Index

A

Absorption, 110, 111

Acid-base reactions, 106-107, 131, 133-134, 152, 164, 177, 180, 182, 184-185, 194

Adenosine triphosphate, 83-84, 85

Adsorption, 81, 110

Advection, 78-80, 114, 135, 177, 180-184 (passim)

Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry (ATSDR), 42, 53, 55-56, 57

Agent Orange, 43, 100

Air Force (U.S.), 29

case studies, 117-120, 122-127, 153

definition of natural attenuation, 23

protocols, 213, 220, 223, 226-227, 229, 232, 234-235, 238, 239, 240, 241, 244, 245

American Indians, see Native Americans

American Petroleum Institute, 33, 215, 230-231, 234-235

American Society for Testing and Materials, 33, 215, 229-230, 232, 234-235, 237-238, 240, 241

definition of natural attenuation, 23

Anaerobic processes, 74, 75, 84, 120, 127-128, 152, 165, 194, 228, 231

case studies, 115, 117, 120, 127

halogenated aliphatic compounds, 93-98

hydrocarbons, 86, 87-90, 91, 93, 115, 117

inorganic compounds, 101, 103, 104, 105

Aqueous complexation, 23, 109-110, 135

Army Science Board, definition of natural attenuation, 23

Arsenic, 9, 69, 89, 103, 139

ATP, see Adenosine triphosphate

ATSDR, see Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry

B

Benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, and xylene (BTEX), 5-6, 7, 13, 19, 21, 34, 68, 86, 87, 91-92, 138, 140

case studies, 115-117, 118, 126, 154

monitoring, 205, 208-209

protocols, 13, 221, 227-228

site modeling, 175, 181, 182-183, 184-185

Bhopal disaster (India), 43

Biodegradation, general, 22, 23, 31-32, 33, 65, 82-106, 127, 135, 138-139, 170, 171, 206-207

byproducts of chlorinated solvent biodegradation, 7, 39, 40, 127, 140, 167, 191, 228

vinyl chloride, 6, 32, 39, 85-86, 120, 167, 191-192



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Natural Attenuation for Groundwater Remediation Index A Absorption, 110, 111 Acid-base reactions, 106-107, 131, 133-134, 152, 164, 177, 180, 182, 184-185, 194 Adenosine triphosphate, 83-84, 85 Adsorption, 81, 110 Advection, 78-80, 114, 135, 177, 180-184 (passim) Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry (ATSDR), 42, 53, 55-56, 57 Agent Orange, 43, 100 Air Force (U.S.), 29 case studies, 117-120, 122-127, 153 definition of natural attenuation, 23 protocols, 213, 220, 223, 226-227, 229, 232, 234-235, 238, 239, 240, 241, 244, 245 American Indians, see Native Americans American Petroleum Institute, 33, 215, 230-231, 234-235 American Society for Testing and Materials, 33, 215, 229-230, 232, 234-235, 237-238, 240, 241 definition of natural attenuation, 23 Anaerobic processes, 74, 75, 84, 120, 127-128, 152, 165, 194, 228, 231 case studies, 115, 117, 120, 127 halogenated aliphatic compounds, 93-98 hydrocarbons, 86, 87-90, 91, 93, 115, 117 inorganic compounds, 101, 103, 104, 105 Aqueous complexation, 23, 109-110, 135 Army Science Board, definition of natural attenuation, 23 Arsenic, 9, 69, 89, 103, 139 ATP, see Adenosine triphosphate ATSDR, see Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry B Benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, and xylene (BTEX), 5-6, 7, 13, 19, 21, 34, 68, 86, 87, 91-92, 138, 140 case studies, 115-117, 118, 126, 154 monitoring, 205, 208-209 protocols, 13, 221, 227-228 site modeling, 175, 181, 182-183, 184-185 Bhopal disaster (India), 43 Biodegradation, general, 22, 23, 31-32, 33, 65, 82-106, 127, 135, 138-139, 170, 171, 206-207 byproducts of chlorinated solvent biodegradation, 7, 39, 40, 127, 140, 167, 191, 228 vinyl chloride, 6, 32, 39, 85-86, 120, 167, 191-192

