eliminating expression of transgenes that encode resistance factors in pollen. In addition, development of strategies that enhance the effective life span, or durability, of transgenic pest-protection mechanisms is vital. Research to develop better promoters that restrict expression of transgenes to non-edible plant tissues could lead to decreased potential for food safety problems with some pest-protected plants. Research could also lead to the more efficient use of non-constitutive promoters that result in more durable pest-protection or environmental safety. Transgenic or other techniques to decrease the potential for the spread of transgenes into wild populations should be explored.

For conventional pest-protected plants and for transgenes moved by breeding to new cultivars, the linkage of pest-protection traits to other traits carried inadvertently by the breeding process should be investigated for commercial cultivars, and more research should be conducted on potential health and ecological impacts of such linkage (section 2.4.2). Recent advances in plant genomics should help to identify the biochemical and physiological function of linked genes. Similarly, research is needed to better understand potential pleiotropic effects of pest-protection genes.

3.4.3 Ecological Research

Research to increase our understanding of the population biology, genetics, and community ecology of the target pests should be conducted, so that more ecologically and evolutionarily sustainable approaches to pest management with pest-protected plants can be developed ( section 2.6). Knowledge of pests' roles in the larger biological community (for example, their role as food sources for nontarget organisms or their roles as predators of other agriculturally relevant pests) will allow us to anticipate better the indirect effects of declines in the pests due to both conventional and transgenic pest-protected plants. Knowledge of the pest population biology will enable prediction of the types of pest-protection mechanisms that would most efficiently reduce a target organism' s pest status (Kennedy et al. 1987) and would help us to design more accurate resistance management plans (Gould 1998).

Research to assess gene flow and its potential consequences should be conducted (section 2.7). A list of plants with wild or weedy relatives in the United States should be established in an accessible public database (see section 3.3). This database should include the geographic locations of these relatives and could be used to determine which crop-weed complexes should be regulated. For weed species of concern (plants that might hybridize with transgenic pest-protected plants), more ecological and agricultural research is needed on the following: weed distribution



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