3
Technical Issues

All building renovation or construction, and especially laboratory renovation or construction, involves many issues that must be resolved and many decisions that must be made. Although it is possible to delegate these tasks to the design professional, the active participation of an informed client in the resolution of these issues and in related decision making greatly enhances the probability that a superior result will be obtained.

Some of the details and issues, such as those dictated by environmental health and safety (EH&S) regulations, are highly specialized and should be left to the experts. Others, such as design alternatives or considerations affecting construction costs, need to be reviewed, discussed, and resolved jointly by members of the client group—such as the client team and user representative—and the design professional. The client team and the user representative should therefore be familiar with these issues so that they are able to make informed decisions. Although an experienced design professional can usually be relied on to inform the client of all possible design alternatives, there are, unfortunately, exceptions. Not only can an informed client interact more satisfactorily with the design professional, but knowledge of design considerations also better enables the client to evaluate the design professional's competence. If in-house architectural staff are experienced in laboratory design and construction, they can help carry out some of these roles.

ENVIRONMENTAL HEALTH AND SAFETY

Throughout the planning, design, and construction phases of a laboratory renovation or construction project, careful attention to EH&S issues is essential



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Laboratory Design, Construction, and Renovation: Participants, Process, and Product 3 Technical Issues All building renovation or construction, and especially laboratory renovation or construction, involves many issues that must be resolved and many decisions that must be made. Although it is possible to delegate these tasks to the design professional, the active participation of an informed client in the resolution of these issues and in related decision making greatly enhances the probability that a superior result will be obtained. Some of the details and issues, such as those dictated by environmental health and safety (EH&S) regulations, are highly specialized and should be left to the experts. Others, such as design alternatives or considerations affecting construction costs, need to be reviewed, discussed, and resolved jointly by members of the client group—such as the client team and user representative—and the design professional. The client team and the user representative should therefore be familiar with these issues so that they are able to make informed decisions. Although an experienced design professional can usually be relied on to inform the client of all possible design alternatives, there are, unfortunately, exceptions. Not only can an informed client interact more satisfactorily with the design professional, but knowledge of design considerations also better enables the client to evaluate the design professional's competence. If in-house architectural staff are experienced in laboratory design and construction, they can help carry out some of these roles. ENVIRONMENTAL HEALTH AND SAFETY Throughout the planning, design, and construction phases of a laboratory renovation or construction project, careful attention to EH&S issues is essential

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Laboratory Design, Construction, and Renovation: Participants, Process, and Product to ensure that the facility can be built and occupied. EH&S issues influence every major decision—from site selection to suitability of the building for occupancy. Further, careful attention to these issues is important in interactions with the neighboring community, which may be passionately concerned about the local impact of a chemical facility. Community relations issues are discussed in Chapter 1. Careful consideration of EH&S issues will enable the project team to comply effectively with the complex and sometimes conflicting array of federal, state, and local regulations, codes, and ordinances that affect construction and operation of laboratories. It is important to recognize that codes and regulations governing the construction, renovation, and operation of laboratories and the undertaking of a building project by an institution have a common objective—to guarantee that the building and the environment surrounding it will be safe. This common ground can make it possible to reach practical solutions to problems that may arise in the highly intricate regulatory setting that governs laboratory design and construction. When there is conflict, the good judgment of knowledgeable individuals should prevail. This section summarizes the legal bases for, and prudent responses to, the multiple regulations, codes, and ordinances that affect the construction and operation of laboratories. The committee emphasizes that every major building project team should have the support of EH&S professionals throughout all phases of the laboratory facility design and construction process. Expertise provided by these professionals will help the client team set health and safety objectives for the project, select appropriate engineering criteria to meet those objectives, and identify soundly conceived strategies for achieving compliance with regulatory requirements. EH&S professionals should also be involved in the commissioning process that precedes occupancy of a newly constructed or renovated facility to help ensure the operational integrity of all engineering systems that protect the occupational health and safety of the laboratory users. A knowledgeable member of the institution' s EH&S program should serve as a technical advisor to the client team. This person should be well informed about the program of requirements for the facility; have expertise in laboratory safety, environmental protection, and pollution control; be experienced in working with the cognizant regulatory authorities; and be familiar with facility engineering systems that can create effective, safe, and compliant laboratories. Codes and Regulations Construction or renovation of a laboratory building is regulated mainly by state and local laws that incorporate, by reference, generally accepted standard practices set out in uniform codes. Box 3.1 lists the kinds of codes that affect most laboratory construction projects. The codes are usually administered at a municipal or county level but some locations may be administered at a regional

