Patle, B.R., and V.D.Mudgal. 1975. Maintenance requirements for energy in crossbred cattle. Br. J. Nutr. 33:127–139.

Patle, B.R., and V.D.Mudgal. 1977. Utilization of dietary energy requirements for maintenance, milk production and lipogenesis by lactating crossbred cows during their midstage of lactation. Br. J. Nutr. 37:23–33.

Peacock, F.M., M.Koger, W.G.Kirk, E.M.Hodges, and J.R.Crockett. 1976. Beef production of Brahman, Shorthorn, and their crosses on different pasture programs. Tech. Bull. 780. Gainesville: University of Florida Agricultural Experiment Station.


Ritzman, E.G., and F.G.Benedict. 1938. Nutritional Physiology of the Adult Ruminant. Washington, D.C.: Carnegie Institute.

Robelin, J., and Y.Geay. 1976. Changes with age (9, 13, 16, 19 months) of protein and energy retention, and energy utilization by growing Limousin bulls. Energy Metab. Proc. Symp. 19:213–216.

Robinson, J.J., I.McDonald, C.Frazer, and J.G.Gordon. 1980. Studies on reproduction in prolific ewes. 6. The efficiency of energy utilization for conceptus growth. J. Agric. Sci. Camb. 94:331–338.

Rogerson, A., H.P.Ledger, and G.H.Freeman. 1968. Feed intake and liveweight gain comparisons of Bos indicus and Bos taurus steers on a high plane of nutrition. Anim. Prod. 10:373–380.

Rompala, R.E., S.D.M.Jones, J.G.Buchanan-Smith, and H.S.Bayley. 1985. Feedlot performance and composition of gain in late maturing steers exhibiting normal and compensatory growth. J. Anim. Sci. 61:637–646.

Russel, A.J.F., and I.A.Wright. 1983. Factors affecting maintenance requirements of beef cows. Anim. Prod. 37:329–334.

Ryan, W.J., I.H.Williams, and R.J.Moir. 1993a. Compensatory growth in sheep and cattle. I. Growth pattern and feed intake. Aust. J. Agric. Res. 44:1609–1621.

Ryan, W.J., I.H.Williams, and R.J.Moir. 1993b. Compensatory growth in sheep and cattle. II. Changes in body composition and tissue weights. Aust. J. Agric. Res. 44:1623–1633.


Schnyder, W., H.Bickel, and A.Schurch. 1982. Energy metabolism during retarded and compensatory growth of Braunvieh steers. Energy Metab. Proc. Symp. 29:96–99.

Searle, T.W., and N.M.Graham. 1975. Studies of weaner sheep during and after a period of weight stasis. II. Body composition. Aust. J. Agric. Res. 26:355–361.

Smith, G.M., J.D.Crouse, R.W.Mandigo, and K.L.Neer. 1977. Influence of feeding regime and biological type on growth, composition and palatability of steers. J. Anim. Sci. 45:236–253.

Solis, J.C., F.M.Byers, G.T.Schelling, C.R.Long, and L.W.Green. 1988. Maintenance requirements and energetic efficiency of cows of different breeds. J. Anim. Sci. 66:764–773.

Stetter, R., A.Susenbeth, and K.H.Menke. 1989. Energy metabolism and protein retention of Simmental bulls fed four different feeding levels from maintenance to ad libitum at 250, 450 and 550 kg body mass. Energy Metab. Proc. Symp. 43:21–24.

Summers, M., B.W.McBride, and L.P.Milligan. 1988. Components of basal energy expenditure. Pp. 257–286 in Aspects of Digestive Physiology in Ruminants, A.Dobson and M.J.Dobson, eds. Ithaca, N.Y.: Cornell University Press.


Taylor, C.S., and G.B.Young. 1968. Equilibrium weight in relation to feed intake and genotype in twin cattle. Anim. Prod. 10:393–412.

Taylor, C.S., H.G.Turner, and G.B.Young. 1981. Genetic control of equilibrium maintenance efficiency in cattle. Anim. Prod. 33:179–194.

Taylor, C.S., R.B.Theissen, and J.Murray. 1986. Inter-breed relationship of maintenance efficiency to milk yield in cattle. Anim. Prod. 43:37–61.

Thompson, W.R., D.H.Theuninck, J.C.Meiske, R.D.Goodrich, J. R.Rust, and F.M.Byers. 1983. Linear measurements and visual appraisal as estimators of percentage empty body fat of beef cows. J. Anim. Sci. 56:755–760.

