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Recommendation. The National Aeronautics and Space Admin~s~abon should continue to explore advanced robotic technologies that have the potential to increase the efficiency of human-robot teams onboard the International Space Station. This should include space flight testing of the Ranger vehicle as a proof of concept. Recommendation. The National Aeronautics and Space Adm~shation should assess the potential improvements In extravehicular activities from the introduction of new robotic technology into human-robot systems. This assessment should include a comparison of the cost for development and ~mplementabon and the potential cost savings and risk reduction associated with the use of these systems. EXTRAVEHICULAR ACTIVIlrY AND ROBOTICS The current ISS robotic teleoperators require a significant ~nveshnent of crew time for extensive hanung in operations that require great skin and attention to detail. The current ISS robotics are based on the successful history of the Space Shuttle remote manipulator system and do not represent a significant advancement In technology. The lSS will provide a unique opportunity to establish synergistic activities by suited crew members and robotic systems. Highly mobile, reduced size and weight space suits and autonomous robotic systems with a high degree of dextenty are cnbcal areas of research and development for which the I:SS could serve as an engineering test bed. For example, a small HE space suit, which is being considered for use on He ISS after Assembly Complete, could be used as a test bed for advanced technologies (i.e., automatic thermal control, advanced LSS, performance and physiological measures, actively controlled materials and structures, and biological technologies). In addition, two new prototype space suits have been delivered to NASA that could to be evaluated wad robotic assistants (Hatfield et al. 1999). NASA intends the ISS to be "an Important test bed for solar system exploration" (Nicogossian, 1999). Therefore, the development of robotic technologies for servicing in space will be important for more than the ISS. Future HEDS (Human Exploration and Development of Space) nubatives, and solar system exploration missions, wiD also benefit from remotely operated robotic systems that can perform external inspections, servicing, maintenance, and repair. For unmanned missions, robotic 44

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servicing will be the only option. Recommendation. The National Aeronautics and Space Adm~s~ation should use the International Space Station (ISS) as a technology test bed for advanced extravehicular activity (EVA) systems, including robotic systems to support long- term ISS operations and future space missions. Rather than introducing only incremental changes, revolutionary approaches should be pursued to developing new materials, achieving greater mobility, and incorporating new technologies for both EVA suits and robotics systems In support of future exploration initiatives. References Francis, E. 1999. Space Suit and Life Support System Technology. Presentation by E. Francis, Vice President, Programs, Hamilton Standard Space Systems International, to the Committee on the Engineering Challenges to the Long-Term Operation of He International Space Station, Hamilton Standard Space Systems International, Windsor Locks, Connecticut, April 9, 1999. Harbaugh, G., and S. Poulos. 1999. EVA Status. Presentation by G. Harbaugh, Manager EVA Projects Office, and S. Poulos, Deputy Manager, EVA Project vmce, lo LJ. crewman, member of He Committee on the Engineering Challenges to the Long-Term Operation of the International Space Station, NASA Johnson Space Center, Houston, Texas, February 21, 1999. v .^ ` - e _ ~ TO ~ T Hatfield, C.A., E. Taylor and P. Careen. 1999. Advanced Robotic Capabilities for ISS. Presentation by C.A. Hatfield, Mission Integration Office, International Space Station Program, to the Committee on He Engineering Challenges to the Long- Term Operation of the International Space Station, NASA Johnson Space Center, Houston, Texas, March 25, 1999. Nicozossia~n A.E. 1999. Conducting Research on an Whinny Platform Pr~c~nt:~^n ~ cat ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ .. ~ . __, ~ em,, 1 _ _ TO ~ Ye e ~ ~ , ~ ~ Dy A. He N1cogoss~an, Associate Adminish~ator for Life and Microgravi~ Sciences and Applications, National Aeronautics and Space AdmiIiistrabon. American Association for the Advancement of Science, 1999 Annual Meeting and Science Innovation Exposition, Anaheim, California, January 23, 1999. Poulos, S. 1999. EVA Requirements. Presentation by S. Poulos, Deputy Manager, EVA Project Office, to the Committee on the Engineering Challenges to the Long-Term Operation of He International Space Station' NASA Johnson Space 45