Glossary


a1

thermal neutral maintenance requirement (Mcal/day per BW0.75)

a2

adjustment for previous temperature

AA

proportion of empty body ash

AAAsi

total amount of the ith absorbed amino acid supplied by dietary and bacterial sources, g/day

AABCWi

ith amino acid content of rumen bacteria cell wall protein, g/100 g (Table 10–7)

AABNCWi

ith amino acid content of rumen bacteria noncell wall protein, g/100 g (Table 10–7)

AAINSPij

ith amino acid content of the insoluble protein for the jth feedstuff, g/100 g

AALACTi

ith amino acid content of milk true protein, g/100 g (Table 10–5)

AAN

proportion of ash at the next body condition score

AATISSi

amino acid composition of body tissue, g/100 g (Table 10–5)

ACADG

after calving target ADG, kg/day

ADF

acid detergent fiber

ADG

average daily gain

ADGpreg

average daily gain due to pregnancy

ADIP

acid detergent insoluble protein

ADIPj (%CP)

percentage of the crude protein of the jth feedstuff that is acid detergent insoluble protein

ADTV

feed additive adjustment factor for DMI (Table 10–4 )

AF

proportion of empty body fat

AF1

proportion of empty body fat @ CS=1 age age of cow, years

AP

proportion of empty body protein

AP1

proportion of empty body protein @ CS=1

APADG

postpubertal target ADG, kg/day

ASHj (%DM)

percentage of ash of the jth feedstuff

AW

proportion of empty body water


BACTj

yield of bacteria from the jth feedstuff, g/day

BACTNj

bacterial nitrogen, g/day

BCP

bacterial (microbial) crude protein

BE

breed effect on NEm requirement (Table 10–1)

BFAF

body fat adjustment factor (Table 10–4)

BI

breed adjustment factor for DMI (Table 10–4)

BPADG

prepubertal target ADG, kg/day

BTP

bacterial true protein

BW

body weight

BW0.75

metabolic body weight


CAj (%DM)

percentage of dry matter of the jth feedstuff that is sugar

CB1j (%DM)

percentage of dry matter of the jth feedstuff that is starch

CB2j

percentage of dry matter of the jth feedstuff that is available fiber

CBW

calf birth weight, kg

CCj

percentage of dry matter in the jth feedstuff that is unavailable fiber

CHOj (%DM)

percentage of carbohydrate of the jth feedstuff

CI

calving interval, days

COMP

effect of previous plane of nutrition on NEm requirement

CPj (%DM)

percentage of crude protein of the jth feedstuff

CS

body condition score

CW

conceptus weight


D

duration of lactation, weeks

DE

digestible energy (gross energy of the food minus the energy lost in the feces)

DIGBAAi

amount of the ith absorbed bacterial amino acid

DIGBCj

digested bacterial carbohydrate produced from the jth feedstuff, g/day

DIGBFj

digestible bacterial fat from the jth feedstuff, g/day

DIGBNAj

digestible bacterial nucleic acids produced from the jth feedstuff, g/day



The National Academies | 500 Fifth St. N.W. | Washington, D.C. 20001
Copyright © National Academy of Sciences. All rights reserved.
Terms of Use and Privacy Statement



Below are the first 10 and last 10 pages of uncorrected machine-read text (when available) of this chapter, followed by the top 30 algorithmically extracted key phrases from the chapter as a whole.
Intended to provide our own search engines and external engines with highly rich, chapter-representative searchable text on the opening pages of each chapter. Because it is UNCORRECTED material, please consider the following text as a useful but insufficient proxy for the authoritative book pages.

Do not use for reproduction, copying, pasting, or reading; exclusively for search engines.

