7 3.75 17.3% 0.73% 0.34% 600 50 0.45 0.20 16.2 0.64 7.0% 0.21% 0.13%   60 0.61 0.35 17.2 1.77 9.5% 0.34% 0.18% 70 0.76 0.48 16.8 2.68 11.9% 0.45% 0.23% 80 0.90 0.61 15.8 3.34 14.3% 0.56% 0.27% 90 1.04 0.72 14.6 3.75 16.5% 0.66% 0.32% 650 50 0.45 0.20 17.3 0.64 6.9% 0.20% 0.12%   60 0.61 0.35 18.2 1.77 9.2% 0.32% 0.17% 70 0.76 0.48 17.8 2.68 11.5% 0.42% 0.21% 80 0.90 0.61 16.8 3.34 13.7% 0.52% 0.26% 90 1.04 0.72 15.5 3.75 15.9% 0.61% 0.30% 700 50 0.45 0.20 18.2 0.64 6.8% 0.19% 0.12%   60 0.61 0.35 19.3 1.77 8.8% 0.30% 0.16% 70 0.76 0.48 18.8 2.68 10.9% 0.39% 0.20% 80 0.90 0.61 17.8 3.34 13.0% 0.48% 0.24% 90 1.04 0.72 16.4 3.75 15.0% 0.56% 0.28% 750 50 0.45 0.20 19.2 0.64 6.7% 0.19% 0.12%   60 0.61 0.35 20.3 1.77 8.5% 0.28% 0.16% 70 0.76 0.48 19.8 2.68 10.3% 0.37% 0.19% 80 0.90 0.61 18.7 3.34 12.2% 0.45% 0.23% 90 1.04 0.72 17.3 3.75 14.0% 0.52% 0.26% 800 50 0.45 0.20 20.2 0.64 6.5% 0.19% 0.12%   60 0.61 0.35 21.3 1.77 8.1% 0.27% 0.15% 70 0.76 0.48 20.8 2.68 9.8% 0.34% 0.18% 80 0.90 0.61 19.6 3.34 11.5% 0.42% 0.22% 90 1.04 0.72 18.1 3.75 13.2% 0.48% 0.25%

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Nutrient Requirements of Beef Cattle: Seventh Revised Edition, 1996 APPENDIX TABLE 16 Diet Nutrient Densities for Growing and Finishing Cattle 1,100 @ finishing (28% body fat—for feedlot steers and heifers) or maturity (replacement heifers). Body Weight (lb) TDN % DM NEm Mcal/lb NEg Mcal/lb DMI lb/day ADG lb/day CP % DM Ca % DM P % DM 605 50 0.45 0.20 16.3 0.68 7.2% 0.22% 0.13%   60 0.61 0.35 17.3 1.88 10.0% 0.36% 0.19% 70 0.76 0.48 16.9 2.86 12.7% 0.49% 0.24% 80 0.90 0.61 15.9 3.56 15.3% 0.61% 0.29% 90 1.04 0.72 14.7 4.00 17.8% 0.72% 0.34% 660 50 0.45 0.20 17.5 0.68 7.1% 0.21% 0.13%   60 0.61 0.35 18.4 1.88 9.7% 0.34% 0.18% 70 0.76 0.48 18.0 2.86 12.3% 0.45% 0.23% 80 0.90 0.61 17.0 3.56 14.7% 0.56% 0.27% 90 1.04 0.72 15.7 4.00 17.1% 0.66% 0.32% 715 50 0.45 0.20 18.5 0.68 6.9% 0.20% 0.13%   60 0.61 0.35 19.6 1.88 9.2% 0.32% 0.17% 70 0.76 0.48 19.1 2.86 11.5% 0.42% 0.21% 80 0.90 0.61 18.1 3.56 13.7% 0.52% 0.26% 90 1.04 0.72 16.7 4.00 15.9% 0.61% 0.30% 770 50 0.45 0.20 19.6 0.68 6.8% 0.20% 0.12%   60 0.61 0.35 20.7 1.88 8.8% 0.30% 0.16% 70 0.76 0.48 20.2 2.86 10.9% 0.39% 0.20% 80 0.90 0.61 19.1 3.56 12.9% 0.48% 0.24% 90 1.04 0.72 17.6 4.00 14.8% 0.56% 0.28% 825 50 0.45 0.20 20.6 0.68 6.6% 0.19% 0.12%   60 0.61 0.35 21.8 1.88 8.4% 0.28% 0.16% 70 0.76 0.48 21.3 2.86 10.3% 0.37% 0.19% 80 0.90 0.61 20.1 3.56 12.1% 0.44% 0.23% 90 1.04 0.72 18.6 4.00 13.9% 0.52% 0.26% 880 50 0.45 0.20 21.7 0.68 6.5% 0.19% 0.12%   60 0.61 0.35 22.9 1.88 8.1% 0.27% 0.15% 70 0.76 0.48 22.4 2.86 9.8% 0.34% 0.18% 80 0.90 0.61 21.1 3.56 11.4% 0.42% 0.22% 90 1.04 0.72 19.5 4.00 13.1% 0.48% 0.25%

