very close to an existing building, underpinning of the existing building's foundations may be required. Underpinning is done when excavation for the new building's foundation extends beneath the existing building's footings or for some other reason that may cause temporary or permanent unstable conditions. Underpinning involves installing structural elements beneath or beside existing foundations to support the existing building. For similar reasons, sheeting may be installed to stabilize and support the earth around the foundation of an existing building next to an excavation. These and other special foundations represent costs borne by the laboratory building owner.

Site subsurface investigations and geotechnical surveys are normally conducted very early in the design process, if they have not already been done in a feasibility study or during site selection. Laboratory buildings constructed in regions of documented seismic activity also often have special foundations, structural design, and construction costs associated with them. Laboratories with sensitive analytic equipment may also require special foundations, such as pilings or piers to bedrock, in order to isolate the building from local vibration.

Site Utilities. Subsurface site investigations on many developed sites reveal existing campus utility and city service lines. If it is not feasible to relocate these obstructions to construction, then the utilities must be supported and protected during excavation and construction. Temporary shutdown of certain utilities may be necessary during installation of these protective measures. If not considered early during design, this step costs both money and time in a construction schedule. New utilities may have to be brought through or to the site, such as fiber-optic cable. They, too, have to be planned and budgeted.

Site Work and Landscaping. An integral part of design is site and landscape design. Landscaping is a small part of the entire construction budget but has a significant and immediate impact on the entire image of the laboratory project, as well as on the environment. Good landscape design and siting can influence the community's acceptance of a laboratory facility. Well-designed sites provide laboratory staff with places for psychological respite and physical recreation. See the section "Sociology" in Chapter 1 for more information.

Permits. Permits are usually a direct expense to the client, although the contractor may pull the permits and work with the building department of the municipal government. In some jurisdictions permits are required for services such as water, natural gas, and sewer connections, for exhaust discharge, and for other activities with environmental impacts. These permits are required above and beyond the ordinary building permit. Central utility plants must comply with particular environmental regulations, such as for sulphur dioxide and nitrous oxide emissions.



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