Equipment Contingency. As discussed in ''Furnishings, Fixtures, and Equipment" above, an FF&E budget is difficult to develop and estimate accurately. An equipment contingency is used to fund any shortfall in the estimate or for modifications in quantities or quality of items in the FF&E schedule.

Financing Contingency. A financing contingency offers the owner a budgetary cushion for unforeseen circumstances that might affect the funding available for the project. The amount or proportion required for this contingency is based on the amount and nature of risk.

Costs of Move-in Activities

The moving costs associated with a laboratory construction or renovation project can involve more than the expense of transferring the contents of one building into another. Move coordination—identifying what moves, what stays, and what gets discarded—is a formidable task. A move to a new or renovated laboratory is the ideal time to dispose of old chemicals and establish a department-wide computerized chemical inventory system. The one-time costs associated with these activities need to be budgeted. Moving costs may include those for use of temporary facilities, building commissioning, installation and calibration of scientific equipment, and hazardous materials assessment, transportation, and disposal.

Use of Temporary Facilities. Temporary facilities may have to be leased to accommodate phasing of renovations or even with new construction if the schedule for completion does not coincide with the demand for functional laboratory space. Short-term laboratory rentals are generally expensive and hard to find. Office facility rentals are easier to negotiate.

Although it would be expensive, manufactured mobile laboratory units can be purchased, transported to an open site, and installed to site utilities. Mobile laboratory units are approximately the same size as mobile homes and construction trailers. Units can be joined to form doublewide units. As a practical matter on a campus or site, only a limited number of scientists can be accommodated in mobile laboratories. Alternately, the feasibility of dispersing laboratory occupants temporarily into other operating laboratories within the organization can be explored if necessary.

Commissioning. The objective of commissioning is to have the building systems perform as designed and as specified. This process is described in the section "Postconstruction Phase" in Chapter 2. Building commissioning has received a great deal of attention in the past few years from building owners because new building systems have routinely failed to perform acceptably. Prob-

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