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Nutrient Requirements of Beef Cattle: Seventh Revised Edition, 1996 APPENDIX TABLE 17 Diet Nutrient Densities for Growing and Finishing Cattle 1,200 @ finishing (28% body fat—for feedlot steers and heifers) or maturity (replacement heifers). Body Weight (lb) TDN % DM NEm Mcal/lb NEg Mcal/lb DMI lb/day ADG lb/day CP % DM Ca % DM P % DM 660 50 0.45 0.20 17.5 0.72 7.3% 0.22% 0.13%   60 0.61 0.35 18.4 2.00 10.2% 0.36% 0.19% 70 0.76 0.48 18.0 3.04 13.0% 0.49% 0.24% 80 0.90 0.61 17.0 3.78 15.8% 0.61% 0.29% 90 1.04 0.72 15.7 4.25 18.4% 0.72% 0.34% 720 50 0.45 0.20 18.6 0.72 7.1% 0.21% 0.13%   60 0.61 0.35 19.7 2.00 9.7% 0.34% 0.18% 70 0.76 0.48 19.2 3.04 12.2% 0.45% 0.23% 80 0.90 0.61 18.2 3.78 14.6% 0.56% 0.27% 90 1.04 0.72 16.8 4.25 17.0% 0.66% 0.32% 780 50 0.45 0.20 19.8 0.72 6.9% 0.20% 0.13%   60 0.61 0.35 20.9 2.00 9.2% 0.32% 0.17% 70 0.76 0.48 20.4 3.04 11.4% 0.42% 0.21% 80 0.90 0.61 19.3 3.78 13.6% 0.52% 0.26% 90 1.04 0.72 17.8 4.25 15.8% 0.61% 0.30% 840 50 0.45 0.20 20.9 0.72 6.8% 0.20% 0.13%   60 0.61 0.35 22.1 2.00 8.8% 0.30% 0.16% 70 0.76 0.48 21.6 3.04 10.8% 0.39% 0.20% 80 0.90 0.61 20.4 3.78 12.8% 0.48% 0.24% 90 1.04 0.72 18.8 4.25 14.7% 0.56% 0.28% 900 50 0.45 0.20 22.0 0.72 6.6% 0.19% 0.12%   60 0.61 0.35 23.3 2.00 8.4% 0.28% 0.16% 70 0.76 0.48 22.7 3.04 10.2% 0.37% 0.19% 80 0.90 0.61 21.5 3.78 12.0% 0.44% 0.23% 90 1.04 0.72 19.8 4.25 13.8% 0.52% 0.26% 960 50 0.45 0.20 23.1 0.72 6.5% 0.19% 0.12%   60 0.61 0.35 24.4 2.00 8.1% 0.27% 0.15% 70 0.76 0.48 23.9 3.04 9.7% 0.34% 0.19% 80 0.90 0.61 22.5 3.78 11.3% 0.41% 0.22% 90 1.04 0.72 20.8 4.25 13.0% 0.48% 0.25%

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Nutrient Requirements of Beef Cattle: Seventh Revised Edition, 1996 APPENDIX TABLE 18 Diet Nutrient Densities for Growing and Finishing Cattle 1,300 @ finishing (28% body fat—for feedlot steers and heifers) or maturity (replacement heifers). Body Weight (lb) TDN % DM NEm Mcal/lb NEg Mcal/lb DMI lb/day ADG lb/day CP % DM Ca % DM P % DM 715 50 0.45 0.20 18.5 0.76 7.3% 0.22% 0.13%   60 0.61 0.35 19.6 2.11 10.2% 0.36% 