has reviewed the construction documents and given approval. Inspectors monitor construction and sign the permit when all construction meets building codes.

By-pass hood—A fume hood design in which there is an opening above the sash through which air may pass at low sash position.

Central utility shaft—A horizontal or vertical central shaft within a building used to run ventilation ducts, plumbing, and electrical services.

Champion—Person who articulates the need for a project and drives the project from beginning to end.

Change order—Any modification to the original construction documents.

Client budget authority—A person who has been appointed by a senior financial administrator and can authorize major budget changes.

Client project manager—A member of an institution's in-house architectural or engineering team who derives authority from the head of facility operations.

Client user representative—A person who represents scientist-users. He or she is appointed by a senior administrator such as a dean or a director of research. This person is knowledgeable about the functional use of the facility and knows many of the ultimate users of the facility. Also referred to as user representative.

Client team—Composed of the client user representative, client project manager, and client budget authority. This team stays intact from predesign through post-construction and maintains continuity in the scope and execution of the construction project.

Code—A collection of laws, regulations, ordinances, or other statutory requirements adopted by government legislative authority. Some professional and trade organizations have published advisory documents that they term "codes," but these documents do not have the force of law (unless adopted by a government body) and therefore are actually collections of promulgated criteria and standards, rather than codes.

Conditions assessments—Formal and informal processes providing building information for facility programs. Information may include immediate building needs, highlight building deficiencies for short-term and long-range projects, and present program information in terms of building requirements.

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