Index

A

Acclimatization, 8, 9

Achromotrichia, 63

Age

cow, and birth weight, 40–41

and energy requirements for maintenance, 8

and feed intake, 86

and malnutrition, 49

and milk production, 45

at puberty, 46, 47, 67

Agricultural and Food Research Council (AFRC), 5, 35, 55

Agricultural Research Council (ARC), 5, 8

Alkali, 143–144

Alkali disease, 68

Aluminum, 55

Amino acids

and BCP synthesis, 18

gestation and, 42, 43

nutrient interactions, 60, 79–80

requirements, 18, 31–32, 120–121

supply, 126–127

Ammonia, 144

Anabolic agents, 24, 25, 26, 27–29, 87, 88, 92

Anemia, 65, 68, 80

Angus, 6, 7, 8, 25, 34, 40, 63, 105

Antibiotics, 80

Arsenic, 55

Ayrshire, 6, 7

B

B vitamins, 60, 75, 80, 99

Bacteria

microbial protein synthesis, 16–18

Barley, 146

Beef cows

age, 40–41

diet evaluation, 110, 111

dietary energy concentration, 92–93

energy and protein requirements, 45

energy reserves, 111–112

equations, 92–94

feed intake, 41

milk production, 43–46

nutrient requirements, 56, 110

Beef Improvement Federation, 25

Behavioral modification, 9

ß-carotene, 75

Blind staggers, 68

Body composition

body weight and, 23–26

breed and, 29

computation, 34–35

diet composition and, 29

and feed intake, 85–86

growth stage and, 24

marbling categories, 26

Body condition

calf birth weight and, 41

computation, 334–5

empty body chemical composition and, 36

and energy and protein requirements, 29, 33–34

and energy reserves, 36

and reproduction, 33

scores, 33–35

Body temperature

and energy requirements for maintenance, 8–9

heat production (HE), 3, 8–9

lower critical temperature (LCT), 9, 10

microbial fermentation and, 3

upper critical temperature (UCT), 9

zone of thermoneutrality, 9



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Nutrient Requirements of Beef Cattle: Seventh Revised Edition, 1996 Index A Acclimatization, 8, 9 Achromotrichia, 63 Age cow, and birth weight, 40–41 and energy requirements for maintenance, 8 and feed intake, 86 and malnutrition, 49 and milk production, 45 at puberty, 46, 47, 67 Agricultural and Food Research Council (AFRC), 5, 35, 55 Agricultural Research Council (ARC), 5, 8 Alkali, 143–144 Alkali disease, 68 Aluminum, 55 Amino acids and BCP synthesis, 18 gestation and, 42, 43 nutrient interactions, 60, 79–80 requirements, 18, 31–32, 120–121 supply, 126–127 Ammonia, 144 Anabolic agents, 24, 25, 26, 27–29, 87, 88, 92 Anemia, 65, 68, 80 Angus, 6, 7, 8, 25, 34, 40, 63, 105 Antibiotics, 80 Arsenic, 55 Ayrshire, 6, 7 B B vitamins, 60, 75, 80, 99 Bacteria microbial protein synthesis, 16–18 Barley, 146 Beef cows age, 40–41 diet evaluation, 110, 111 dietary energy concentration, 92–93 energy and protein requirements, 45 energy reserves, 111–112 equations, 92–94 feed intake, 41 milk production, 43–46 nutrient requirements, 56, 110 Beef Improvement Federation, 25 Behavioral modification, 9 ß-carotene, 75 Blind staggers, 68 Body composition body weight and, 23–26 breed and, 29 computation, 34–35 diet composition and, 29 and feed intake, 85–86 growth stage and, 24 marbling categories, 26 Body condition calf birth weight and, 41 computation, 334–5 empty body chemical composition and, 36 and energy and protein requirements, 29, 33–34 and energy reserves, 36 and reproduction, 33 scores, 33–35 Body temperature and energy requirements for maintenance, 8–9 heat production (HE), 3, 8–9 lower critical temperature (LCT), 9, 10 microbial fermentation and, 3 upper critical temperature (UCT), 9 zone of thermoneutrality, 9