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Natural Attenuation for Groundwater Remediation case studies, 115, 118, 120, 124, 127, 130-131, 153 chlorinated solvents, general, 10, 12, 73, 93-99 hydrocarbons, general, 31-32, 73, 86-93, 115, 118, 130-131, 138, 152, 153, 164-165, 184-185, 194, 196-197, 207 inorganic contaminants, 88-90, 101-106, 131, 139 mass budgeting, 175-177 protocols, 223-224, 228, 229 public opinion of, 40, 41 redox reactions, 82, 83, 107-108 site modeling, 10, 11, 12, 151, 152, 153, 164-165, 170, 171, 175-177, 181, 184-185, 191, 194, 196-197, 198 source removal, effects on, 73, 74, 75, 141 volatilization and, 84, 86, 102 see also Anaerobic processes Brownfield programs, 27 Byproducts of natural attenuation, 7, 39, 40, 127, 140, 167, 192, 228 vinyl chloride, 6, 32, 39, 85-86, 120, 167, 191-192 C California, leaking underground storage tanks, 30 Capping, 74 Case studies, 49, 71, 115-135, 136, 151, 152, 194, 200, 202, 229 Air Force sites, 117-120, 122-127, 153 anaerobic processes, 115, 117, 120, 127 BTEX, 115-117, 118, 126, 153 biodegradation, 115, 118, 120, 124, 127, 130-131, 152, 153 chlorinated solvents, 119-126 Coast Guard site, 115-117 Department of Energy (Hanford), 134-135, 136 documentation requirements, 115, 117 footprints, 117, 124, 151, 153 metal pollutants, 131-133, 153 plume factors, 115-117, 118-119, 120, 122-123, 129, 130, 131, 133-135, 136 pump-and-treat approach, 115 redox reactions, 120, 127, 133-134 sampling techniques, 119, 120, 122, 129, 134 Chemical oxygen demand, 119, 120, 129, 151 Chevron Corp., 33, 215, 229, 234-235 Children, 42, 58 Chlorinated solvents, 6, 68, 71, 107, 162 biodegradation, general, 10, 12, 73, 93-99 byproducts of biodegradation, 7, 39, 40, 127, 140, 167, 191, 228 vinyl chloride, 6, 32, 39, 85-86, 120, 167, 191-192 case studies, 119-126 DCA, 68, 124 DCE, 112, 120, 124, 126, 191 dechlorination, 75, 93, 95, 97, 99, 107-108, 114, 120, 127, 128, 151, 152, 166-167, 168, 223, 227, 192-193 engineering remediation, 73, 74 footprints, 12, 124, 166-171, 207-208 halogenated alphatics, general, 68 PCE, 68, 93, 95, 96-97, 114, 119-120, 227 protocols, 13, 16, 23, 214, 215, 219, 220, 222-244 (passim), 249, 251 source removal, 73, 74-76 state regulations, 16, 228-229, 232 TCA, 112, 123-127, 138, 152, 167, 245 TCE, 6, 32, 39, 42, 45, 48, 93, 94, 95, 97, 114, 120-127, 138, 151, 152, 153, 166-167, 170-171, 191-192, 227, 245 Chromium, 9, 69, 89, 102-103, 109 Citizen advisory committees, 56, 57 Citizen’s Environmental Coalition, 33 Classification exception areas, 229, 233, 236 Coast Guard, case study, 115-117 Co-contaminants, 10 Cometabolism, 84, 171 Community advisory groups, 53-54, 56, 57 Community participation, 3-5, 14, 16-17, 37, 38, 48-61, 234-235 citizen advisory committees, 56, 57 community advisory groups, 53-54 cost of cleanups, 3, 24, 38, 39, 41, 53, 61 Department of Defense efforts, 4, 57-58, 60 documentation, 2-3, 5, 38-41, 58, 61 economic factors, other than costs of cleanups, 41, 45-46, 50, 233, 236 education of public, 49, 53, 55, 60-61, 232, 236, 247-248, 253 EPA efforts, 5, 50, 51, 56-57, 61, 233-235 funding for, 39, 57