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Laboratory Design, Construction, and Renovation: Participants, Process, and Product BOX 3.1 Types of Code Requirements That Affect Most Laboratory Construction Projects Ventilation—to maintain comfort and occupational health Fire prevention—to detect and suppress fires, in part by limiting quantities of flammable and hazardous chemicals Emergency power supply—to maintain operation of vital life-safety systems such as egress lighting, fire detection, and protection systems during electrical interruption Control of hazardous gases—to reduce the risk from and to control accidental releases of gases Building height—to limit the height of laboratory buildings based on chemical usage Seismic requirements—to reduce the hazards posed by earthquakes or state level. Scheduling the obtaining of permits required for construction will help prevent unnecessary delays in a project. It is important to give permit-granting agencies early notification of significant construction projects within their jurisdiction so that they can anticipate their workload and staffing needs. Agency professionals can offer guidelines and insight into unique local needs that could influence a building project. Agencies in some jurisdictions like to set up a single point of contact between the agency and representatives of the project team, usually the client and architect project managers, to facilitate and coordinate the exchange of important information and to establish a good working relationship. One benefit of this structure is that it minimizes the number of people who have to spend time learning the unique processes and procedures of the organizations involved, thus optimizing communication. When an agency has clear and sufficient information about a complicated research facility construction project before actual plans are submitted, it can move more quickly through the required approval and permitgranting process. Generally, a project must comply with building, fire, electrical, plumbing, and mechanical codes at the local level that may be prescriptive or performance based. Because agencies have widely varying levels of experience in evaluating complex facilities like research buildings, outside experts can be a valuable investment toward timely inspection of plans and construction site activities. Some codes allow hiring mutually acceptable outside experts for plan review and construction inspection, should the agency need the added expertise or personnel to expedite a project. Local codes often include nationally recognized standards developed by organizations such as the National Fire Protection Association (NFPA), the American National Standards Institute (ANSI), the American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM), and the American Society of Heating, Refrigeration, and

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Laboratory Design, Construction, and Renovation: Participants, Process, and Product Air-conditioning Engineers (ASHRAE). These organizations often adopt standards by consensus of a committee of nationally recognized experts. Many institutions and professional associations have members on a standards committee, who could be a valuable resource to a laboratory construction project team. Both codes and the national standards evolve over time. Additions and revisions are based on advances in science and technology and on knowledge gained from accidents or incidents involving significant loss of life or property, or environmental damage. A summary of codes existing as of 1995 is contained in Mayer (1995). As this current report was being written, the three regional code organizations—the International Conference of Building Officials (ICBO), the Building Officials and Code Administrators International (BOCA), and the Southern Building Code Congress International (SBCC)—were drafting one uniform national code. Adoption of this building code is projected for the year 2000. Even when there is a uniform national code, however, some large cities may still have their own codes or amendments to the national code to deal with local concerns and circumstances. Environmental Issues Four major acts of Congress that set the national agenda on environmental protection have a direct bearing on the operation of laboratories. The Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) addresses waste disposal and reduction. The Clean Air Act (CAA) concerns air quality and its effects on human health. The Federal Water Pollution Control Act covers the improvement and protection of water quality. Title III of the Superfund Amendments and Reauthorization Act (SARA) ensures a community's right to know what hazardous materials are present in facilities in their community, which enables community emergency response authorities and local fire departments to protect themselves when responding to a fire, explosion, gas or chemical release, or other emergency. Communities are rightfully concerned about what is occurring in their neighborhoods. A laboratory construction project team must become familiar with the requirements associated with relevant environmental regulations to ensure that the completed project achieves compliance. A major objective of much of this legislation is pollution prevention. SARA Title III is intended to enhance communication between facilities that use hazardous chemicals, the communities in which the facilities are located, and the emergency response organizations of those communities. Laboratory facilities should develop excellent programs in pollution prevention, emergency response planning, communication, and public outreach. This means going beyond regulatory compliance to ensure constructive responsiveness to community concerns. Doing so will foster good relations with the community and will ease conflict that too often arises in the construction of new laboratory facilities. Means to encourage support are discussed in the "Community Relations" section in Chapter 1.

