duction of new varieties that have higher yields, better product quality, and better agronomic traits.

Among major crops in the United States, purchased seed is used for virtually all the corn and sorghum grown and most of the potatoes, cotton, and soybeans (table A.1). Small-grain growers use substantial amounts of saved seed. Saved seed is especially prevalent in wheat. High dockage rates for weed seed (which make careful cleaning profitable) and standard storage practices makes the additional costs of saving seed quite low. In cases where plants are final comsumption goods—such

TABLE A.1 Public and Private Sector Breeding Effort, 1994 (PhD-Equivalent Scientist-Years)

Crop

SAESa

ARSb

Private

Total

Area Planted to Purchased Seed (%)

Corn

27.1

8.2

509.75

545.05

100

Wheat

64.5

11.95

53.95

130.4

20-32

Rice

13.8

6.3

21.9

42

85

Barley

16.4

2.1

13.9

32.4

50

Oats

10.1

2.7

4.9

17.7

40

Sorghum

11.8

2.5

40.8

55.1

95

Other Grains

11.65

0.5

57.75

69.9

 

Cotton

19.15

11.65

103.45

134.25

66

Alfalfa

15.2

11.85

41

68.05

97

Other legume forage

9.1

7

2.15

18.25

95

Forage grasses

13.5

14

35.95

63.45

95

Soybean

45

9.6

101.35

155.95

76

Peanut

14

2.5

3.15

19.65

70

Sunflower

0.6

2.56

31.45

34.61

95

Flax

1.3

0

0

1.3

90

Canola

5.7

1

28

34.7

 

Other Oilseeds

2.6

0

10.95

13.55

 

Potatoes

31

10

9

50

73

Other vegetables

91

16.4

283.65

391.05

85

Sugar

4

15

25

44

 

Ornamentals

18

5

64

87

100

Lawn and Turf

15

0

41

56

95

Totals

529

177

1,499

2,205

 

a State Agricultural Experiment Station

b USDA Agricultural Research Service

Source: Breeding effort from Frey (1996). Market shares of corn, soybean,cotton, potatoes, and wheat from Economic Research Service (1997).Market shares of remaining crops from McMullen (1987).



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