several stages during the design and construction phases. Each user is responsible for verifying the design of his or her specially designated spaces. The client team should confirm that the university or private company has the expertise to execute this responsibility. If not, it is in their interest to engage an individual with experience in architectural and engineering reviews to perform this function.

Necessary changes identified in the design and construction documents by the client team should be indicated in such a manner that they can be clearly identified by the design professional. The annotated design and construction documents should then be returned to the design group, with the client team retaining a copy to facilitate future verification that the desired changes or corrections have been made. For facilities with mandatory low-bid contract restrictions it is essential to engage an independent architect/engineer to verify that the construction documents are complete, coordinated, and technically appropriate to build the desired facility.

Design and Documentation

Schematic Design

During the schematic design phase, the architect, in consultation with the users through the user representative or client's project manager, investigates various aspects of the design. These include large-to small-scale issues including the overall size, shape, and general appearance of the new building or renovation, alternative organizations of the spaces within the building, and the general configuration of the elements within the spaces. (Various aspects of the laboratory design are discussed in the "Design Considerations" section of Chapter 3.) The formal definition of the schematic design phase is given in Box 2.5. If a thorough predesign process has been completed, the schematic design phase can proceed unimpeded because the project scope will already have been generally established.

Large-scale issues concerning design concepts for the facade and the overall shape and size of the new facility may be explored in the schematic design phase. For renovations, this effort may focus on alternative design concepts for public corridors and lobbies.

Intermediate-scale issues concern the configuration of the overall laboratory facility and the organization of space on each floor. These issues include the vertical (between-floors) and horizontal (same-floor) relationships of offices, research laboratories, and research laboratory support spaces. Laboratory support spaces include shared instrument rooms and equipment spaces. These issues also may include the relationship of laboratory and nonlaboratory facilities such as lounges, libraries, conference rooms, and other interaction areas as well as the configuration of individual spaces within the laboratory facility.

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