0.19% 70 0.76 0.48 19.1 3.21 13.0% 0.49% 0.24% 80 0.90 0.61 18.1 3.99 15.7% 0.61% 0.29% 90 1.04 0.72 16.7 4.48 18.3% 0.72% 0.34% 780 50 0.45 0.20 19.8 0.76 7.1% 0.21% 0.13%   60 0.61 0.35 20.9 2.11 9.6% 0.34% 0.18% 70 0.76 0.48 20.4 3.21 12.1% 0.45% 0.23% 80 0.90 0.61 19.3 3.99 14.5% 0.56% 0.27% 90 1.04 0.72 17.8 4.48 16.9% 0.66% 0.32% 845 50 0.45 0.20 21.0 0.76 6.9% 0.21% 0.13%   60 0.61 0.35 22.2 2.11 9.1% 0.32% 0.17% 70 0.76 0.48 21.7 3.21 11.4% 0.42% 0.22% 80 0.90 0.61 20.5 3.99 13.6% 0.51% 0.26% 90 1.04 0.72 18.9 4.48 15.7% 0.60% 0.30% 910 50 0.45 0.20 22.2 0.76 6.7% 0.20% 0.13%   60 0.61 0.35 23.5 2.11 8.7% 0.30% 0.17% 70 0.76 0.48 22.9 3.21 10.7% 0.39% 0.20% 80 0.90 0.61 21.6 3.99 12.7% 0.48% 0.24% 90 1.04 0.72 20.0 4.48 14.6% 0.56% 0.28% 975 50 0.45 0.20 23.4 0.76 6.6% 0.20% 0.13%   60 0.61 0.35 24.7 2.11 8.3% 0.28% 0.16% 70 0.76 0.48 24.1 3.21 10.2% 0.37% 0.19% 80 0.90 0.61 22.8 3.99 11.9% 0.44% 0.23% 90 1.04 0.72 21.0 4.48 13.7% 0.52% 0.26% 1,040 50 0.45 0.20 24.5 0.76 6.5% 0.19% 0.13%   60 0.61 0.35 25.9 2.11 8.0% 0.27% 0.15% 70 0.76 0.48 25.3 3.21 9.6% 0.34% 0.19% 80 0.90 0.61 23.9 3.99 11.3% 0.41% 0.22% 90 1.04 0.72 22.1 4.48 12.9% 0.48% 0.25%

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Nutrient Requirements of Beef Cattle: Seventh Revised Edition, 1996 APPENDIX TABLE 19 Diet Nutrient Densities for Growing and Finishing Cattle 1,400 @ finishing (28% body fat—for feedlot steers and heifers) or maturity (replacement heifers). Body Weight (lb) TDN % DM NEm Mcal/lb NEg Mcal/lb DMI lb/day ADG lb/day CP % DM Ca % DM P % DM 770 50 0.45 0.20 19.6 0.80 7.3% 0.22% 0.13%   60 0.61 0.35 20.7 2.22 10.1% 0.36% 0.19% 70 0.76 0.48 20.2 3.38 12.9% 0.49% 0.24% 80 0.90 0.61 19.1 4.20 15.6% 0.61% 0.29% 90 1.04 0.72 17.6 4.72 18.1% 0.72% 0.34% 840 50 0.45 0.20 20.9 0.80 7.1% 0.21% 0.13%   60 0.61 0.35 22.1 2.22 9.6% 0.34% 0.18% 70 0.76 0.48 21.6 3.38 12.1% 0.45% 0.23% 80 0.90 0.61 20.4 4.20 14.5% 0.56% 0.27% 90 1.04 0.72 18.8 4.72 16.8% 0.65% 0.32% 910 50 0.45 0.20 22.2 0.80 6.9% .21% 0.13%   60 0.61 0.35 23.5 2.22 9.1% 0.32% 0.17% 70 0.76 0.48 22.9 3.38 11.3% 0.42% 0.22% 80 0.90 0.61 21.6 4.20 13.5% 0.51% 0.26% 90 1.04 0.72 20.0 4.72 15.6% 0.60% 0.30% 980 50 0.45 0.20 23.5 0.80 6.7% 0.20% 0.13%   60 0.61 0.35 24.8 2.22 8.7% 0.30% 0.17% 70 0.76 0.48 24.2 3.38 10.7% 0.39% 0.20% 80 0.90 0.61 22.9 4.20 12.6% 0.47% 0.24% 90 1.04 0.72 21.1 4.72 14.5% 0.56% 0.28% 1,050 50 0.45 