TABLE 1.4 Crops Deregulated by the USDA with Transgenic Pesticidal Traits

Crop

Resistancea

Company

Date of Nonregulated Status

Insect resistance

Potato

Bt IR

Monsanto

March 1995

Corn

Bt IR

Ciba-Geigy

May 1995

Cotton

Bt IR

Monsanto

June 1995

Corn

Bt IR

Monsanto

August 1995

Corn

Bt IR

Northrup King

January 1996

Corn

Bt IR

Monsanto

March 1996

Potato

Bt IR

Monsanto

May 1996

Corn

Bt IR

Dekalb Genetics

March 1997

Cotton

Bt IR, HR

Calgene

April 1997

Corn

Bt IR, HR

Monsanto

May 1997

Tomato

Bt IR

Monsanto

March 1998

Corn

Bt IR, HR

AgrEvo

May 1998

Virus and insect resistance

Potato

Bt IR, VR

Monsanto

December 1998

Potato

Bt IR, VR

Monsanto

February 1999

Virus resistance only

Squash

VR

Upjohn/Asgrow

December 1994

Squash

VR

Asgrow

June 1996

Papaya

VR

Cornell University

September 1996

aBt IR = Bt endotoxin-based insect resistance; VR = virus resistance; HR = herbicide resistance

Source: USDA 1999b.

million acres of transgenic crops were planted in the United States; in 1998, 50.2 million acres were planted (James 1998); and in 1999, 70 million were planted (James 1999). A total of 98 million acres were planted worldwide in 1999 (James 1999). Transgenic pest-protected crop varieties that contain Bt toxin transgenes make up a large percentage of the commercial transgenic crops. In 1998 in the United States, about 25% of total cotton acreage and 21% of total corn acreage were planted with transgenic crops that contain Bt genes (USDA 1999d). In 1999, approximately 30 million acres of insect protected crops were planted in the US (James 1999). So far, many of these transgenic pest-protected crops seem to be effective in controlling pests; a reduced need for chemical pesticides and increased yields have been reported by many, but not all, growers (Robinson 1998; Gianessi and Carpenter 1999). For example, one report indicates that insecticide sprays in cotton were reduced in 1998 from an average of 8.3 insecticide applications for conventional cotton to an average of 6.0 sprays



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