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Natural Attenuation for Groundwater Remediation health effects, 37, 41, 42-45, 47, 48, 58 historical perspectives, 43, 50, 54, 59 institutional controls, 5, 39, 40, 50 language factors, 5, 55 leaking underground storage tanks, 53-54 metal pollutants, 40 mixtures of contaminants, 39, 45 monitoring of sites, 39, 40-41, 48, 52, 58 protocols, 14, 16-17, 55-56, 216, 217, 229, 232, 233, 234, 236-238, 247-248, 251, 252, 253 psychological factors, 41, 46-48, 58 regulatory issues, 3-5, 47-48, 53, 55, 59-61, 236 Resource Conservation and Recovery Act, 50 state-level actions, 50 Superfund sites, 33-34, 42, 43, 50, 51-52, 60 timing and other time factors, 5, 39, 40, 41, 45, 49, 50, 52, 58, 236 see also Public opinion; Social factors Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act, see Superfund Contingency planning, 16, 21-22, 217, 218, 234, 237-238, 251, 252 funding, 39 Cost factors, 22, 24 community concerns/participation, 3, 24, 38, 39, 41, 53, 61 engineering bioremediation, 20, 24, 39, 41 protocol, training regarding, 18, 254 site modeling, 154, 161-162 see also Funding Cultural factors, 5, 55 language factors, 5, 55 Native Americans, 46 D Dechlorination, 75, 93, 95, 97, 99, 107-108, 114, 120, 127, 128, 151, 152, 166-167, 168, 223, 227, 192-193 Dense nonaqueous-phase liquids, 69, 71, 72 TCE, 6, 32, 39, 42, 45, 48, 93, 94, 95, 97, 114, 120-127, 138, 151, 152, 153, 166-167, 170-171, 191-192, 227, 245 Department of Defense, community concerns/participation, 4, 57-58, 60 Department of Energy, 105 Hanford site, 134-135, 136 model evaluation, 202-203 protocols, 13, 214, 224-226, 232-233, 234-235, 242, 244, 251, 253 uranium mill tailings sites, 32 Desorption, 23 Dichloroethane (DCA), 68, 124 Dichloroethene (DCE), 112, 120, 124, 126, 191 Dilution, 2, 22, 23, 34, 40, 221 community concerns, 38, 58 Diseases and disorders, see Health effects Dispersion, 22, 23, 40, 80-81, 78, 79, 114, 135, 180, 221 community concerns, 38 Dissolution reactions, see Precipitation and dissolution reactions DNA, 82-83 DNAPLs, see Dense nonaqueous-phase liquids Documentation, 1, 7, 10-12, 150, 207 case studies, 115, 117 community participation, 2-3, 5, 38-41, 58, 61 see also Models and modeling; Monitoring requirements; Protocols; Sampling Draft Guidelines: Natural Attenuation of Chlorinated Solvents in Groundwater, 228 Draft Region 4 Suggested Practices for Evaluation of a Site for Natural Attenuation (Biological Degradation) of Chlorinated Solvents, 223 E Economic factors community concerns/participation, 41, 45-46, 50, 233, 236 see also Cost factors; Funding Education and training professional, 55 protocols, 14-15, 17, 18, 226, 242, 245-248, 254 public, 49, 53, 55, 60-61, 232, 236, 247-248, 253

