genetically modified plant, 4-5, 144, 179

hazard identification, 41

naturally pest-protected plant, 5

nontarget species, 73-74

pest, 2, 149, 161-162

pesticide/pest-protected plant, 4, 127, 149, 150, 152, 159-160, 180, 212

pleiotropic (secondary) effect, 7

risk, 40

risk characterization, 41-42

toxicity, 73

transgenic pest-protected plant, 5, 144, 159-160

weed, 9

DeKalb Genetics, 33, 114, 222, 227, 228

Department of Agriculture, 3, 12, 15, 16, 17, 25, 28-29, 31, 142

Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service (APHIS), 122, 124, 142, 146, 157, 161, 173-174, 177, 218, 230, 231

Bt, 31-32, 110, 112, 115, 167-168

coordinated regulatory framework, 15, 16, 26, 39, 144, 145-147, 155-171, 173-174, 180-181

cost of testing, 212, 229, 230, 231

databases, 8, 15-16, 140, 141, 143, 173, 181

Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act, 157

Federal Insecticide, Fungicide, and Rodenticide Act, 164

Federal Plant Pest Act, 11, 26, 29, 145-146, 157, 164, 166, 167, 173, 181, 229

field testing, 28, 161

gene-flow controls, 82, 91, 165-166

interagency coordination, general, 15, 16, 135, 144

databases, 8, 15-16, 140, 141, 143, 178, 181

National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA), 147, 157, 164

permit/petition process, 28-29, 31, 146-147

Plant Quarantine Act, 157

secondary (pleiotropic) effects, 135

toxicity, 8, 73, 165

transparency, 173-174

virus-resistant squash, 14, 123-124, 125

wild/weedy hybrids, 138, 139

Department of Health and Human Services,

see Food and Drug Administration;

National Institutes of Health

Dose-response evaluation, 40-42, 54, 97-98

Dow Chemicals, 223, 227, 228

DuPont, 223

E

Ecological risks, 6, 9-10, 12, 37, 137-139, 140, 141-142, 151, 164, 165, 243

Bt, 110

economics of regulation, 17, 231

risk assessments, 41-42, 142, 168

secondary pests, 37

see also Gene-flow effects;

Nontarget species;

Resistant pests;

Weeds;

Wild plants

Economic factors, 213-229

chemical pesticides, 46, 109, 218-229

conventional breeding techniques, 217-218

genetic pest protection, 46-47, 109

pest impacts on crops, 19

R&D expenditures, 216-218

regulatory costs, 17-18, 38, 178-179, 181, 211-213, 229-237

resistant pests, 96

small and medium size businesses, 18, 38, 179, 181, 212, 213

wheat rust, 107-108

see also Funding

Education,

see Information dissemination

Eggs, 75, 114

Electroporation, 25

Empresas La Moderna, 223

Environmental Protection Agency, 3, 11, (passim)12-18 , 29-31, 102, 142

Bt, 31-32, 35, 100, 110, 112-113, 114, 115, 116, 120, 166, 167-168, 171, 174, 238-240

coordinated regulatory framework, 15, 16, 26, 39, 144, 145, (passim)149-171 174-176, 177, 178-181

cost of regulation, 212, 224, 229, 230-231, 233

exemptions, 153-154

sexual compatibility, 12-13, (passim)128-134 , 137, 143

viral coat proteins, 13, 14, 133-134, 143



The National Academies | 500 Fifth St. N.W. | Washington, D.C. 20001
Copyright © National Academy of Sciences. All rights reserved.
Terms of Use and Privacy Statement