0.20 24.7 0.80 6.6% 0.20% 0.13%   60 0.61 0.35 26.1 2.22 8.3% 0.28% 0.16% 70 0.76 0.48 25.5 3.38 10.1% 0.37% 0.20% 80 0.90 0.61 24.1 4.20 11.9% 0.44% 0.23% 90 1.04 0.72 22.2 4.72 13.6% 0.51% 0.26% 1,120 50 0.45 0.20 25.9 0.80 6.5% 0.19% 0.13%   60 0.61 0.35 27.4 2.22 8.0% 0.27% 0.16% 70 0.76 0.48 26.8 3.38 9.6% 0.34% 0.19% 80 0.90 0.61 25.3 4.20 11.2% 0.41% 0.22% 90 1.04 0.72 23.3 4.72 12.8% 0.48% 0.25%

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Nutrient Requirements of Beef Cattle: Seventh Revised Edition, 1996 APPENDIX TABLE 20 Diet Nutrient Density Requirements of Pregnant Replacement Heifers Months Since Conception   1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 1,000 lb Mature Weight TDN, % DM 50.1 50.2 50.4 50.7 51.3 52.3 54.0 56.8 61.3 ME, mcal/lb 0.46 0.46 0.46 0.46 0.47 0.49 0.52 0.56 0.63 NEm, mcal/lb 0.21 0.21 0.21 0.21 0.22 0.24 0.26 0.30 0.37 DMI, lb 16.7 17.2 17.7 18.2 18.7 19.4 20.0 20.7 21.3 Target ADG 0.73 0.73 0.73 0.73 0.73 0.73 0.73 0.73 0.73 Shrunk Body Wt. 622 644 667 689 711 733 756 778 800 CP % DM 7.18 7.16 7.16 7.21 7.32 7.56 7.99 8.74 10.02 Ca % DM 0.22 0.22 0.22 0.21 0.21 0.20 0.32 0.31 0.31 P % DM 0.17 0.17 0.17 0.17 0.17 0.16 0.23 0.23 0.22 1,100 lb Mature Weight TDN, % DM 50.3 50.4 50.5 50.8 51.3 52.3 53.9 56.5 60.6 ME, mcal/lb 0.46 0.46 0.46 0.47 0.48 0.49 0.52 0.56 0.62 NEm, mcal/lb 0.21 0.21 0.21 0.22 0.22 0.24 0.26 0.30 0.36 DMI, lb 18.0 18.5 19.0 19.5 20.1 20.8 21.5 22.3 22.9 Target ADG 0.80 0.80 0.80 0.80 0.80 0.80 0.80 0.80 0.80 Shrunk Body Wt. 684 709 733 758 782 807 831 856 880 CP % DM 7.20 7.17 7.17 7.21 7.32 7.54 7.93 8.63 9.80 Ca % DM 0.23 0.22 0.22 0.22 0.21 0.21 0.32 0.31 0.30 P % DM 0.18 0.17 0.17 0.17 0.17 0.17 0.23 0.22 0.22 1,200 lb Mature Weight TDN, % DM 50.5 50.5 50.7 50.9 51.4 52.3 53.8 56.2 59.9 ME, mcal/lb 0.46 0.46 0.46 0.47 0.48 0.49 0.51 0.55 0.61 NEm, mcal/lb 0.21 0.21 0.21 0.22 0.23 0.24 0.26 0.30 0.35 DMI, lb 19.3 19.8 20.3 20.9 21.5 22.2 23.0 23.7 24.4 Target ADG 0.88 0.88 0.88 0.88 0.88 0.88 0.88 0.88 0.88 Shrunk Body Wt. 747 773 800 827 853 880 907 933 960 CP % DM 7.21 7.19 7.18 7.22 7.31 7.52 7.89 8.53 9.62 Ca % DM 0.23 0.23 0.22 0.22 0.22 0.21 0.31 0.31 0.30 P % DM 0.18 0.18 0.18 0.17 0.17 0.17 0.23 0.22 0.22 1,300 lb Mature Weight TDN, % DM 50.6 50.7 50.8 51.0 51.5 52.4 53.7 56.0 59.5 ME, mcal/lb 0.46 0.46 0.47 0.47 0.48 0.49 0.51 0.55 0.60 NEm, mcal/lb 0.21 0.21 0.22 0.22 0.23 0.24 0.26 