OCR for page 219
Nutrient Requirements of Beef Cattle: Seventh Revised Edition, 1996 Glossary a1 thermal neutral maintenance requirement (Mcal/day per BW0.75) a2 adjustment for previous temperature AA proportion of empty body ash AAAsi total amount of the ith absorbed amino acid supplied by dietary and bacterial sources, g/day AABCWi ith amino acid content of rumen bacteria cell wall protein, g/100 g (Table 10–7) AABNCWi ith amino acid content of rumen bacteria noncell wall protein, g/100 g (Table 10–7) AAINSPij ith amino acid content of the insoluble protein for the jth feedstuff, g/100 g AALACTi ith amino acid content of milk true protein, g/100 g (Table 10–5) AAN proportion of ash at the next body condition score AATISSi amino acid composition of body tissue, g/100 g (Table 10–5) ACADG after calving target ADG, kg/day ADF acid detergent fiber ADG average daily gain ADGpreg average daily gain due to pregnancy ADIP acid detergent insoluble protein ADIPj (%CP) percentage of the crude protein of the jth feedstuff that is acid detergent insoluble protein ADTV feed additive adjustment factor for DMI (Table 10–4 ) AF proportion of empty body fat AF1 proportion of empty body fat @ CS=1 age age of cow, years AP proportion of empty body protein AP1 proportion of empty body protein @ CS=1 APADG postpubertal target ADG, kg/day ASHj (%DM) percentage of ash of the jth feedstuff AW proportion of empty body water BACTj yield of bacteria from the jth feedstuff, g/day BACTNj bacterial nitrogen, g/day BCP bacterial (microbial) crude protein BE breed effect on NEm requirement (Table 10–1) BFAF body fat adjustment factor (Table 10–4) BI breed adjustment factor for DMI (Table 10–4) BPADG prepubertal target ADG, kg/day BTP bacterial true protein BW body weight BW0.75 metabolic body weight CAj (%DM) percentage of dry matter of the jth feedstuff that is sugar CB1j (%DM) percentage of dry matter of the jth feedstuff that is starch CB2j percentage of dry matter of the jth feedstuff that is available fiber CBW calf birth weight, kg CCj percentage of dry matter in the jth feedstuff that is unavailable fiber CHOj (%DM) percentage of carbohydrate of the jth feedstuff CI calving interval, days COMP effect of previous plane of nutrition on NEm requirement CPj (%DM) percentage of crude protein of the jth feedstuff CS body condition score CW conceptus weight D duration of lactation, weeks DE digestible energy (gross energy of the food minus the energy lost in the feces) DIGBAAi amount of the ith absorbed bacterial amino acid DIGBCj digested bacterial carbohydrate produced from the jth feedstuff, g/day DIGBFj digestible bacterial fat from the jth feedstuff, g/day DIGBNAj digestible bacterial nucleic acids produced from the jth feedstuff, g/day

