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Laboratory Design, Construction, and Renovation: Participants, Process, and Product APPENDIX E Definitions TERMS Americans with Disabilities Act—Law mandating that facilities should provide, or be capable of being easily modified to provide, reasonable accommodation for qualified workers with disabilities. As-builts—Construction documents on which are recorded all changes made during construction. Benchmarking—Comparing proposed with existing facilities by obtaining information on similar existing facilities. Building code—A code applicable to buildings, adopted by a government body, and administered with the primary intent of protecting public safety, health, and welfare; generally includes both review and approval process requirements and specific technical standards. Building commissioning—A process that gives the owner assurances that a building will perform, in the short term and over the life of the facility, as designed. Building permit—Authorization by a government body for construction of all or part of a building, or installation of a utility. Signifies that the governing body
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Laboratory Design, Construction, and Renovation: Participants, Process, and Product has reviewed the construction documents and given approval. Inspectors monitor construction and sign the permit when all construction meets building codes. By-pass hood—A fume hood design in which there is an opening above the sash through which air may pass at low sash position. Central utility shaft—A horizontal or vertical central shaft within a building used to run ventilation ducts, plumbing, and electrical services. Champion—Person who articulates the need for a project and drives the project from beginning to end. Change order—Any modification to the original construction documents. Client budget authority—A person who has been appointed by a senior financial administrator and can authorize major budget changes. Client project manager—A member of an institution's in-house architectural or engineering team who derives authority from the head of facility operations. Client user representative—A person who represents scientist-users. He or she is appointed by a senior administrator such as a dean or a director of research. This person is knowledgeable about the functional use of the facility and knows many of the ultimate users of the facility. Also referred to as user representative. Client team—Composed of the client user representative, client project manager, and client budget authority. This team stays intact from predesign through post-construction and maintains continuity in the scope and execution of the construction project. Code—A collection of laws, regulations, ordinances, or other statutory requirements adopted by government legislative authority. Some professional and trade organizations have published advisory documents that they term "codes," but these documents do not have the force of law (unless adopted by a government body) and therefore are actually collections of promulgated criteria and standards, rather than codes. Conditions assessments—Formal and informal processes providing building information for facility programs. Information may include immediate building needs, highlight building deficiencies for short-term and long-range projects, and present program information in terms of building requirements.
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Laboratory Design, Construction, and Renovation: Participants, Process, and Product Delivery service corridor—Corridor designated for deliveries, not for movement of people. Design team—Members of the design group (design professional, engineers, and specialty consultants) and client group who work together to program construction or renovation. Elevation—A flat scale drawing of the front, back, or side of the interior or exterior of a structure. Existing conditions—Documented current physical state of a facility to be renovated or replaced. Facility evaluation—Assessment of the existing condition of a facility. Facility inventory—Set of as-builts, drawings showing existing conditions, list of deferred maintenance items, and other documents detailing existing facility. Facility program—Detailed description of the function, area, utility, and environmental requirements for a project. Flexibility—Ability of a facility to be easily modified to support varied research. Floor loading—Weight (per square foot) a floor can support. Floor plate—Floor area corresponding to the structural grid of a building. Floor-to-floor height—The distance between floors, including the space between floors for utilities, ceilings, flooring, and the like. Footprint—The exterior dimensions of a building. Generic laboratory design—A design in which similar elements are similarly arranged within each laboratory space. Gross square feet—Measure of area bounded by the outside faces of exterior walls. Interaction diagram—A diagram used to rate the relative importance of interactions among different individuals and groups. Interstitial floor—Service floor between laboratory floors that provides dedicat-
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Laboratory Design, Construction, and Renovation: Participants, Process, and Product ed space for mechanical, electrical, and plumbing equipment and distribution systems. Laboratory programmer—Design professional specializing in laboratory design; may or may not be an architect. Life-cycle cost—Costs incurred over the life cycle of a building system, a piece of equipment, or an entire building. Make-up air—Air required to maintain the code-required balance between (relatively) negatively pressured laboratories and positively pressured corridors. Manifold exhaust system—An exhaust system in which the intake of many, or all, fume hoods is combined in one or more large manifolds and then exhausted through a single exhaust stack. Master plan—An overall long-range plan for the land use of an institution. Mechanical, electrical, and plumbing—Utilities needed to service a building. Modular design—A technique that uses a standardized size module as the fundamental unit for space planning. Larger spaces comprise multiple modules. Net square feet—Measure of the area bounded by the inside finish of the outer walls and the inside finish of permanent partitions. Open laboratory—Laboratory in which a large open space and common equipment rooms are shared by several researchers or even research groups. Operations and maintenance manuals—Manuals that detail information about the operations and maintenance of all laboratory systems and equipment. Postoccupancy evaluation—The process of surveying and analyzing recently completed and occupied facilities, preferably after the first year of operation, to provide the owner, and others involved with a construction or renovation project, a determination of how the building is performing and a review of the organization of participants and process for the construction or renovation. Project leader—Client's single point of contact within the client group and with the design and construction groups for a project. He or she has operational authority and responsibility for the project.
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Laboratory Design, Construction, and Renovation: Participants, Process, and Product Project team—Group of participants involved throughout the project. Includes client team, design professional, and general contractor. Record drawings—Construction documents on which are recorded all changes made during construction. Service corridor—Within a building, a horizontal passage of two types: the utility service corridor and the delivery service corridor. Strategic plan—Long-range and large-scale operational plan for an institution that encompasses both the physical plant and organizational plans. Structural grid—Horizontal spaces between the structural members (beams) of a building. User representative—See client user representative. Utility chases—Vertical shafts within a building used to run ventilation ducts, plumbing, and electrical services vertically within a building. Variable air volume hood—Fume hood for which the airflow is regulated to maintain a constant face velocity. Zoning—The system of local land-use regulations. ACRONYMS A&E architectural and engineering ADA Americans with Disabilities Act AHJ agencies having jurisdiction BOCA Building Officials and Code Administrators International CAA Clean Air Act CAV constant air volume CUPs central utility plants EH&S environmental health and safety EIA environmental impact assessment EIS environmental impact study EPA Environmental Protection Agency FF&E furnishings, fixtures, and equipment GMP guaranteed maximum price GSF gross square feet
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Laboratory Design, Construction, and Renovation: Participants, Process, and Product HAP hazardous air pollutant HEPA high-efficiency particulate air (filter) HVAC heating, ventilation, and air conditioning ICBO International Conference of Building Officials MEP mechanical, electrical, and plumbing NASF net assignable square feet NMR nuclear magnetic resonance O&M operations and maintenance OSHA Occupational Safety and Health Administration POE post-occupancy evaluation RCRA Resource Conservation and Recovery Act RF radio frequency RFP request for proposal RFQ request for qualifications SBCC Southern Building Code Congress International VAV variable air volume
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