tion (if required) and the facility program, both described later in this chapter. If the project entails new construction and a site has been selected through the completion of a strategic or master plan, the design professional leading the design group should be an architect. If the project entails an addition and/or renovation, an architect will most likely be required to lead the design group with or without the assistance of a laboratory programmer. Predesign phase participants and recommended communication paths are illustrated in Figure 2.2.
Goals and objectives should be established by the client with the assistance of the design professional at the beginning of the predesign process to define those aspects of the project that are important to the client. They should be developed in concert with any previously developed strategic or master plan, and reviewed periodically during the predesign process to determine if they require modification and to confirm that identified issues are being considered.
One technique used to establish goals is to identify attributes of a successful project. These may encompass issues related to collaborative research, interlaboratory interactions, shared instrumentation, flexibility, and adaptability. (Some of these attributes are more fully discussed in the "Sociology" section in Chapter 1.) Visits to recently completed projects often help in identifying both the features of a successful project and those to be avoided. However, unique attributes of the proposed research facility should also be identified and celebrated as defining characteristics.
Once the project goals have been identified, the objectives required to reach those goals need to be established. For example, if collaborative research has been identified as a goal, one objective would be to identify attributes of a laboratory facility that encourage collaboration. If interlaboratory interaction is identified as a goal, an objective may include the identification of features that promote such interaction.
Benchmarking, which draws on information about other, similar research facilities, can be a useful tool for comparing existing and proposed facilities. It can be used to initiate the facility programming process or to evaluate the appropriateness of the completed facility program. Such information can be obtained from a variety of sources such as published projects and case studies, or directly from the university or private organization where the facility is located.
The direct use of benchmarking information may be difficult, however, for