needed to begin construction. The design and documentation phase is further divided into subphases often referred to as the schematic design, design development, construction documents, and bidding phases, although some state and federal agencies may use different terminology. The design of the facility is developed starting with general directions and working toward specific details in the schematic design and design development phases. Global decisions regarding the relationship of laboratories and offices should be made during the schematic design phase. Specific questions regarding laboratory bench details are most appropriately discussed during the design development phase. The documents required to construct or renovate the laboratory facility are completed in the construction document phase. Thus construction details, such as those related to exterior wall and lab cabinet construction, are best discussed in the construction document phase. The design and documentation process can be expedited by following this natural order. This means that design decisions have to be made before the construction documents are created. The bidding and construction phases commence following the review and approval of the construction documents.

Although much of the work in these phases is conducted by the design group—the design professionals including architects, laboratory planners, engineers, specialty consultants such as fire specialists, environmental consultants, and code consultants—involvement of the client group is essential. If a construction manager has been engaged prior to the completion of the construction documents, the involvement of the construction group is also essential. The necessary participants and the recommended communication paths are illustrated in Figure 2.3. The types of decisions to be made and approvals required should follow the general-to-specific order outlined above. The decision-making process and lines of communication established in the predesign phase should continue seamlessly through the subsequent phases of the project, as should the single point of contact for the client and design teams, One new procedural element must be established—a rigorous review process to verify the accuracy, completeness, and constructibility of all design documents.

Procedural Guidelines

The procedural guidelines used during the design and documentation phases are similar to those used in the predesign phase. Many of the same groups, teams, and individuals are still engaged, and the decision-making process is still in effect. However, the frequency of the design group's formal meetings with and presentations to the client team differs throughout the design and documentation phases: such meetings and presentations are frequent in the schematic design phase, less frequent in the design development phase, and periodic in the construction document phase. The involvement of the client team, by contrast, increases throughout the design and documentation phases because of the quan-

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