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Natural Attenuation for Groundwater Remediation Epidemiologic studies, 44, 45 Engineered bioremediaton, 20, 60, 74-76 capping, 74 chlorinated solvents, 73, 74 costs of, 20, 24, 39, 41 excavation, 20, 74 limitations of, 29, 25-26, 74-76 protocols, 240, 252 pump-and-treat approach, 20, 24, 24, 74, 115 see also Source zones and source removal Environmental Protection Agency, 5 community participation, 5, 50, 51, 56-57, 61, 233-235 definition of natural attenuation, 23 Office of Solid Waste and Emergency Response, 56-57 protocols, 15-18, 33, 214, 221-224, 226, 227, 230, 231, 232, 233, 236-244 (passim), 246, 248, 250-254 (passim) RCRA Corrective Action Program, 29 Toxic Substances Control Act Chemical Inventory, 25 see also Superfund Evaporation, see Volatilization Evidence, see Documentation; Monitoring requirements; Sampling Ethylbenzene, see Benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, and xylene (BTEX) Europe, 42 Excavation, 20, 74 F Federal government, 221-228, 247, 254 Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry (ATSDR), 42, 53, 55-56, 57 Army Science Board, 23 Coast Guard, 115-117 Occupational Safety and Health Administration, 247 Geological Survey, 227 see also Air Force (U.S.); Navy (U.S.); Department of Defense; Department of Energy; Environmental Protection Agency; Footprints, 10-12, 19, 114, 117, 124, 151-154, 188, 191, 205, 206-207 case studies, 117, 124, 151, 153 chlorinated solvents, 12, 124, 166-171, 207 hydrocarbons, 163-165, 207 mass budgeting, 159-160, 172, 173, 175-177, 180-185, 186, 187-188, 194, 199, 201-203, 206, 230 models, 154, 163-171 monitoring requirements, 151-154, 163-171 petroleum hydrocarbons, 163-165, 167, 167-171 (passim) reaction, 163-171 sampling approaches, 151, 152 see also Plume factors Funding community participation, 39, 57 contingency plans, 39 see also Cost factors G Geological Survey (U.S.), 227 Guide for Remediation of Ground Water by Natural Attenuation at Petroleum Release Sites, 229-230 H Halogenated aliphatic compounds, 8, 68, 87, 93-98, 138 Halogenated aromatic compounds, 8, 68, 87, 98-100, 138 polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), 43, 68, 88, 99-100, 127-128, 138, 153, 233, 251 Hanford site (Washington), 134-135, 136 Health effects, 2, 3, 5, 6, 7, 9, 10, 19, 128 carcinogens, 32, 42, 45; see also specific carcinogens children, 42, 58 community concerns/participation, 37, 41, 42-45, 47, 48, 58 DNA, 82-83 epidemiologic studies, 44, 45 protocols and, 13, 15, 235-236; see also Institutional controls Heavy metals, see Metal pollutants Historical perspectives, 20, 25, 26 case studies, 49, 71, 115-135, 151, 152, 153, 194, 200, 202, 229

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Natural Attenuation for Groundwater Remediation community concerns/participation, 43, 50, 54, 59 intrinsic bioremediation/natural attenuation, general, 20, 21-22, 25, 26, 26-31, 32-33 protocols, 222 HMX, see Octahydro-1,3,5,7tetranitro-1,3,5,7-tetrazocene Houston, Texas, 24 Hudson River, case study, 127-128, 153 Hydrocarbons, 8, 29, 66, 68, 138 anaerobic processes, 86, 87-90, 91, 93, 115, 117 biodegradation, general, 31-32, 73, 86-93, 115, 117, 115, 118, 130-131, 138, 152, 153, 164-165, 184-185, 194, 196-197, 207-208 footprints, 163-166, 207-208 oxygenated hydrocarbons, 8, 68, 87, 92-93, 138 MTBE, 29, 68, 92-93, 117-119, 138, 153 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), 71-72, 92, 128-131, 138, 153, 233, 251 protocols, 13, 215, 219, 221, 227-228, 230-231 source removal, 73 see also Petroleum hydrocarbons Hydrogeologic processes, 12, 14, 24, 65, 66-69, 73, 76-78, 128, 137 protocols, 14, 218-219, 222, 235, 239, 251 site modeling, 155-157, 163-165, 168, 173, 174, 184, 185-200, 205-207 see also Plume factors; Transport processes Hydrolysis, 106, 112 I Immobilization processes, 1, 4, 7-10 (passim), 18-19, 34, 65-66, 88, 89, 90, 134-135, 137, 225-226 capping, 74 In Situ Bioremediation: When Does It Work?, 21 Interstate Technology Regulatory Cooperation Work Group, 246, 247, 249 Institutional controls community opinion/participation, 5, 39, 40, 50 protocols, 14, 216-217, 224, 229, 234, 236-237, 251 Intrinsic bioremediation, see Natural attenuation/intrinsic bioremediation, general L Landfills, 20, 21, 42-43, 44, 48, 66, 68, 69, 201, 227 property values in vicinity of, 45-46 Language factors, community participation, 5, 55 Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, 26, 29 Leaking underground storage tanks, 18, 26, 27-30, 69 community involvement, 53-54 monitoring of specific sites, 151 protocols, 18, 221, 250 Legislation, 1 Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act, see Superfund Resource Conservation and Recovery Act, 18, 26, 27, 29, 50, 221, 249, 250, 253 Toxic Substances Control Act, 25 Uranium Mill Tailings Remediation Control Act, 27, 32 see also Regulatory issues; Superfund Light nonaqueous-phase liquids (LNAPLs), general, 69, 71, 72 Love Canal, 20, 27, 42, 236 M Massachusetts Department of Public Health, 42, 45 Mass balance/budgeting, 159-160, 172, 173, 175-177, 180-185, 186, 187-188, 194, 199, 201-202, 206, 230 Mass media, 42, 43, 55 Mercury, 9, 69, 89, 103 Metal pollutants, 6-10 (passim), 32, 66, 69, 81, 88-89, 102-103, 107-111, 114, 139, 140, 171 case studies, 131-133, 153 chromium, 9, 69, 89, 102-103, 109 community concerns, 40 mercury, 9, 69, 89, 103

