members of the client group including the project manager and appropriate representatives from the physical plant including maintenance and utilities. The building commissioning expert, a special consultant of the client group, may also be included.

Larger Community Group

The final group of participants critical to the process are stakeholders who are not members of the client, predesign/design, or construction groups. This group includes affected nonusers, as well as representatives of the community, government agencies, and public utilities.

Affected nonusers are members of the institution who are not in the client group but whose work will be affected by the project. They include, for example, occupants of adjacent laboratories, occupants of other floors of the building undergoing renovation, or occupants of neighboring buildings affected by noise or disruption of electrical service during the construction project.

Members of the community group include the neighboring community and other, more specific interest groups such as neighbors and nongovernmental groups who may have an interest in, and concerns about, the laboratory. Their concerns can cause difficulties if not addressed appropriately.

A number of government agencies are also included in the community group. These are ''agencies having jurisdiction" and include local, county, regional, state, and federal representatives. They are concerned with zoning, code compliance, environmental issues, construction standards, etc., and they provide permits and inspections.

All these members of the larger community group need to participate in the process at an early stage because their own work and environment are affected by the project. The institute's offices involved in external relations can help to provide the interface between the project and the community and to ensure that information is transmitted clearly and effectively. When needed, EH&S staff can provide technical support to the external relations office.


The sociology of building projects has two aspects: the interactions between participants involved in the construction or renovation and the human needs that must be met by the completed project. Interactions are facilitated by effective communication and shared input. Many of the problems that arise in a building project are due to lack of interest, experience, or knowledge on the part of users, lack of understanding of specific user needs by designers, and potential mistrust among other stakeholders in the community. This section provides suggestions to organize and facilitate efficient communication between diverse parties at different phases of a laboratory construction or renovation project.

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