BOX 2.4 Factors to Consider in Formulating Planning Alternatives
may be used to explore the advantages and disadvantages of various design alternatives, and a single recommended alternative should be identified. Factors to consider in formulating alternatives are given in Box 2.4, and examples of planning alternatives are presented in the "Design Considerations" section of Chapter 3.
For renovations the description of the alternatives typically includes a combination of text and preliminary drawings that illustrate the relative locations of facility program elements within the context of the existing facilities. For additions or new construction the preliminary drawings typically include a site plan illustrating the approximate size and location of the proposed facility in relation to existing buildings, roads, paths, utilities, and other site features.
The description and proposed phasing for each planning alternative are used in conjunction with the facility program to generate preliminary construction cost estimates for each alternative. If a complete facility program was not used as the basis of the planning alternatives, information such as construction characteristics, fixed and movable laboratory equipment, laboratory services, mechanical, electrical, plumbing systems and equipment, and site development and utilities may be needed to generate the preliminary construction cost estimate. At this point, a client's construction manager or professional cost estimator should be engaged to independently derive a preliminary construction cost estimate. In addition, construction costs for the proposed project should be compared with other similar projects in the client's area of the country. See the section on "Research Laboratory Costs" of Chapter 3 for a more complete discussion of costs.
The preliminary construction costs can be used to estimate the overall project costs. As discussed in the costs section of Chapter 3, construction costs typically represent 65 percent to 75 percent of the total project costs. Hence an itemized project budget should be developed to accurately estimate the costs over and above the construction costs. The design professional can assist in the develop-