0.29 0.34 DMI, lb 20.5 21.0 21.6 22.2 22.9 23.6 24.4 25.2 25.9 Target ADG 0.95 0.95 0.95 0.95 0.95 0.95 0.95 0.95 0.95 Shrunk Body Wt. 809 838 867 896 924 953 982 1011 1040 CP % DM 7.23 7.20 7.20 7.22 7.31 7.50 7.85 8.45 9.46 Ca % DM 0.24 0.23 0.23 0.22 0.22 0.22 0.31 0.30 0.30 P % DM 0.18 0.18 0.18 0.18 0.18 0.17 0.23 0.22 0.22 1,400 lb Mature Weight TDN, % DM 50.7 50.8 50.9 51.2 51.6 52.4 53.7 55.8 59.0 ME, mcal/lb 0.47 0.47 0.47 0.47 0.48 0.49 0.51 0.55 0.60 NEm, mcal/lb 0.22 0.22 0.22 0.22 0.23 0.24 0.26 0.29 0.34 DMI, lb 21.7 22.3 22.9 23.5 24.2 24.9 25.8 26.6 27.4 Target ADG 1.02 1.02 1.02 1.02 1.02 1.02 1.02 1.02 1.02 Shrunk Body Wt. 871 902 933 964 996 1027 1058 1089 1120 CP % DM 7.25 7.22 7.21 7.23 7.31 7.48 7.81 8.38 9.33 Ca % DM 0.24 0.24 0.23 0.23 0.22 0.22 0.31 0.30 0.30 P % DM 0.18 0.18 0.18 0.18 0.18 0.18 0.23 0.22 0.22

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Nutrient Requirements of Beef Cattle: Seventh Revised Edition, 1996 APPENDIX TABLE 21 Diet Nutrient Density Requirements of Beef Cows Months since Calving   1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 1,000 lb Mature Weight, 10 lb Peak Milk TDN, % DM 55.8 56.6 54.3 53.4 52.5 51.8 44.9 45.7 47.0 49.1 52.0 55.7 ME, mcal/lb 0.93 0.95 0.91 0.89 0.88 0.86 0.75 0.76 0.79 0.82 0.87 0.93 NEm, mcal/lb 0.55 0.56 0.52 0.51 0.49 0.48 0.37 0.38 0.40 0.44 0.49 0.54 DM, lb 21.6 22.1 23.0 22.5 22.1 21.7 21.1 21.0 20.9 20.8 21.0 21.4 Milk, lb/day 8.3 10.0 9.0 7.2 5.4 3.9 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 CP % DM 8.70 9.10 8.41 7.97 7.51 7.14 5.98 6.16 6.47 6.95 7.66 8.67 Ca % DM 0.24 0.25 0.23 0.22 0.20 0.19 0.15 0.15 0.15 0.24 0.24 0.24 P % DM 0.17 0.17 0.16 0.15 0.14 0.14 0.11 0.11 0.11 0.15 0.15 0.15 1,000 lb Mature Weight, 20 lb Peak Milk TDN, % DM 59.6 60.9 58.6 57.0 55.4 54.0 44.9 45.7 47.0 49.1 52.0 55.7 ME, mcal/lb 1.00 1.02 0.98 0.95 0.92 0.90 0.75 0.76 0.79 0.82 0.87 0.93 NEm, mcal/lb 0.60 0.62 0.59 0.56 0.54 0.52 0.37 0.38 0.40 0.44 0.49 0.54 DM, lb 24.0 25.0 25.4 24.4 23.5 22.7 21.1 21.0 20.9 20.8 21.0 21.4 Milk, lb/day 16.7 20.0 18.0 14.4 10.8 7.8 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 CP % DM 10.54 11.18 10.38 9.65 8.86 8.17 5.98 6.16 6.47 6.95 7.66 8.67 Ca % DM 0.30 0.32 0.30 0.27 0.24 0.22 0.15 0.15 0.15 0.24 0.24 0.24 P % DM 0.20 0.21 0.19 0.18 0.17 0.15 0.11 0.11 0.11 0.15 0.15 0.15 1,000 lb Mature Weight, 30 lb Peak Milk TDN, % DM 62.8 64.5 