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Nutrient Requirements of Beef Cattle: Seventh Revised Edition, 1996 Body weight. See also Weight gain; Weight loss and body composition, 23–26 empty (EBW), 6, 22–23, 25, 33, 35 and energy reserves, 36 equivalent shrunk (EQSBW), 19, 26, 27, 29 initial, and dry matter intake, 89–90 mature, 47 and nutrient requirements, 104 at puberty, 47 shrunk (SBW), 22, 23, 26 standard reference (SRW), 26, 29 surface area and, 9 systems, 24–27, 29 and water intake, 81 Boran, 6 Bos indicus breeds birth weights, 40 energy and protein requirements, 31, 32 maintenance energy requirements, 6, 7 puberty, 47 Bos taurus breeds birth weights, 40 energy and protein requirement system, 29 maintenance energy requirements, 7 puberty, 47 Bovine somatotropin, 31 Brahman, 7, 90 Braunvieh, 6 Breeding herd replacements body weight, 26, 47 energy and protein requirements, 32–33 nutrient requirements, 108 Breeding performance. See also Reproduction calving interval, 48 conception rates, 33, 67 condition and, 48 determinants, 46–49, 64, 66, 67 energy requirements for, 5 feeding and, 46 females, 47–48 heifer development and, 46–47 males, 48–49 maturity and, 46 rebreeding, 41, 48 reproducing females, 47–48 weight and, 27, 47–48 Breeds. See also specific breeds and birth weights, 40, 115 British, 22, 23, 24, 33, 34, 35 and energy requirements, 6–7, 22, 29 European, 32, 33, 34, 35 and maintenance, 6 maintenance requirement multipliers, 115 milk production, 115 and nutrient utilization, 57 and protein requirements, 29 and puberty, 47 Bromine, 55 Brown Swiss, 7, 42 Bulls breeding performance, 48–49 diet evaluation, 107 nutrient requirements, 106 C Cadmium, 55 California Net Energy System, 5 Calcium deficiency, 55–56 functions and biodistribution, 55 nutrient interactions, 55, 57, 66, 67, 76, 77 requirements, 54, 55, 104, 118 sources, 56 toxicity, 56 Calves birth-weight determinants, 40–41, 115 body weight and composition, 23 dry matter intake, 97–98 milk consumption, 44–45 neonatal mortality, 47 nutrient requirements, 56, 57, 58, 63, 64–65, 98 stocker, 17 stressed, 97–98, 99 twins, 41 weaning weight, 48, 58 Carbohydrates, 17, 18, 57, 79, 121, 122 Casein, 31 Charolais, 6–7, 63 Chianina, 6, 7 Chlorine deficiency, 60 functions and biodistribution, 60 requirements, 60, 98 sources, 60 toxicity, 60 Choline deficiency, 80 sources and functions, 80 Chromium, 61 Cimaterol, 31 Clover, and sweet clover disease, 78 Cobalt deficiency, 62 functions and biodistribution, 61–62 nutrient interactions, 79 requirements, 62 sources, 62 toxicity, 62