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Natural Attenuation for Groundwater Remediation Methods for Measuring Indicators of Intrinsic Bioremediation, 230-231 Methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE), 29, 68, 92-93, 117-119, 138, 153 Michigan, Superfund sites, 43, 44 Microorganisms, see Biodegradation Mine tailings, 32, 69 Minnesota, 215, 227, 228, 232, 234-234, 243, 244 Minorities, Native Americans, 46 Mixtures of contaminants, 6, 10, 66, 127, 137, 171, 174, 206, 219, 223, 224, 226, 243, 248 community concerns, 39, 45 Models and modeling constructed models, 159-160 Department of Energy evaluation efforts, 202-203 footprints, 154, 163-171 laboratory studies, 192, 193 realizations, 157-159, 160 quality control for, 195, 198-203 site, 10, 11, 12, 151, 152, 154-171, 172, 173, 175-177, 180, 184-200, 205, 206, 223 biodegradation, general, 10, 11, 12, 151, 152, 153, 164-165, 170, 171, 176-177, 180, 184-185, 191, 194, 196-197, 198 BTEX, 176, 181, 182, 183 costs, 154, 161-162 hydrogeologic processes, 155-157, 163-165, 168, 173, 174, 184, 185-200, 205-206 NAPLs, 156, 157, 161-162, 165, 175, 180-181, 184-185, 187, 201 plume factors, 162-163, 168-170, 181, 202, 207 regulatory issues, 165, 208 statistical analyses, 162, 172, 173, 174-176, 178-179, 187-188, 195, 202, 204 solute transport, 154-171, 172, 173, 185-200, 208 sorption, 112 vadose zone, 77 Monitoring requirements, x, 5, 11, 12, 116, 140, 150, 203-204, 209-210 BTEX, 204, 208-209 community concerns/participation, 39, 40-41, 48, 52, 58 footprints, 151-154, 163-171 leaking underground storage tanks, 151 protocols, 14, 16, 204, 210, 221-222, 234, 236-237 redox reactions, 82, 83, 107-108 see also Models and modeling; Sampling; Sustainability MTBE, see Methyl tert-butyl ether N National Contingency Plan (1990), 21-22 National Environmental Justice Advisory Council, 55 National Ground Water Association, 246 National Stakeholders’ Forum on Monitored Natural Attenuation, 41 Native Americans, 46 Natural attenuation/intrinsic bioremediation, general, 21 defined, 1, 21, 22, 23, 34, 39-40 efficacy of, specific pollutants/ processes, 8-9 extent of, 1, 26-32 historical perspectives, 20, 21-22, 25, 26, 26-31, 32-33 Natural Attenuation of Chlorinated Solvents in Groundwater: Principles and Practices, 231 Navy (U.S.) protocols, 214, 220, 227-228, 232, 234-235, 238, 240, 244 source removal, 72-73 New Jersey, 43, 215, 228-229, 233, 234-235, 236 Niagara Falls, New York, see Love Canal Nitroaromatic compounds, 8, 68, 88, 101, 138 Nonaqueous-phase liquids (NAPLs), 69, 71, 73, 78, 113 protocols, 229, 237, 239 site modeling, 156, 157, 161-162, 165, 175-176, 177, 180, 181, 184-185, 187, 203 see also Dense nonaqueous-phase liquids; Light nonaqueous-phase liquids; specific NALPs