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Laboratory Design, Construction, and Renovation: Participants, Process, and Product Managing Hazardous Waste Under RCRA, the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) is responsible for promulgating and enforcing prescriptive regulations for controlling hazardous waste at all stages, from generation to disposal. The regulatory philosophy of the EPA is to treat laboratory and industrial-scale waste generators in the same way, although there are significant differences between the two in terms of waste volume produced and number of chemicals handled, as well as in the associated potential environmental risks. Universities, in particular, have had great difficulty in implementing an industrial-scale regulatory model to manage hazardous chemical waste generated in individual laboratories. Management of hazardous waste must be considered by the project team in planning and designing a laboratory facility. The team must understand the life cycle of chemicals within the facility; how they are purchased, delivered, centrally stored, moved to individual laboratories, used, converted to waste, further treated, and packaged for disposal. The establishment of a system to handle this process is important for the safe operation of the facility and to ensure regulatory compliance and cost containment.1 Controlling Chemical Vapor Emissions The 1990 amendments to the CAA require the EPA to vigorously regulate emissions of sulfur dioxide, volatile organic compounds, hazardous air pollutants (HAPs), and ozone-depleting chemicals. Large institutions with laboratories are affected by these rules if they have the potential to emit one or more of the EPA-listed HAPs in amounts greater than 10 tons per year for a single HAP or 25 tons per year for total HAPs. These quantities include emissions from all sources in a contiguous area and under control of a common authority, such as an institution's power plant and boilers and its laboratory facilities. For these reasons, the chemical vapor emissions from individual fume hoods at larger institutions may be required to meet emission standards that the EPA designates based on "maximum achievable control technologies," a sliding scale that changes as technology changes. The 1990 amendments also require the EPA to establish a separate category covering research or laboratory facilities as necessary to ensure the equitable treatment of such facilities. The result may be a regulatory model for laborato- 1   Users can assist by attempting to identify opportunities to reduce waste generation through substitution of less hazardous chemicals or adopting procedures that require smaller quantities of chemicals; recycling, reusing, or recovering chemicals before they become a part of the waste stream; and implementing bench or facility waste treatment. Additional suggestions for working with chemicals are given in Chapters 4, 5, and 7 of Prudent Practices in the Laboratory (NRC, 1995). The publication, Less Is Better: Laboratory Chemical Management for Waste Reduction (ACS, 1993), addresses micro-scale experimentation that promotes waste minimization.