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Nutrient Requirements of Beef Cattle: Seventh Revised Edition, 1996 Cold stress, 3, 9–10, 41, 85, 86–87 Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organization (CSIRO), 5, 8, 10, 12, 24, 26, 33, 34, 35 Compudose, 27 Condition. See Body condition Conversion of MP to NP, 19 Copper deficiency, 63 functions and biodistribution, 62 nutrient interactions, 61, 63, 65, 66–67 requirements, 62–63, 99 sources, 63 toxicity, 64 Corn, 20, 61, 66, 69, 75, 78, 98, 145 Cross breeds Angus (Braunvieh, 6 Angus (Hereford, 7, 46 Angus (Holstein, 7 Charolais (Hereford, 7 dairy (beef, 45 Hereford (Friesian, 7 Friesian (Hereford, 6 Simmental (Hereford, 7 White Shorthorn (Galloway, 7 Crude protein, 16 D Dairy cows, energy requirements, 5, 12, 32, 33 Dexter, 7 Dicoumarol, 78 Diets all-forage, 91, 92, 93, 94–95 and calcium absorption, 55 digestibility, 19 evaluation of, 102–105 finishing, 17, 18, 20, 105 gestation, 19 high-concentrate, 28, 55, 59, 60, 76 high-grain, 17, 18, 20, 22–23 high-quality forage, 22–23 low-protein, high-forage, 18, 20 maintenance, 105 two-phase feeding programs, 22–23 Digestible energy (DE), 3 Digestible nutrients microbial protein synthesis and, 16–18 total, 3 Digestibility. See also specific nutrients and calcium, 56 protein, 18 Dry matter intake. See also Feed intake anabolic agents and, 28 calves, 97–98 energy and, 85 ionophores and, 28 prediction of, 119 protein requirements and, 19 E Energy balance, 33 content of milk, 46 deficiency, 41, 97–98 defined, 3 digestibility and calcium, 56 digestible (DE), 3 excess intakes, 32 fecal (FE), 3 feeding systems, 5 gaseous (GE), 3 gross (E), 3 heat production (HE), 3, 4, 5–6, 9 intake (IE), 4 metabolizable (ME), 3–4, 5–6, 22, 29, 42–43, 46 net (NE), 3–4, 5, 10, 23, 24, 26, 29, 30, 43, 45, 88, 92–93, 104, 126, 129–130 protein intake and, 19–20 from protein fermentation, 18 reserves, 33–36, 111–112, 117–118 retained (RE), 3, 4, 5, 22 supply, 119 units, 3–5 urinary (UE), 3 utilization efficiency, 42–43, 46 values of feeds, 3–5, 28 and weight gain, 12, 22 Energy requirements body temperature and, 8–9 breed and, 6–7, 29 for breeding herd replacements, 32–33 compensatory gain and, 11–12 calculations, 114–116 diet composition and intake and, 29 dry matter intake as a function of, 88–89 example, 27 for gestation, 42–43 for growing cattle, 22–32, 116–117 for lactation, 4–5, 45 for maintenance, 5–11, 29, 43, 114–116 nutrients and, 46 physiological state and, 10–11 for pregnancy, 4–5 previous plane of nutrition and, 11–12, 29 for reproduction, 5 season and, 8

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Nutrient Requirements of Beef Cattle: Seventh Revised Edition, 1996 sex and, 5, 7–8 temperature (environmental) and, 9–10 validation studies, 19–20, 29 for weight gain, 23 weight loss and, 12 Environmental conditions. See also Cold stress; Heat stress and energy requirements, 8–10, 33 and feed intake, 86–87 and gestation, 41 and water intake, 81 Equations. See Models and equations Estradiol benzoate, 27 Estrogenic implants. See Anabolic agents Ethylenediamine dihydroiodide (EDDI), 64 F Fasting heat production (FHP), 5, 6, 7–8 Fasting metabolism (FM), 5 Fatty acids ionophores and, 28 nutrient interactions, 57, 67, 77 polyunsaturated, 77 volatile, 28 Feed intake. See also Dry matter intake all-forage diets, 92, 94–95 anabolic agents and, 27–28, 92 energy concentraton, 92 environmental factors, 10, 86–87 forage allowance and, 92 growing and finishing cattle, 88–90 and lactation, 41 management and dietary factors, 87–88 nutrient defieciencies and, 60 physiological factors, 85–86 predictions, 88–94 and reproduction, 41, 46–47 stress and, 97–98 validation of the beef cow equation, 93 water intake and, 80–81 Feedlot cattle intake, 89–90 potassium requirements, 59 Feeds. See also Diet; Forage; Grain biological values, 129 composition values, 127–130, 134–143 energy and nutrient values of, 3–5, 28, 121, 126 roughages, 142–144 processing treatments, 88, 133, 142 step-up rations, 18 urea, 18, 20 Finaplix, 27 Finishing diets, 17, 18, 20, 104, 105 feed intake predictions for, 88–92 nutrient requirements, 55, 103, 104 Fluorine, 55 Foot rot, 64 Forages allowances, 87, 92 ensiled, 18 green, 87 nutrients, 56, 57, 58, 59, 60, 61, 63, 65, 66 protein degradation, 18 Forplix, 27 Frame-size system, 25 Friesian, 6, 7, 8, 45 G Gain. See Weight gain Gelbvieh, 7 Gestation. See also Pregnancy diets, 19 energy requirements for, 42–43 fetal growth determinants, 41 heat production during, 10 nutrient requirements, 40–43, 56, 58 placenta functions, 42 protein requirements for, 43 temperature (environmental) and, 41 Glucose, 42 Glutathione peroxidase, 67, 68, 78 Goitrogenic substances, 64 Grains. See also specific grains BCP synthesis from, 17 nutrients, 56, 57, 58, 59, 60, 63, 65, 66, 69 processing, 144–145 protein degradation, 18 Grass tetany, 56–57, 59 Growth. See also Body weight; Maintenance; Weight gain amino acid requirements, 120 calculation of requirements, 116–117 energy and protein requirements, 22–32, 116 fetal, 41 feed intake predictions for, 88–92 nutrient requirements, 60, 103, 104 replacement heifers, 116–117 stage of, 24 trials, 32 Gut fill, 27 H Heat stress, 10, 41, 86–87 Heifers

