normally include any special consultants or any additional services, unless their inclusion is specifically negotiated with the design team. Basic fees also do not include reimbursable expenses, which typically include costs for travel, telecommunications, mail and delivery, and document reproduction, not only for the prime architect and engineer but also for their consultants.

Services. Architectural and engineering design consists of basic services for the design of a building or renovation, such as architectural, structural, mechanical, electrical, and fire protection engineering services. The obligations of designers and owners and deliverables from designers are outlined and described in design service contracts such as the American Institute of Architects' B141 Standard Form of Agreement between Owner and Architect. Standard fees are usually expressed as a percentage of the construction costs. While the Brooks Act4 limits such fees to 6 percent for federal projects, fees for new laboratory construction are more commonly in the range of 7 to 9 percent for projects with construction costs of $10 million to $50 million (more for smaller projects, less for larger projects). For renovations the fees are often 25 to 35 percent higher than those for new construction.

Additional design-related services include all predesign activities, such as planning and programming, and design studies such as energy audits, architectural models, and mock-up construction documents. Fees are associated with each of these services. Although basic design fees for federal projects are limited by the Brooks Act, total design-related services for such projects are more commonly 10 to 14 percent of the construction costs.

Consultants are hired to perform specific design tasks and to offer information for specific requirements of the laboratory design. Either the client or prime architect/engineering firm may enter into a contract with consultants. Consultants who often assist the prime design team for the laboratory building or renovation include a laboratory planner, laboratory safety professional, environmental engineer, code consultant, geotechnical engineer, vibration-control structural engineer, acoustical engineer, lighting engineer, construction cost estimator, information and audiovisual technology specialist, interior designer, and landscape architect. Clients may hire an economist to perform a market analysis or economic feasibility study. Because legal issues are always a consideration for owners during design and construction, legal assistance is highly recommended for contract negotiation.

Construction managers are often hired by clients to assist with cost estimating, scheduling, and improving the efficiency of construction of the design dur-


 P.L. 92-582, the Brooks Act of 1972 to amend the Federal Property and Administrative Service Act of 1949.

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