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GENETICALLY MODIFIED PEST-PROTECTED PLANTS: SCIENCE AND REGULATION
Develop transgenic or other techniques that decrease potential forthe spread of transgenes into wild populations.
Evolution of pest resistance to pest-protected plants was the third major ecological impact addressed by the committee. The committee concluded that pest resistance to pest-protected plants could have a number of potential environmental and health impacts such as a return to the use of more harmful chemicals or replacement of an existing pest-protected variety with novel varieties for which there is less information available about health and environmental impacts. The committee recommends that
If a pest-protectant or its functional equivalent is providing effectivepest control, and if growing a new transgenic pest-protected plantvariety threatens the utility of existing uses of the pest-protectantor its functional equivalent, implementation of resistance managementpractices for all uses should be encouraged (for example, Bt proteinsused both in microbial sprays and in transgenic pest-protected plants).
In addition to the above recommendations, the committee recommends general ecological research to
Improve our understanding of the molecular basis of pest-plant interactionsand of the population ecology and genetics of target pests so thatmore ecologically and evolutionarily sustainable approaches to theuse of pest-protected plants can be developed.
Develop more specific expression systems for transgenes in ways thatlessen notarget exposure and delay pest adaptation (for example,use of promoters10that would limite expression to certain tissues).
Monitor ecological impacts of pest-protected crops on a long termbasis to ensure the detection of impacts that may not be predictedfrom tests conducted during the regulatory approval process.
ES.6 THE COORDINATED FRAMEWORK FOR REGULATION
ES.6.1 Background and History
In 1986, the Coordinated Framework for the Regulation of Biotechnology apportioned jurisdiction over transgenic products by using exist-
DNA sequences which regulate the expression of genes.