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Nutrient Requirements of Beef Cattle: Seventh Revised Edition, 1996 body weight and composition, 25, 26, 47, 116–117 diet evaluation, 108, 109 energy and protein requirements, 27, 32 growth rate, 32–33, 116–117 mammary development, 32 pregnant, 108–109 puberty, 32, 46 feeding effects, 46–47 nutrient requirements, 108 Hereford, 6, 7, 8, 10, 34, 40, 42, 58 Holstein, 6, 7, 10, 23, 25, 45 Hypomagnesemic tetany, 56–57 I Implants growth-promoting, 27–29, 87 Implus, 27 Infectious bovine rhinotracheitis, 98 Institute National de la Recherche Agronomique (INRA), 19, 24–25, 33, 34, 35 Iodine deficiency, 64 functions and biodistribution, 64 requirements, 64 sources, 64 toxicity, 64–65 Ionophores, 28–29, 57, 59, 87–88, 91–92 Iron deficiency, 65 functions and biodistribution, 65 nutrient interactions, 67 requirements, 65, 99 sources, 65 toxicity, 65 J Jersey, 6–7, 77–78 L Lactation. See also Milk production amino acid requirements, 120 assessment of, 43 and body weight, 48 calculation of requirements, 117, 120 energy requirements for, 4–5, 10, 45 and feed intake, 85 mineral requirements for, 55, 56, 58, 59, 60, 64 protein requirements for, 19, 45 Laidlomycin propionate, 28, 87, 91–92 Lasalocid, 28, 59, 87, 91–92 Lead, 55 Legumes, 56, 57, 62, 63, 69 Limousin, 6 Lipids, 17–18, 33 M Magnesium activity and, 11 deficiency, 56–57 functions and biodistribution, 56 nutrient interactions, 56, 57 requirements, 56 sources, 57 toxicity, 57 Maine Anjou, 7 Maintenance activity and, 11 age differences, 8 amino acid requirements, 120 body temperature and, 8–9 breed differences, 6–7, 115 diet evaluation, 103–104, 105 equations, 114–116 energy requirements for, 5–11, 29, 43, 114–116 microbial, 17 nutrient interactions, 57 nutrient requirements, 55, 57–58, 103, 104 physiological state and, 10–11 protein requirements for, 19, 31–32, 116 seasonal effects, 8 sex differences, 7–8 temperature effects, 8–10 Malnutrition, 46, 49 Manganese deficiency, 66 functions and biodistribution, 65 requirements, 65–66 sources, 66 toxicity, 66 Marbling average score, 26 body fat and, 26 Measurement calorimetric methods, 5 comparative slaughter methods, 5–6, 7–8, 10, 22, 28, 32, 55 energy requirements for maintenance, 5–6 growth trials, 32 long-term feeding trials, 5 metabolism trials, 31–32 milk production, 44–45 nitrogen balance studies, 19 Meat Animal Research Center, 26–27 Melengestrerol acetate (MGA), 27 Mercury, 55