OCR for page 219
Nutrient Requirements of Beef Cattle: Seventh Revised Edition, 1996 DIGBTPj digestible bacterial true protein produced from the jth feedstuff, g/day DIGCj digestible carbohydrate from the jth feedstuff, g/day DIGFAAi amount of the ith absorbed amino acid from dietary escaping rumen degradation, g/day DIGFCj intestinally digested feed carbohydrate from the jth feedstuff, g/day DIGFFj digestible feed fat from the jth feedstuff, g/day DIGFj digestible fat from the jth feedstuff, g/day DIGFPj digestible feed protein from the jth feedstuff, g/day DIGPB1j digestible B1 protein from the jth feedstuff, g/day DIGPB2j digestible B2 protein from the jth feedstuff, g/day DIGPB3j digestible B3 protein from the jth feedstuff, g/day DIGPj digestible protein from the jth feedstuff, g/day DIP degraded intake protein DM dry matter DMI dry matter intake DOP days on pasture E energy content of milk, Mcal (NEm)/kg e base of natural logarithms EAAGi efficiency of use of the ith amino acid for growth, g/g (Table 10–6) EAALi efficiency of use of the ith amino acid for milk protein formation, g/g (Table 10–6) EAAPi efficiency of use of the ith amino acid for gestation, g/g (Table 10–6) EAT effective ambient temperature (°C) EBG empty body gain, kg EBW0.75 metabolic body weight based on empty body weight, kg EBWN EBW at the next body condition score EI external insulation value, °C/Mcal/m2/day EN nitrogen in excess of rumen bacterial nitrogen and tissue needs, g/day EQEBW equivalent empty body weight, kg EQSBW equivalent shrunk body weight, kg ER energy reserves, Mcal FA daily forage allowance, kg/day FATj fat composition of the jth feedstuff, g/day FATj (%DM) percentage of fat of the jth feedstuff FCBACTj yield of fiber carbohydrate bacteria from the jth feedstuff, g/day FDMj amount of indigestible DM in feces from the jth feedstuff, g/day FE fecal energy FEASHj amount of ash in feces from the jth feedstuff, g/day FEBACTj amount of bacteria in feces from the jth feedstuff, g/day FEBASHj amount of bacterial ash in feces from the jth feedstuff, g/day FEBCj amount of bacterial carbohydrate in feces from the jth feedstuff, g/day FEBCPj amount of fecal bacterial protein from the jth feedstuff, g/day FEBCWj amount of fecal bacterial cell wall protein from the jth feedstuff, g/day FEBFj amount of bacterial fat in feces from the jth feedstuff, g/day FECB1j amount of feed starch in feces from the jth feedstuff, g/day FECB2j amount of feed available fiber in feces from the jth feedstuff, g/day FECCj amount of feed unavailable fiber in feces from the jth feedstuff, g/day FECHOj amount of carbohydrate in feces from the jth feedstuff, g/day FEENGAj amount of endogenous ash in feces from the jth feedstuff, g/day FEENGFj amount of endogenous fat in feces from the jth feedstuff, g/day FEENGPj amount of endogenous protein in feces from the jth feedstuff, g/day FEFAj amount of undigested feed ash in feces from the jth feedstuff, g/day FEFATj amount of fat in feces from the jth feedstuff, g/day FEFCj amount of feed carbohydrate in feces from the jth feedstuff, g/day FEFPj amount of feed protein in feces from the jth feedstuff, g/day FEPB3j amount of feed B3 protein fraction in feces from the jth feedstuff, g/day FEPCj amount of feed C protein fraction in feces from the jth feedstuff, g/day FEPROTj amount of fecal protein from the jth feedstuff, g/day FFMtotal feed for maintenance (adjusted for stress), kg DM/day FHP fasting heat production FM mobilizable fat, kg FORAGE forage concentration of the diet, % FSBW final shrunk body weight at maturity for breeding heifers or at the body fat end point selected for feedlot steers and heifers GF green forage availability (ton/ha) GRAZE forage availability factor if grazing, % GU grazing unit size, hectare HAIR effective hair depth, cm HE heat production, Mcal/day He minimal total evaporative heat loss HIDE hide adjustment factor for external insulation (1=thin, 2=average, 3=thick)