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Natural Attenuation for Groundwater Remediation O Occupational Safety and Health Administration, 247 Octahydro-1,3,5,7tetranitro-1,3,5,7-tetrazocene (HMX), 101 Office of Solid Waste and Emergency Response (EPA), 56-57 Oxyanions, 9, 69, 89, 104-105, 139 Oxygenated hydrocarbons, 8, 68, 87, 92-93, 138 MTBE, 29, 68, 92-93, 117-119, 138, 153 P P1, see Inorganic phosphorus Parsons Engineering Science, Inc., 226, 227 PCE, see Tetrachloroethylene Peer review, 13, 14, 15, 17, 18, 217, 220, 232, 235, 241, 253 Petroleum hydrocarbons, 31-32, 86, 87, 91-92, 153, 194, 196-197, 207 American Petroleum Institute, 33, 215, 230-231, 234-235 engineering remediation, effects of, 73, 74-76, 86, 87 footprints, 163-165, 166, 168-171 (passim) protocols, 16, 23, 31-32, 215, 221, 227, 229-231, 232, 238, 234-235 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), 71-72, 92, 128-131, 138, 153, 233, 251 see also Benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, and xylene; Leaking underground storage tanks Phase transfers, 78, 81-82, 114, 181, 187-188 see also Soprtion; Volatilization pH levels, see Acid-base reactions Pitman, New Jersey, 43 Plume factors, 12, 26, 29, 32, 66-67, 70, 71, 72, 97, 163-164 case studies, 115-117, 118-119, 120, 122-123, 129, 130, 131, 133-135, 136 protocols, 221, 226, 227, 228, 236 public opinion, 38 site models, general, 162-163, 168-170, 181, 202, 207 see also Footprints; Transport processes Political factors, 22, 24 Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), 43, 68, 88, 99-100, 127-128, 138, 153, 233, 251 Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), 71-72, 92, 128-131, 138, 153, 233, 251 Precipitation and dissolution reactions, 103, 105, 106, 107-109, 114, 133, 135 Property values, see Economic factors Protocol for Monitoring Bioremediation in Groundwater, 229 Protocol for Monitoring Natural Attenuation of Chlorinated Solvents in Groundwater, 229 Protocols, 2, 13-19, 32-33, 204, 213-254, 258 Air Force, 213, 220, 223, 226-227, 229, 232, 234-235, 238, 239, 240, 241, 244, 245 American Petroleum Institute, 33, 215, 230-231, 234-235 American Society for Testing and Materials, 33, 215, 229-230, 232, 234-235, 237-238, 240, 241 biodegradation, general, 223-224, 228, 229 BTEX, 13, 221, 227-228 chlorinated solvents, general, 13, 16, 23, 214, 215, 219, 220, 222-244 (passim), 249, 251 community involvement, 14, 16-17, 55-56, 216, 217, 229, 232, 233, 234, 236-238, 247-248, 251, 252, 253 contingency plans, 16, 217, 218, 222, 234, 237-238, 251, 252 cost of training, 18, 254 criteria for appropriate, 216-220, 252 defined, 213 Department of Energy, 13, 214, 224-226, 232-233, 234-235, 242, 244, 251, 253 education and training, 14-15, 17, 18, 226, 242, 245-248, 254 engineered bioremediation, 240, 252 EPA, 15-18, 33, 214, 221-224, 226, 227, 230, 231, 232, 233, 236-244 (passim), 246, 248, 250-254 (passim) health effects, 13, 15, 235-236; see also Institutional controls historical perspective, 222