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Nutrient Requirements of Beef Cattle: Seventh Revised Edition, 1996 Microbial protein conversion to net protein, 19–20 bacterial (microbial) crude (BCP), 16–17, 19 markers, 17 synthesis, 16–19, 79–80 Milk composition, 44, 45–46 Milk production age and, 45 assessment of, 43–46 breed differences, 115 efficiency of energy use from, 12 feed intake and, 41 measures of, 44 nutrient intake and, 60 Minerals. See also individual minerals macrominerals, 54, 55–61 maximum tolerable concentrations, 54–55 microminerals, 54, 61–69 requirements, 54 stress and, 98–99 supplementation, 54–55 Ministry of Agriculture, Fisheries, and Food, 5 Models and equations amino acid requirements, 120 amino acid supply, 126–127 carbohydrate and protein escape, 122 development of the model, 113 dry matter intake predictions, 119 energy and protein requirements, 113 energy and protein reserves, 34–35, 117–118 fecal output, 125–126 feed composition values, 127–130 feed intake predictions, 88–94 feed nutrient and energy values, 126 growth requirements, 116–117 intestinal digestibilities and absorption, 124–125 lactation requirements, 117 maintenance requirements, 114–116 metabolizable protein, 126 microbial composition, 124 microbial yields, 123–124 mineral and vitamin rquirements, 118 net energy values, 88–89, 126, 129–130 nutrient supply, 119–126 pH adjustments for degradation of available fiber, 122 pregnancy requirements, 117 replacement heifer growth requirements, 116–117 ruminal escape of carbohydrate and protein, 122–123 validation of, 90–91 water for feedlot steers, 81–82 weight and rate of gain, 32–33 Molybdenum functions and biodistribution, 66 nutrient interactions, 62, 63 sources, 67 toxicity, 67 utilization determinants, 66 Monensin, 28, 59, 80, 87, 91–92, 94 N Niacin deficiency, 80 requirements, 99 sources and functions, 79–80 Nickel, 67 Nitrogen balance studies, 19, 31 content of gravid uterine tissues, 43 nonprotein (NPN), 18 nutrient interactions, 57, 79 recycling, 18 water intake and, 81 Nutrients interrelationships, 55 ionophores and, 28 total digestible (TDN), 3, 16–17, 18 Nutrition status and energy requirements, 11–12, 22, 29 and protein requirements, 22, 29 O Oats, 146 Oilseed meals, 56, 58, 59, 63 Osteomalacia, 56 P Peptides, and BCP synthesis, 18 pH, rumen, 17, 104 Phospholipids, 23 Phosphorus deficiency, 58 functions and biodistribution, 57 nutrient interactions, 56, 66, 76, 77 requirements, 57–58, 104, 118 sources, 58–59 Photoperiod, and feed intake, 87 Physiological state adaptation, 9 and energy requirements for maintenance, 10–11 Pica, 59 Polioencephalomalacia, 79 Potassium deficiency, 59 functions and biodistribution, 59 nutrient interactions, 57 requirements, 59, 98

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Nutrient Requirements of Beef Cattle: Seventh Revised Edition, 1996 sources, 59 toxicity, 59 Pregnancy amino acid requirements, 120 calculation of requirements, 117 energy expenditures, 42 energy requirements for, 4–5 and feed intake, 85 nutrient needs, 40, 108 protein requirements for, 19, 43 rates, 46 weight gain, 33 Progesterone, 27 Protein. See also Microbial protein; Nitrogen absorbed, 16 bacterial true (BTP), 17 biological value of, 19 crude, 16 deficiency, 41, 87–88 degraded intake (DIP), 16, 17, 20 digestibility, 3, 18, 56 intake, 121 metabolizable (MP), 16, 19, 104, 120, 126 net, 19, 32, 43 reserves, 33–36, 117–118 rumen degradation, 18, 20, 122 supply, 120 supplementation, 19–20 tissue sunthesis, 31 undegraded intake (UIP), 16, 18, 19, 20, 98 Protein requirements amino acids, 31–32 breed and, 29 for breeding herd replacements, 32–33 calves, 98 diet composition and intake and, 29 example, 27 for gestation, 43 for growing cattle, 22–32, 116 for lactation, 19, 45 for maintenance, 19, 31–32 previous plane of nutrition and, 29 stress and, 98 validation studies, 19–20 R Ralgro, 27 Red Danish, 42 Red Poll, 7 Reproduction. See also Breeding; Gestation; Lactation; Pregnancy body condition and, 33 feed intake and, 41, 46–47 nutrient deficiencies and, 64 ovulation, 33 postpartum anestrous, 48 Revalor, 27 Rickets, 55–56, 77 Roughage, nutritive value of, 17–19, 85–86, 142–144 Rumen microbial population, 16 microbial protein synthesis, 16–19 pH, 17, 104 protein degradation, 17 S Salinomycin, 28 Season and energy requirements for maintenance, 8 and feed intake, 87 Selenium deficiency, 68 functions and biodistribution, 67 nutrient interactions, 77 requirements, 67–68, 99 sources, 68 toxicity, 68 Sex and body composition, 23–24, 27 and energy requirements for breeding, 5 and energy requirements for maintenance, 6–8 and feed intake, 86 Simmental, 6–7, 8, 62–63 Sodium deficiency, 60 functions and biodistribution, 60 requirements, 60, 98 sources, 60 toxicity, 60 Sodium hydroxide, 114 Sorghum, 61, 145–146 Standard reference weights, 26 Stressed cattle. See also Cold stress; Heat stress energy deficiency, 97–98 mineral requirements, 61, 98–99 protein requirements, 98 suggested nutrient concentrations for, 99 vitamin requirements, 75, 99 Strontium, 55 Subcommittee on Nitrogen Usage in Ruminants, 16, 17 Sulfur deficiency, 61 functions and biodistribution, 60 nutrient interactions, 62, 66, 67, 77 requirements, 60–61 sources, 61