OCR for page 219
Nutrient Requirements of Beef Cattle: Seventh Revised Edition, 1996 HjE heat of activity associated with obtaining food IE intake energy IFN international feed number Ij intake of the jth feedstuff, g/day Im intake for maintenance (no stress), kg DM/day IMPj percentage improvement in bacterial yield, due to the ratio of peptides-to-peptides plus nonfiber CHO in jth feedstuff Imtotal intake for maintenance with stress, kg/DM day IN total insulation (°C/Mcal/m2/day) IPM initial pasture mass (kg DM/ha) IVOMD dietary in vitro organic matter disappearance Kd degradation rate of feedstuff component Kd' pH adjusted feed specific degradation rate of available fiber fraction (decimal form) Kd1j rumen rate of digestion of the rapidly degraded protein fraction of the jth feedstuff, h-1 Kd2j rumen rate of digestion of the intermediately degraded protein fraction of the jth feedstuff, h-1 Kd3j rumen rate of digestion of the slowly degraded protein fraction of the jth feedstuff, h-1 Kd4j rumen rate of sugar digestion of the jth feedstuff, h-1 Kd5j rumen rate of starch digestion of the jth feedstuff, h-1 Kd6j rumen rate of available fiber digestion of the jth feedstuff, h-1 km efficiency of utilization of ME for maintenance KM1 maintenance rate of the fiber carbohydrate bacteria, 0.05 g FC/g bacteria/h KM2 maintenance rate of the nonfiber carbohydrate bacteria, 0.15 g NFC/g bacteria/h Kpj rate of passage from the rumen of the jth feedstuff, h-1 L lactation effect on NEm requirement (1 if dry or 1.2 if lactating) LCT animal’s lower critical temperature, °C LIGNINj (%NDF) percentage of lignin of the jth feedstuff’s NDF LPAAi metabolizable requirement for lactation for the ith absorbed amino acid, g/day MCP microbial crude protein, g/day ME metabolizable energy MEaj metabolizable energy available from the jth feedstuff, Mcal/day MEC metabolizable energy concentration of the diet, Mcal/kg MECj metabolizable energy concentration of the jth feedstuff, Mcal, kg MEcs metabolizable energy required due to cold stress, Mcal/day MEI metabolizable energy intake, Mcal/day MEm ME required for maintenance MF milk fat composition, % MM milk production, kg/day MPreq metabolizable protein requirement, g/day MP metabolizable protein MPa metabolizable protein available in the diet, g/day MPAAi metabolizable requirement for gestation for the ith absorbed amino acid, g/day (Table 10–6) MPg metabolizable protein requirement, g/day MPmaint metabolizable protein requirement for maintenance, g/day MUD1 mud adjustment factor for DMI (Table 10–4) MUD2 mud adjustment factor for external insulation MW mature weight, kg N number of animals NDF neutral detergent fiber NDFj (%DM) percentage of the jth feedstuff that is neutral detergent fiber NDIPj (%DM) percentage of neutral detergent insoluble protein of the jth feedstuff NE net energy NEFG net energy required for gain NEg net energy required for gain NEga net energy content of diet for gain, Mcal/kg NEgaj net energy for gain content of the jth feedstuff, Mcal/kg NEm net energy required for maintenance adjusted for acclimatization NEma net energy value of diet for maintenance, Mcal/kg NEmact activity effect on NEm requirement NEmaj net energy for maintenance content of the jth feedstuff, Mcal/kg NEmcs net energy required due to cold stress, Mcal/day NEmhs net energy required due to heat stress, Mcal/day NEmtotal net energy for maintenance required adjusted for breed, lactation, sex, grazing, acclimatization, and stress effects NEpreg net energy retained as gravid uterus NFCBACTj yield of nonstructural carbohydrate bacteria from the jth feedstuff, g/day NFCBACTNj nonfiber carbohydrate bacterial nitrogen, g/day NP net protein NPg net protein requirement for growth, g/day NPN nonprotein nitrogen NPNj (%CP) percentage of crude protein of the jth feedstuff that is nonprotein nitrogen times 6.25 OMD organic matter digestibility OMI organic matter intake PAj (%DM) percentage of dry matter in the jth feedstuff that is nonprotein nitrogen pAVAIL pasture mass available for grazing, T/ha PB protein content of empty body gain, g/100 g PB1j (%DM) percentage of dry matter in the jth feedstuff that is rapidly degraded protein PB2j (%DM) percentage of dry matter in the jth feedstuff that is intermediately degraded protein PB3j (%DM) percentage of dry matter in the jth feedstuff that is slowly degraded protein