62.1 60.1 57.9 55.9 44.9 45.7 47.0 49.1 52.0 55.7 ME, mcal/lb 1.05 1.08 1.04 1.00 0.97 0.93 0.75 0.76 0.79 0.82 0.87 0.93 NEm, mcal/lb 0.65 0.68 0.64 0.61 0.58 0.55 0.37 0.38 0.40 0.44 0.49 0.54 DM, lb 26.4 27.8 27.8 26.4 24.9 23.7 21.1 21.0 20.9 20.8 21.0 21.4 Milk, lb/day 25.0 30.0 27.0 21.6 16.2 11.7 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 CP % DM 12.06 12.86 12.00 11.07 10.04 9.09 5.98 6.16 6.47 6.95 7.66 8.67 Ca % DM 0.35 0.38 0.35 0.32 0.28 0.25 0.15 0.15 0.15 0.24 0.24 0.24 P % DM 0.22 0.24 0.22 0.21 0.19 0.17 0.11 0.11 0.11 0.15 0.15 0.15

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Nutrient Requirements of Beef Cattle: Seventh Revised Edition, 1996 APPENDIX TABLE 22 Diet Nutrient Density Requirements of Beef Cows Months since Calving   1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 1,200 lb Mature Weight, 10 lb Peak Milk TDN, % DM 55.3 56.0 53.7 52.9 52.1 51.5 44.9 45.8 47.1 49.3 52.3 56.2 ME, mcal/lb 0.92 0.94 0.90 0.88 0.87 0.86 0.75 0.76 0.79 0.82 0.87 0.94 NEm, mcal/lb 0.54 0.55 0.51 0.50 0.49 0.48 0.37 0.38 0.41 0.44 0.49 0.55 DM, lb 24.4 24.9 26.0 25.6 25.1 24.8 24.2 24.1 24.0 23.9 24.1 24.6 Milk, lb/day 8.3 10.0 9.0 7.2 5.4 3.9 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 CP % DM 8.43 8.79 8.13 7.73 7.33 7.00 5.99 6.18 6.50 7.00 7.73 8.78 Ca % DM 0.24 0.25 0.23 0.21 0.20 0.19 0.15 0.15 0.15 0.26 0.25 0.25 P % DM 0.17 0.17 0.16 0.15 0.14 0.14 0.12 0.12 0.12 0.16 0.16 0.16 1,200 lb Mature Weight, 20 lb Peak Milk TDN, % DM 58.7 59.9 57.6 56.2 54.7 53.4 44.9 45.8 47.1 49.3 52.3 56.2 ME, mcal/lb 0.98 1.00 0.96 0.94 0.91 0.89 0.75 0.76 0.79 0.82 0.87 0.94 NEm, mcal/lb 0.59 0.61 0.57 0.55 0.53 0.51 0.37 0.38 0.41 0.44 0.49 0.55 DM, lb 26.8 27.8 28.4 27.4 26.5 25.7 24.2 24.1 24.0 23.9 24.1 24.6 Milk, lb/day 16.7 20.0 18.0 14.4 10.8 7.8 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 CP % DM 10.10 10.69 9.92 9.25 8.54 7.92 5.99 6.18 6.50 7.00 7.73 8.78 Ca % DM 0.29 0.31 0.29 0.26 0.24 0.22 0.15 0.15 0.15 0.26 0.25 0.25 P % DM 0.19 0.21 0.19 0.18 0.17 0.15 0.12 0.12 0.12 0.16 0.16 0.16 1,200 lb Mature Weight, 30 lb Peak Milk TDN, % DM 61.6 63.2 60.8 59.0 57.0 55.2 44.9 45.8 47.1 49.3 52.3 56.2 ME, mcal/lb 1.03 1.06 1.02 0.99 0.95 0.92 0.75 0.76 0.79 0.82 0.87 0.94 NEm, mcal/lb 0.64 0.66 0.62 0.59 0.56 0.54 0.37 0.38 0.41 0.44 0.49 0.55 DM, lb 29.2 30.6 30.8 29.4 27.9 26.7 24.2 24.1 24.0 23.9 24.1 24.6 Milk, lb/day 25.0 30.0 27.0 21.6 16.2 11.7 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 CP % DM 11.51 12.25 11.41 10.55 9.61 8.75 5.99 6.18 6.50 7.00 7.73 8.78 Ca % DM 0.34 0.36 0.34 0.31 0.27 0.25 0.15 0.15 0.15 0.26 0.25 0.25 P % DM 0.22 0.23 0.22 0.20 0.18 0.17 0.12 0.12 0.12 0.16 0.16 0.16