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Nutrient Requirements of Beef Cattle: Seventh Revised Edition, 1996 toxicity, 61 Sweet clover disease syndrome, 78 Synovex, 27 T Temperature. See Body temperature; Environmental temperature; Heat stress; Cold stress Tetany, 56–57, 59, 77 Thiamin deficiency, 79 sources and functions, 79 Total digestible nutrients (TDN), 3 Trenbolone acetate, 27 U University of California, 22 Urea, 18, 20, 144 U.S. Department of Agriculture, weight system, 25–26 V Validation energy requirement systems, 29, 31 feed intake predictions, 90–91 protein requirement systems, 19–20, 29, 31 Vitamin A deficiency, 76 sources and functions, 75–76 toxicity, 76 Vitamin B12 deficiency, 79 nutrient interactions, 61–62 sources and functions, 78–79 Vitamin D calcium and, 55 deficiency, 77 nutrient interactions, 56 sources and functions, 76–77, 99 toxicity, 77 Vitamin E deficiency, 78 nutrient interactions, 67 sources and functions, 77–78 stability, 78 toxicity, 78 Vitamin K deficiency, 78 sources and functions, 78 toxicity, 78 Vitamins. See also specific vitamins fat-soluble, 75–78 stress and, 99 water-soluble, 78–80 W Water calculation, 81–82 intake, 81 losses, 81 requirements, 80–82 restriction, 81 saline water intoxication, 60 Weight gain anabolic agents and, 27–28 calcium content of, 55 compensatory, 11–12 composition of, 22, 24, 26, 29 empty body, 12, 22 energy content of, 12, 22, 26 energy required for, 23 growth stage and, 22–24 net energy for, 22 protein requirements for, 19 rates, 20, 22–24 shrunk, 23 Weight loss, energy from, 12 Wheat, 146 White Fulani, 46 White muscle disease, 67, 68, 78 Z Zeranol, 27 Zinc deficiency, 69 functions and biodistribution, 68 requirements, 69, 99 sources, 69 toxicity, 69

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Nutrient Requirements of Beef Cattle: Seventh Revised Edition, 1996 Other Titles in the Series Nutrient Requirements of Laboratory Animals, Fourth Rev. Ed., 1995 0–309–05126–6 Nutrient Requirements of Poultry, Ninth Rev. Ed., 1994 0–309–04892–3 Nutrient Requirements of Fish, 1993 0–309–04891–5 Nutrient Requirements of Horses, Fifth Rev. Ed., 1989 0–309–03989–4 Nutrient Requirements of Dairy Cattle, Sixth Rev. Ed., Update 1989 0–309–03826-X Nutrient Requirements of Swine, Ninth Rev. Ed., 1988 0–309–03779–4 Nutrient Requirements of Cats, Rev. Ed., 1986 0–309–03682–8 Nutrient Requirements of Sheep, Sixth Rev. Ed., 1985 0–309–03596–1 Nutrient Requirements of Dogs, Rev. Ed., 1985 0–309–03496–5 Nutrient Requirements of Mink and Foxes, Rev. Ed., 1982 0–309–03325-X Nutrient Requirements of Goats, 1981 0–309–03185–0 Nutrient Requirements of Nonhuman Primates, 1978 0–309–02786–1 Nutrient Requirements of Rabbits, Second Rev. Ed., 1977 0–309–02607–5 Related Publications Metabolic Modifiers: Effects on the Nutrient Requirements of Food-Producing Animals, 1994 0–309–04997–0 Predicting Feed Intake of Food-Producing Animals, 1987 0–309–03695-X Vitamin Tolerance of Animals, 1987 0–309–03728-X