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D Additional Resources The following publications provide additional information on the DOE complex and subsurface contamination research and develop- ment. The DOE and EM web sites (; provide additional information and resources. Closing the Circle on the Splitting of the Atom: The Environmen- tal Legacy of Nuclear Weapons Production in the United States and What the Department of Energy Is Doing About It. Washing- ton, D.C.: U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Environmental Management. 1995. The report describes the environmental legacy from the pro- duction of nuclear weapons and the cleanup underway by DOE. The report gives a detailed explanation of the nuclear production process and includes information on the extent and types of con- taminants produced by each of the steps in the process. The report also describes the types of waste, cleanup actions, and progress made at some DOE sites. The report contains many photographs of the sites and past waste management practices. It also contains a short section on the production of nuclear weapons in other countries, and on environmental contamina- tion in the former Soviet Union. 2. Bioremediation of Metals and Radionuclides: What It Is and How It Works. LB N L-42595. ]. McCu I lough, T.C. Hazen, S.M. Benson, F.B. Metting, and A.C. Palmisano. Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory. 1995. This report explores the possibilities of using bioremediation technology to clean up hazardous metal and radionuclide conta- minants found in the DOE complex. Included in the report is an overview of contamination problems at DOE facilities, a summa- ry of some of the most commonly used bioremediation technolo- A p p e n d i x D 145

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gies, a discussion of the chemical and physical properties of metals and radionuclides found in contaminant mixtures at DOE sites, an overview of the basic microbial processes that occur in bioremediation, specific in situ bioremediation processes that can be used on these contaminant mixtures, and a hypothetical case study of a composite DOE site with contaminated ground- water. The 1996 Baseline Environmental Management Report. DOE/EM-0290. Washington, D.C.: U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Envi ran mental Management. 1 996. The report provides an estimate of life-cycle costs and sched- ules for DOE's environmental cleanup mission. Although the cost and schedule estimates in this report have been superseded by the 1998 Paths to Closure Report, the descriptions of waste and contamination problems at DOE sites are still among the most comprehensive publ ished to date. 4. Linking Legacies: Connecting the Cold War Nuclear Weapons Production Processes to Thei r Envi ran mental Consequences. DOE/EM-03 1 9. Wash i ngton, D.C.: U .S. Department of Energy, Office of Environmental Management. 1 997. The report provides a detailed analysis of the sources of waste and the contamination generated by the production of nuclear weapons, giving specific environmental impacts of par- ticular production activities, in effect "linking" two of DOE's legacies nuclear weapons manufacturing and environmental management. The report quantifies the current environmental results of past weapons production activities and also contains information on the mission and functions of nuclear weapons facilities, the inventories of waste and materials remaining at these facilities, and the extent and characteristics of contamina- tion in and around these faci I ities. 5. Accelerating Cleanup: Paths to Closure. DOE/EM-0362. Washington, D.C.: U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Envi ran mental Management. 1 998. The report outlines DOE's cleanup plans based on site-devel- oped, project-by-project forecasts of the scope, schedule, and costs to complete the more than 300 projects in its cleanup pro- gram. The forecasts provide information on technical activities, budgets, worker health and safety, and risk. The report also pro- vides a discussion of the Environmental Management program's decision-making process and the relationship of the "Paths to Closu re" plan to that process. I ncl uded in the report are sum- maries of environmental management activities at specific sites, which provide information on the type and extent of the contam- S U B S U R F A C E S C ~ E N C E 146

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ination problem, end states, cost and completion dates, remedial actions, and critical closure paths. 6. Groundwater/\/adose Zone I Integration Project Specification. DOE/RL-98-48. Draft C. Washington, D.C.: U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Environmental Management. 1998. The report describes the Hanford Site's Groundwater/\/adose Zone Integration Project, a science-based strategy established in 1997 to integrate all aspects of the remediation work at Hanford with the ultimate goal of protecting the Columbia River, river- dependent life, and users of the river's resources. Included in the report is a detailed description of the environmental setting of the Hanford Site, its climate and meteorology, geology, hydrolo- gy, water quality, and ecology. Also included is a long-range plan for remediation and closure for each of Hanford's main areas (100, 200, and 300 areas). The report appendixes include descriptions of technical elements, the operational history of waste disposal at Hanford, federal and state laws and regula- tions, current state of technical knowledge, and an applied sci- ence and technology plan. 7. Environmental Management Research and Development Program Plan: Solution-Based Investments in Science and Tech nology. Wash i ngton, D.C.: U .S. Department of Energy, Office of Envi ran mental Management. 1 998. This program plan describes the investments that the Environmental Management (EM) program will make in science and technology to support the DOE cleanup mission. It also describes EM's approach to planning and managing these invest- ments. The plan incorporates what DOE terms "roadmapping" to identify the science and technology areas that promise the great- est return on investment by reducing cleanup project cost, schedule, technical risk, and riskto workers, the public, and the environment. The program plan describes EM's major problem areas, including contaminated environmental soil and ground- water, high-level radioactive waste, spent nuclear fuel, and nuclear materials. 8. Hanford Tank Clean Up: A Guide to Understanding the Technical Issues. R. E. Gephart and R. E. Lundgren. Battel le Press. 1 998. The report provides a good summary of the basic issues relat- ed to high-level radioactive waste that is being stored in 177 underground tanks at the Hanford Site. It provides background information on the history of the site, the production of high- level radioactive waste, the construction of the underground tanks and related facilities, and efforts to manage the waste and associated environmental contamination. The report also details A p p e n d i x D 147

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the critical technical issues that need to be addressed for cleanup of the tanks. 9. N ation a I Research Cou nc i I (N RC). G rou nd Water and So i I Cleanup: Improving Management of Persistent Contaminants. Washington, D.C.: National Academy Press. 1 999. This report advises DOE on technologies and strategies for cleaning up three types of soil and ground water contaminants: metals, radionuclides, and dense nonaqueous phase liquids. The report descri tees DO E's program i n grou ndwater and sol I remed i - ation, the changing regulatory environment, and technologies being used to remediate each of the contaminant types noted above. Specific advice to DOE suggests ways to set priorities in technology development, to improve the overall technology development program, to overcome barriers to technology deployment, and to address budget limitations. 1 0. From Cleanup to Stewardship. DOE/EM-0466. Washington, D.C.: U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Environmental Management. 1 999. This is a companion report to Accelerating Cleanup: Paths to Closure and provides background information on current and planned long-term stewardship activities at DOE sites. The report summarizes what is currently known about end states at DOE sites, and it also provides information on the number and loca- tions of sites that will require continuing management after DOE cleanup is completed. Additionally, the report identifies several issues that will need to be addressed to ensure a successful tran- sition from cleanup to stewardship. S U B S U R F A C E S C ~ E N C E 148