OCR for page 219
Nutrient Requirements of Beef Cattle: Seventh Revised Edition, 1996 PCj (%DM) percentage of dry matter in the jth feedstuff that is bound protein PEPUPj bacterial peptide from the jth feedstuff, g/day PEPUPNj bacterial peptide nitrogen from the jth feedstuff, g/day pH ruminal pH pI pasture dry matter intake, kg/day PKYD peak milk yield, kg/day (Table 10–1) PM mobilizable protein, kg RATIOj ratio of peptides-to-peptides plus NFC in the jth feedstuff RD proportion of component of a feedstuff degraded in the rumen RDCAj amount of ruminally degraded sugar from the jth feedstuff, g/day RDCB1j amount of ruminally degraded starch from the jth feedstuff, g/day RDCB2j amount of ruminally degraded available fiber from the jth feedstuff, g/day RDPAj amount of ruminally degraded NPN in the jth feedstuff, g/day RDPB1j amount of ruminally degraded B1 true protein in the jth feedstuff, g/day RDPB2j amount of ruminally degraded B2 true protein in the jth feedstuff, g/day RDPB3j amount of ruminally degraded B3 true protein in the jth feedstuff, g/day RDPEPj amount of ruminally degraded peptides from the jth feedstuff, g/day RE retained energy, Mcal/day REAAi total amount of the ith amino acid appearing at the duodenum, g/day REBAAi amount of the ith bacterial amino acid appearing at the duodenum, g/day REBASHj amount of bacterial ash passed to the intestines by the jth feedstuff, g/day REBCHOj amount of bacterial carbohydrate passed to the intestines by the jth feedstuff, g/day REBCWj amount of bacterial cell wall protein passed to the intestines by the jth feedstuff, g/day REBFATj amount of bacterial fat passed to the intestines by the jth feedstuff, g/day REBNAj amount of bacterial nucleic acids passed to the intestines by the jth feedstuff, g/day REBTPj amount of bacterial true protein passed to the intestines by the jth feedstuff, g/day RECAj amount of ruminally escaped sugar from the jth feedstuff, g/day RECB1j amount of ruminally escaped starch from the jth feedstuff, g/day RECB2j amount of ruminally escaped available fiber from the jth feedstuff, g/day RECCj amount of ruminally escaped unavailable fiber from the jth feedstuff, g/day REFAAi amount of the ith dietary amino acid appearing at the duodenum, g/day REFATj amount of ruminally escaped fat from the jth feedstuff, g/day relY relative yield adjustment REPB1j amount of ruminally escaped B1 true protein in the jth feedstuff, g/day REPB2j amount of ruminally escaped B2 true protein in the jth feedstuff, g/day REPB3j amount of ruminally escaped B3 true protein in the jth feedstuff, g/day REPCj amount of ruminally escaped bound C protein from the jth feedstuff, g/day RESC proportion of component of feedstuff escaping ruminal degradation RPAAi metabolizable requirement for growth for the ith absorbed amino acid, g/day RPN net protein required for growth, g/day SA surface area, m2 SBW shrunk body weight, kg SBW0.75 metabolic body weight based on shrunk body weight, kg SD standard deviation SEX maintenance adjustment for bulls SNF milk solids not fat composition, % SOLPj (%CP) percentage of the crude protein of the jth feedstuff that is soluble protein soluble nitrogen NPN plus soluble true protein SRW standard reference weight for the expected final body fat STARCHj (%NFC) percentage of starch in the nonstructural carbohydrate of the jth feedstuff stdig postruminal starch digestibility, g/g SWG shrunk weight gain, kg t day of pregnancy TA total kg ash at the current body condition score Tage heifer age, days Tc current temperature, °C TCA target calving age in days TCW1 target first calf—calving weight, kg TCW2 target second calf calving weight, kg TCW3 target third calf calving weight, kg TCW4 target fourth calf calving weight, kg TCWx current target calving weight, kg TCWxx next target calving weight, kg TDN total digestible nutrient content of the diet, % or g/day TDNAPPj apparent TDN from the jth feedstuff, g/day TEMP1 temperature adjustment factor for DMI (Table 10–4) TERRAIN terrian factor (1=level land, 2=hilly land) TF total fat, kg TF1 total body fat @ CS=1, kg TI tissue (internal) insulation value, °C/Mcal/m2/day

OCR for page 219
Nutrient Requirements of Beef Cattle: Seventh Revised Edition, 1996 TotalProt total protein yield for lactation, kg TotalE total energy yield for lactation, Mcal TotalFat total fat yield for lactation, kg TotalY total milk yield for lactation, kg TP total protein, kg Tp previous ambient temperature, °C TP1 total body protein @ CS=1, kg TPA target puberty age, days TPW target puberty weight, kg U urea nitrogen recycled (percent of nitrogen intake) UCT upper critical temperature UE urinary energy UIP undegraded intake protein VFA volatile fatty acids W current week of lactation WIND wind speed, kph X diet crude protein, as a percentage of diet dry matter Y original yield for each feed Y' new yield for each feed Y1j yield efficiency of FC bacteria from the available fiber fraction of the jth feedstuff, g FC bacteria/g FC digested Y2j yield efficiency of NFC bacteria from the sugar fraction of the jth feedstuff, g NFC bacteria/g NFC digested Y3j yield efficiency of NFC bacteria from the starch fraction of the jth feedstuff, g NFC bacteria/g NFC digested Ye relationship of energy content of the gravid uterus YEn daily energy secreted in milk at current stage of lactation, Mcal (NEm)/day YFatn daily milk fat yield at current stage of lactation, kg/day YG1 theoretical maximum yield of the fiber carbohydrate bacteria, 0.4 g bacteria/g FC YG2 theoretical maximum yield of the nonfiber carbohydrate bacteria, 0.4 g bacteria/g NFC Yn daily milk yield at current week of lactation, kg/day YPN net protein required for gestation, g/day YProtn daily milk protein yield at current stage of lactation, kg/day Z age in years