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Natural Attenuation for Groundwater Remediation hydrocarbons, general, 13, 215, 219, 221, 227-228, 230-231 hydrogeologic processes, 14, 218-219, 222, 235, 239, 251 institutional controls, 14, 216-217, 224, 229, 234, 236-237, 251 leaking underground storage tanks, 18, 221, 250 monitoring requirements, 14, 16, 205, 210, 221-222, 234, 236-237 NAPLs, general, 229, 237, 239 Navy, 214, 220, 227-228, 232, 234-235, 238, 240, 244 overview of, 220-242 peer review, 13, 14, 15, 17, 18, 217, 220, 232, 235, 241, 253 petroleum hydrocarbons, 16, 23, 31-32, 215, 221, 227, 229-231, 232, 238, 234-235 plume factors, 221, 226, 227, 228, 236 regulatory issues, 15, 16-17, 213, 229, 233, 234-235, 236, 239, 247, 248-251, 254 RCRA, 221, 249, 250, 253 scoring systems, 15, 223, 242, 243-245, 253 social factors, 14, 16-17, 234-235 solute transport models, 195, 198-200 source removal, 235 state efforts, 29, 31, 33, 213, 215, 227, 228-229, 232, 233, 234-235, 236, 243, 244, 247, 248-250, 252-253, 254 Superfund, 221-222, 244, 249, 253 sustainability issues, 2, 13, 14, 17, 18, 217, 219, 224, 226, 237, 239-240, 251-252, 253 Psychological factors, 41, 46-48, 58 Public education, 49, 55, 60-61, 232, 236, 247-248, 253 Public opinion, x, 3-4, 24, 33-34, 37-48, 52-53, 54, 58-59 biodegradation, general, 40, 41 citizen advisory committees, 56, 57 dilution/dispersion approaches, 38, 58 health effects, 37, 41, 42-45, 47, 48, 58 mass media, 42, 43, 55 plumes, 38 psychological factors, 41, 46-48, 58 volatilization approaches to remediation, 38 see also Community participation Pump-and-treat approach, 20, 24, 24, 74 case study, 115 R Radioactive decay, 22, 23, 112-113 Radionuclides, 9, 32, 66, 69, 81, 89-90, 105-106, 134-135, 136, 139, 152, 153, 179, 226 Redox reactions, 82, 83, 91, 93, 97, 99, 103, 104, 105-106, 107-108, 114 biodegradation, general, 82, 83, 107-108 case studies, 120, 127, 133-134 monitoring, 151, 152, 164, 166, 174, 191-192, 196 Regulatory issues, 1-2, 26, 29, 31, 34 chlorinated solvents, 16, 228-229, 232 classification exception areas, 229, 233 community concerns/participation, 3-5, 47-48, 53, 55, 59-61, 236 funding for engineering remediation, 39 Interstate Technology Regulatory Cooperation Work Group, 246, 247, 249 leaking underground storage tanks, 29 protocols, 15, 16-17, 213, 229, 233, 234-235, 236, 239, 247, 248-251, 254 site modeling requirements, 165, 208 source removal/containment, 71 see also Environmental Protection Agency; Legislation Remediation Technologies Development Forum (RTDF), 215, 231, 233, 234-235, 238, 241, 243, 244 Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA), 18, 29 community participation, 50 leaking underground storage tanks, 18, 26, 27 protocols, 221, 249, 250, 253 Restoration advisory boards, 4, 57-58, 60 Rivers, 127-128, 153 S Sampling, 10, 11, 150, 174, 195, 230-231 case studies, 119, 120, 122, 129, 134 errors, 176, 181 footprints and, 151, 152 health effects, sample size, 45