Thomson, E.F., M.Gingins, J.W.Blum, H.Bickel, and A.Schurch. 1980. Energy metabolism of sheep during nutritional limitation and realimentation. Energy Metab. Proc. Symp. 26:427–430.

Thomson, E.F., M.Gingins, J.W.Blum, H.Bickel, and A.Schurch. 1980. Energy metabolism of sheep during nutritional limitation and realimentation. Energy Metab. Proc. Symp. 26:427–430.

Thorbek, G., and S.Henckel. 1976. Studies on energy requirements for maintenance in farm animals. Energy Metab. Proc. Symp. 19:117–120.

Truscott, T.G., J.D.Wood, N.G.Gregory, and I.C.Hart. 1983. Fat deposition in Hereford and Friesian steers. 3. Growth efficiency and fat mobilization. J. Agric. Sci. Camb. 100:277–284.

Tudor, G.D., D.W.Utling, and P.K.O’Rourke. 1980. The effect of pre- and post-natal nutrition on the growth of beef cattle. III. The effect of severe restriction in early postnatal life on the development of body components and chemical composition. Aust. J. Agric. Res. 31:191–204.

Tyrrell, H.F., and C.K.Reynolds. 1988. Effect of stage of growth on utilization of energy by beef heifers. Energy Metab. Proc. Symp. 43:17–20.


van der Merwe, F.J., and P.van Rooyen. 1980. Estimates of ME needs for maintenance and gain in beef steers of four genotypes. Energy Metab. Proc. Symp. 26:135–136.

Vercoe, J.E. 1970. Fasting metabolism and heat increment of feeding in Brahman×British and British cross cattle. Energy Metab. Proc. Symp. 13:85–88.

Vercoe, J.E., and J.E.Frisch. 1974. Fasting metabolism, liveweight and voluntary intake of different breeds of cattle. Energy Metab. Proc. Symp. 14:131–134.

Vermorel, M., J.C.Bouvier, and Y.Geay. 1976. The effect of genotype (normal and double muscled Charolais and Friesian) on energy utilization at 2 and 16 months of age. Energy Metab. Proc. Symp. 19:217–220.

Vermorel, M., J.C.Bouvier, and Y.Geay. 1980. Energy utilization by growing calves: Effects of age, milk intake and feed level. Energy Metab. Proc. Symp. 26:9–53.

Vermorel, M., Y.Geay, and J.Robelin. 1982. Energy utilization by growing bulls, variations with genotype, liveweight, feeding level and between animals. Energy Metab. Proc. Symp. 29:88–91.


Walker, J.J., and W.N.Garrett. 1970. Shifts in energy metabolism of male rats during adaptation to prolonged undernutrition and during their subsequent realimentation. Energy Metab. Proc. Symp. 13:193–196.

Walker, V.A., B.A.Young, and B.Walker. 1991. Does seasonal photoperiod directly influence energy metabolism. Energy Metab. Proc. Symp. 58:372–375.

Webster, A.J.F., J.S.Smith, and G.Mollison. 1976. On the prediction of heat production in growing cattle. Energy Metab. Proc. Symp. 29:221–224.

Webster, A.J.F., J.S.Smith, and G.S.Mollison. 1977. Prediction of the energy requirements for growth in beef cattle. 3. Body weight and heat production in Hereford×British Friesian bulls and steers. Anim. Prod. 24:237–244.

Webster, A.J.F., J.S.Smith, and G.S.Mollison. 1982. Energy requirements of growing cattle: Effects of sire breed, plane of nutrition, sex and season on predicted basal metabolism. Energy Metab. Proc. Symp. 29:84–87.

Wilson, P.N., and D.F.Osbourn. 1960. Compensatory growth after undernutrition in mammals and birds. Biol. Rev. 35:324–363.

Wurgler, F., and H.Bickel. 1985. The partial efficiency of energy utilization in steers of different breeds. Energy Metab. Proc. Symp. 32:90–93.


Young, B.A. 1975a. Effects of winter acclimatization on resting metabolism of beef cows. Can. J. Anim. Sci. 55:619–625.

Young, B.A. 1975b. Temperature-induced changes in metabolism and body weight of cattle (Bos taurus). Can. J. Physiol. Pharmacol. 53:947–953.

Young, B.A., A.W.Bell, and R.T.Hardin. 1989. Mass specific metabolic rate of sheep from fetal life to maturity. Energy Metab. Proc. Symp. 43:155–158.



The National Academies | 500 Fifth St. N.W. | Washington, D.C. 20001
Copyright © National Academy of Sciences. All rights reserved.
Terms of Use and Privacy Statement