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GENETICALLY MODIFIED PEST-PROTECTED PLANTS: SCIENCE AND REGULATION
ES.5.2 Ecological Impacts and Research Needs
Three major ecological impacts6 were considered by the committee: effects on nontarget7 species, effects of gene flow8, and evolution of pest resistance to pest-protected plants.
The committee reviewed studies concerning nontarget effects. The committee found that both conventional and transgenic pest-protected crops could have effects on nontarget species, but these potential effects are generally expected to be smaller than the effects of broad-spectrum synthetic insecticides. Therefore, the use of pest-protected crops could lead to greater biodiversity in agroecosystems where they replace the use of those insecticides (section 2.6.3). The use of transgenic pest-protected plants should also be compared with sustainable agriculture methods for crop protection. The committee recommends research to
Determine the impacts of specific pest-protected crops on nontargetorganisms, compared with impacts of standard and alternative agriculturalpractices through rigorous field evaluations.
Gene flow between cultivated crops and wild relatives was the second ecological impact considered by the committee. On the basis of the literature, the committee found that pollen dispersal can lead to gene flow among cultivated crops and from cultivated crops to wild relatives but that only trace amounts of pollen are typically dispersed further than a few hundred feet (section 2.7). The committee found that the transfer of either conventionally bred or transgenic resistance traits to weedy relatives potentially could exacerbate weed 9 problems, but such problems have not been observed or adequately studied. Therefore, the committee recommends further research to
Assess gene flow and its potential consequences: develop a list ofplants with wild or weedy relatives in the United States; identifykey factors that regulate weed populations; assess rates at whichpest resistance genes from the crop would be likely to spread amongweed populations; and evaluate the impact of specific, novel resistancetraits on the weed abundance.
The committee's ecological assessment focused on potential impacts of food and fiber crops, not on the potential impacts of other types of transgenic pest-protected plants that might be commercialized in the future (for example, forest trees).
Organisms that are not the target for the particular plant-pesticide.
The transfer of genetic information from one organism to another.
The committee's definition of a weed includes plants that are unwanted in human-dominated or natural habitats.