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Natural Attenuation for Groundwater Remediation plume delineation, 162-163 professional training in, 247 Scoring systems, 15, 223, 242, 243-245, 253 Selenium, 9, 69, 89, 104, 109, 139 Site Screening and Technical Guidance for Monitored Natural Attenuation at DOE Sites, 224-226 Social factors, 3-4 cultural factors, 5, 46, 55 language factors, 5, 55 political factors, 22, 24 protocols and, 14, 16-17, 234-235 psychological factors, 41, 46-48, 58 public education, 49, 55, 60-61, 232, 236, 247-248, 253 see also Community participation; Public opinion Solvents, 6, 66, 68, 239 cosolvents, 73, 76 see also Chlorinated solvents Sorption, 22, 23, 81, 88, 100, 102, 106, 110-112, 131, 135, 221 adsorption, 81, 110 desorption, 23 site modeling, 192 Source zones and source removal, 10, 12, 14, 18, 23, 41, 58, 66, 68, 69-78, 140 biodegradation, effects of removal, 73, 74, 75, 141 chlorinated solvents, general, 73, 74-76 protocols, 235 regulatory issues, 71 site modeling, 160-162 South Glen Falls, New York, 128-131 Spatial factors, 156-157 site modeling, 156-157 see also Footprints; Plume factors Standard Guide for Remediation of Groundwater by Natural Attenuation at Petroleum Release Sites, 23 State-level actions, 16, 29, 31 chlorinated solvents, 16, 228-229, 232 community participation, 50 leaking underground storage tanks, 28 protocols, 29, 31, 33, 213, 215, 227, 228-229, 232, 233, 234-235, 236, 243, 244, 247, 248-250, 252-253, 254 site modeling requirements, 166 Superfund programs, 3, 27, 33-34, 43, 44 voluntary cleanup/brownfield programs, 27 see also Regulatory issues Statistical analyses health effects, 45 time-series analyses, 162, 174, 178 site modeling, 162, 172, 173, 174-176, 178-179, 187-189, 195, 202 St. Joseph, Michigan, 120-121 Storage tanks, see Leaking underground storage tanks Superfund (Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act), 3, 18, 20, 21-22, 27, 29, 31 community concerns/participation, 33-34, 42, 43, 50, 51-52, 60 health threats, 42-43 protocols, 221-222, 244, 249, 253 remedial process, steps involved, 51-52 state programs, 3, 27, 33-34, 43, 44 Superfund Community Relations Handbook, 50 Sustainability issues, 2, 10, 13, 14, 17, 18, 73, 97, 103, 104, 106, 165, 172, 201-203, 205, 206, 208 protocols, 2, 13, 14, 17, 18, 217, 219, 224, 226, 237, 239-240, 251-252, 253 see also Monitoring Sveso, Italy, 43 T TCA, see Trichloroethane TCE, see Trichloroethene Technical Assistance for Public Participation, 57-58 Technical Guidelines for Evaluating Monitored Natural Attenuation, 227-228 Technical Protocol for Evaluating Natural Attenuation of Chlorinated Solvents in Ground Water, 222-223 Technical Protocol for Implementing Intrinsic Remediation with Long-Term Monitoring for Natural Attenuation of Fuel Contamination in Groundwater, 226 Temporal factors, see Time factors Tetrachloroethene (PCE), 68, 93, 95, 96-97, 114, 119-120, 227 Tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD -Agent Orange), 43, 100

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Natural Attenuation for Groundwater Remediation Time factors, 7 community concerns/participation, 5, 39, 40, 41, 45, 49, 50, 52, 58, 236 definition of natural attenuation, 23 health effects, 45 monitoring, 140, 162, 174, 178, 203-204, 206-207, 229, 234 radioactive decay, 113 site modeling, 156-157, 162, 174, 178, 194 sorption, 111 source removal effects, 73, 76-77 Time-series analyses, 162, 174, 178 TNT, see Trinitrotoluene Toluene, see Benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, and xylene (BTEX) Toxic Substances Control Act, 25 Training, see Education and training Transport processes, 70, 78-82, 185-200 advection, 78-80, 114, 135, 175-177, 180-183 (passim) dispersion, 22, 23, 38, 40, 80-81, 78, 79 [ALL] see also Plume factors; Sorption Trichloroethane (TCA), 112, 123-127, 138, 152, 167, 245 Trichloroethene (TCE), 6, 32, 39, 42, 45, 48, 93, 94, 95, 97, 114, 120-127, 138, 151, 152, 153, 166-167, 170-171, 191-192, 227, 245 Trinitrotoluene (TNT), 32, 68, 101, 138 U Underground storage tanks, see Leaking underground storage tanks Uranium Mill Tailings Remediation Control Act, 27, 32 Use of Monitored Natural Attenuation at Superfund, RCRA Corrective Action, and Underground Storage Tank Sites, 221 U.S. Geological Survey, see Geological Survey (U.S.) V Vietnam, Agent Orange, 43 Vinyl chloride (VC), 6, 32, 39, 68, 94, 114, 120, 124, 126, 138, 167, 191-192 Volatilization, 2, 22, 23, 40, 81-82, 89, 103, 135, 180, 181, 221 biodegradation, 84, 86, 102 public opinion, 38 W Woburn, Massachusetts, 42, 45 X Xylene, see Benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, and xylene (BTEX)