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Nutrient Requirements of Beef Cattle: Seventh Revised Edition, 1996 APPENDIX TABLE 23 Diet Nutrient Density Requirements of Beef Cows Months since Calving   1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 1,400 lb Mature Weight, 10 lb Peak Milk TDN, % DM 54.9 55.5 53.3 52.5 51.8 51.2 45.0 45.8 47.3 49.5 52.6 56.6 ME, mcal/lb 0.92 0.93 0.89 0.88 0.86 0.86 0.75 0.77 0.79 0.83 0.88 0.95 NEm, mcal/lb 0.53 0.54 0.51 0.49 0.48 0.47 0.37 0.39 0.41 0.44 0.49 0.56 DM, lb 27.1 27.6 28.9 28.5 28.0 27.7 27.2 27.0 26.9 26.8 27.0 27.6 Milk, lb/day 8.3 10.0 9.0 7.2 5.4 3.9 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 CP % DM 8.23 8.56 7.91 7.55 7.19 6.90 6.00 6.20 6.53 7.04 7.80 8.88 Ca % DM 0.23 0.25 0.23 0.21 0.20 0.19 0.16 0.16 0.16 0.27 0.26 0.26 P % DM 0.17 0.17 0.16 0.15 0.15 0.14 0.12 0.12 0.12 0.17 0.17 0.16 1,400 lb Mature Weight, 20 lb Peak Milk TDN, % DM 58.0 59.1 56.8 55.5 54.1 53.0 45.0 45.8 47.3 49.5 52.6 56.6 ME, mcal/lb 0.97 0.99 0.95 0.93 0.90 0.89 0.75 0.77 0.79 0.83 0.88 0.95 NEm, mcal/lb 0.58 0.60 0.56 0.54 0.52 0.50 0.37 0.39 0.41 0.44 0.49 0.56 DM, lb 29.5 30.5 31.3 30.3 29.4 28.6 27.2 27.0 26.9 26.8 27.0 27.6 Milk, lb/day 16.7 20.0 18.0 14.4 10.8 7.8 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 CP % DM 9.76 10.31 9.56 8.94 8.29 7.73 6.00 6.20 6.53 7.04 7.80 8.88 Ca % DM 0.28 0.30 0.28 0.26 0.24 0.22 0.16 0.16 0.16 0.27 0.26 0.26 P % DM 0.19 0.20 0.19 0.18 0.17 0.16 0.12 0.12 0.12 0.17 0.17 0.16 1,400 lb Mature Weight, 30 lb Peak Milk TDN, % DM 60.7 62.2 59.8 58.1 56.2 54.7 45.0 45.8 47.3 49.5 52.6 56.6 ME, mcal/lb 1.01 1.04 1.00 0.97 0.94 0.91 0.75 0.77 0.79 0.83 0.88 0.95 NEm, mcal/lb 0.62 0.64 0.61 0.58 0.55 0.53 0.37 0.39 0.41 0.44 0.49 0.56 DM, lb 31.9 33.3 33.7 32.3 30.8 29.6 27.2 27.0 26.9 26.8 27.0 27.6 Milk, lb/day 25.0 30.0 27.0 21.6 16.2 11.7 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 CP % DM 11.07 11.77 10.95 10.15 9.27 8.49 6.00 6.20 6.53 7.04 7.80 8.88 Ca % DM 0.33 0.35 0.32 0.30 0.27 0.24 0.16 0.16 0.16 0.27 0.26 0.26 P % DM 0.22 0.23 0.21 0.20 0.18 0.17 0.12 0.12 0.12 0.17 0.17 0.16