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Laboratory Design, Construction, and Renovation: Participants, Process, and Product ries that recognizes the differences between laboratories and major industries, although it is unlikely to provide relief for major institutions with laboratories that already exceed the limits on quantity of controlled materials emitted. The potential need for treatment of air exhausted from fume hoods is a major environmental issue affecting laboratory design and presents a daunting challenge for the laboratory designer. Technology for maximum achievable control will increase cost and space requirements. Uncertainty about the requirements of a revised EPA regulatory model for laboratories may justify providing additional space to accommodate future emission control technology, should it be required, to reduce retrofit costs. Current hood use practices should be reviewed by the user representative to explore ways in which air emissions could be reduced. For example, experiments and other operations conducted in hoods should be planned so that they never involve the intentional discharge of hazardous emissions, and control apparatus such as condensers, traps, or scrubbers (to contain and collect waste solvents, toxic vapors, or dusts) should be incorporated into the experimental process. Thus, hazardous materials should be vented from the fume hood only when, in an emergency, a chemical is accidentally released within the hood. Such planning will simplify the problem of treating fume hood exhausts. Controlling Liquid Effluents Liquid effluent discharge from laboratories is less difficult to handle properly than is vapor exhaust. Requirements controlling the discharge of pollutants are set by the local sewer authority or publicly owned treatment works (POTW). Sinks are no longer used to dispose of hazardous laboratory waste. Waste water from laboratory sinks must flow through an acid neutralization system that adjusts the pH of the effluents prior to their discharge into the POTW. In new construction this requirement is generally met by installing a central building dilution tank with a monitoring system that measures pH and automatically adds acid or base to ensure compliance with effluent standards. Early communication with the POTW about the intentions of the institution to install such systems in a new laboratory facility will help maintain the good record of compliance that laboratories have in this area of environmental protection. Health Issues Under the Laboratory Standard promulgated in 1990 by the Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA), an institution or employer with laboratories is required to develop its own program to protect the health and safety of its employees. This standard represents a welcome and significant departure from the conventional approaches of regulatory agencies that issue detailed prescriptive standards. An institution-developed program, called the Chemical Hy-

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Laboratory Design, Construction, and Renovation: Participants, Process, and Product giene Plan, must meet performance standards set by OSHA. Information in the plan will help guide the development of a healthful and safe laboratory environment. The project team should be familiar with its institution's Chemical Hygiene Plan—the centerpiece of the regulatory program—and refer to it throughout the design process. Laboratory Chemical Hoods The fume hood is the principal device used in a laboratory facility to protect the health of workers. The selection, placement, and installation of the fume hood collectively constitute the most important health-related issue the project team will consider. Decisions affecting the entire building's ventilation system, which is perhaps the major cost component of any new laboratory construction or renovation project, will be influenced by hood-related choices. Poor selection and installation of fume hoods will create a serious problem that either endangers the health of workers or drastically curtails the use of the laboratory for potentially hazardous experiments. The design group must accept responsibility for ensuring that the facility fume hoods and ventilation system are properly designed to provide a healthful and safe laboratory environment. The selection of the proper fume hood requires specific information about the intended use of the hood and the institutional policies that may limit the choice of hood. Kinds of user information that should be obtained in the predesign phase are shown in Box 3.2. Some relevant aspects of institutional policies affecting hood use and design are in Box 3.3. The number and size of necessary hoods will vary considerably with the type of laboratory. For example, biochemistry laboratory experiments involve minute quantities of chemicals and are usually performed on the open bench. A single hood that provides 6 linear feet of working space may be sufficient to support the needs of several bench scientists who occupy 600 square feet of biochemistry laboratory space. For general chemistry laboratories, one hood providing 5 to 6 linear feet of working space at the face would be the minimum requirement for every two workers. There will be an even higher requirement for hoods in organic and inorganic synthesis laboratories, where a single chemist BOX 3.2 Information Needed for Hood Selection Equipment and activities that require containment within a hood Properties of materials that will be used in a hood Quantity of materials that will be used in a hood Number of people who will use a hood and the frequency and duration of use Anticipated changes in future use

