pollen, 37, 113-114, 142

potatoes, 31-32, 33, 35, 64, 65-66, 79, 108-111, 175, 240

risk assessment, general, 14, 51-52, 54, 63, 108-116

toxicity, general, 14, 27-28, 32, 63, 64-67, 109-110, 112, 239, 240

toxicity testing, 14, 63, 64-67, 69, 72, 110, 112-113, 115, 116-120, 175, 239, 240

see also Bt proteins

Bacteria, other, 25, 28, 96, 121, 149

Agrobacterium-transformation methods, 24-25, 45, 161

Bacterial resistance, 22, 34, 49, 50, 96, 220

Barley, 19, 22, 49, 82, 219, 235

Biffed, Roland, 23

Biodiversity,

see Ecological risks;

Nonmarket species Biotechnology Science Advisory Committee (EPA), 29

Bt

see Bacillus thuringienesis

Bt proteins, 7, 10, 13, 14, 32, 103, 108-109, 175

field testing, 27-28, 63, 64

resistance, 51-52, 102, 103

toxicity, 14, 64-65, 72, 75, 112, 113, 115, 116-120, 238, 239, 240

Brussels sprouts, 22

C

Calgene, 31, 33

Carcinogenicity, 14, 42, 48, 63

Celery, 71

Cell fusion, 21

Chemical pesticides, 1, 33-34, 37, 46-47, 111-112, 114-115

carcinogenicity, 63

economics of, 46, 109, 218-229

integrated pest management, use of, 20

natural plant chemicals, 47-48

nontarget species, 9, 78-79, 80

pest resistance to, 101, 102, 109

Ceiba-Geigy, 33, 222, 227

Confidential business information (CBI), 158, 173-174, 175, 177, 178, 181

Conventional breeding techniques, 3, 5, 7, 9, 12, 20, 22-23

allergenicity, 71-72

definitional issues, 5, 144

ecological impacts, 9

economic factors, 217-218

FDA review, 148-149

resistance traits, 44

risk assessment, 43, 45, 51, 62

toxicants in, 7-8

transgenic techniques combined with, 28, 51

transgenic techniques vs,4, 5-6, 21, 43, 45

wheat rust, 105-106

Coordinated Framework for the Regulation of Biotechnology, 2, 3, 10-18, 135, 144-181, 212, 244-245

approach, 11-12, 144-151

background, 10-11, 25-26, 144-145, 151, 172

costs, 17-18

Department of Agriculture, 15, 16, 26, 39, 144, 145-147, 155-171, 173-174, 180-181

EPA, 15, 16, 26, 39, 144, 145, (passim)149-171, 174-176, 177, 178-181

FDA, 15, 16, 26, 39, 144, 145, 147-149, 150, (passim)155-171 , 176-177, 180-181

historical perspectives, 10-11, 25-26, (passim)144-149

operational aspects, 15-17, 144-151

transparency, 15, 154, 156, 158, 172-178, 179, 180

Corn, 20, 22, 23, 49, 145, 157, 218, 219, 220, 226, 234, 235

Bt, 28, 33, 35, 36, 69, 76-77, 79, 108, 111-114, 142, 234-235, 238-240

pollen, 75, 76, 82

Cornell University, 33

Cost factors,

see Economic factors

Cotton, 75, 145, 217, 218, 219, 220, 226, 235

Bt, 28, 33-34, 35, 37, 108, 114-116, 137, 166, 171, 232, 239-240

gene-flow controls, 82

D

Databases, 8, 15-16, 135, 140, 141, 143, 167, 173, 177, 178, 181

Internet, 167, 173, 174, 176, 177, 181

Definitional issues, 15, 159-162

conventional pest-protected plant, 5, 144

exposure assessment, 41

food additive, 148



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