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Laboratory Design, Construction, and Renovation: Participants, Process, and Product BOX 3.3 Elements of Institutional Policies Related to Hoods Requirements for performance and containment Density of hood use Requirements for limitations affecting the ventilation system Cost Requirement for fume hood controls—occupancy sensors may require 8 linear feet of working space to contain equipment and other experimental apparatus. The density of hood use in synthetic laboratories could approach a single hood that provides 6 to 8 linear feet of working space at the face of the hood for every 100 square feet of laboratory space. Benchmarking hood use in comparable institutions can be a valuable guide in selecting the type and the number of hoods. Laboratory Ventilation System The density of hood use will have a significant impact on the design of the ventilation system because of the large quantity of air that will be exhausted to the outdoors by properly functioning hoods. The ventilation system in chemical laboratories must satisfy two principal health-related objectives: occupational health, which is achieved through the proper installation and operation of chemical laboratory hoods, and occupant comfort, which is achieved by heating and humidifying the general laboratory air in the winter and cooling it in the summer. A secondary function of the laboratory ventilation system is to prevent the migration of contaminants caused by incidental and accidental release of chemicals from the laboratory into other areas of the building. This is accomplished in part by providing single-pass air (air discharge from the laboratory directly outdoors) and in part by controlling the direction of airflow. The ventilation system should be designed so that air will flow from the areas with the least potential for contamination toward areas with the highest potential. Caution in setting system design parameters is important to ensure that safety considerations do not significantly increase cost. For example, a design requirement that the system should maintain designated pressure differentials rather than simply satisfy the objective of unidirectional airflow may substantially increase the cost of the project. An enormous amount of energy can be consumed in conditioning the quantity of air that is delivered to laboratories to maintain comfort and ensure safe operation of the chemical hoods. Since laboratory air is not recirculated but instead is discharged as single-pass air, much energy is wasted. This problem is significantly exacerbated as the magnitude of hood use increases. Fiscal responsibility provides a strong incentive to implement energy con-

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Laboratory Design, Construction, and Renovation: Participants, Process, and Product servation in the design of laboratory ventilation systems so that utility cost savings can be achieved. Energy-efficient systems will most certainly be required for laboratory buildings with high hood use. Technical details of different hood designs are outlined in the ''Laboratory Configuration" subsection of the "Design Considerations" section in this chapter and are discussed in Chapter 8 of Prudent Practices in the Laboratory (NRC, 1995). The principal approach to conserving energy and reducing operational costs is to reduce the quantity of conditioned air that flows to the outdoors through laboratory chemical hoods. The project team should recognize the inherent conflict between the objectives of conserving energy and preserving the health of laboratory users. Reducing the airflow to hoods can increase the hood users' risk. Nevertheless, it makes sense to reduce airflow during times when the number of hoods in use is significantly reduced. Changing airflow characteristics in an operating ventilation system without compromising occupational health is an achievable, but daunting, engineering and operational challenge. Selecting a competent and experienced mechanical engineer to design an energy-efficient ventilation system will help ensure that operational reliability is achieved and that energy conservation and occupational health are compatible as objectives. Such design solutions are complex, and their initial costs will be high. Operating costs, conversely, will be lower than the cost of using conventional hoods. The institution must also recognize that continued operational reliability will be an essential requirement for maintaining a healthful environment. The completed system will require a sophisticated staff of facility engineers and a dedicated preventive maintenance program. While planning for a healthful, energy-efficient ventilation system, the project team must ensure that cost considerations never take precedence over the institution's moral and legal obligation to protect the health of the worker and the environment. If there is a question, EH&S professionals should be consulted. Unique and Particularly Hazardous Operations It is important for the project team to identify operations or processes that involve highly hazardous chemicals or that may present unique hazards. A useful first step would be to review the types of operations, protocols, and experiments that are not allowed to be performed without the prior approval of the institution. The Chemical Hygiene Plan is a good resource for this information as it describes the circumstances under which administrative controls would be put into place. Both scientists who carry out these operations and EH&S professionals should be consulted in developing any design strategy to control risks associated with these types of operations. It is important to ensure that the controls are relevant to the risks, are practical to implement, and comply with regulatory requirements. User input in these decisions will afford higher levels of operational compliance in the completed facility. Processes presenting unique hazards will require careful consideration by ex-

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Laboratory Design, Construction, and Renovation: Participants, Process, and Product perienced users and consultants. Chemistry is becoming the universal language of science, and the planners of new chemistry buildings should anticipate that space requirements in some situations may differ considerably from those associated with traditional chemistry laboratories. For example, mutual scientific interests among combinatorial chemists, synthetic chemists, and molecular biologists have encouraged the placement of modern biology laboratories in close proximity to organic and inorganic synthesis laboratories to facilitate collaboration. Future chemistry laboratory buildings may likely have requirements for laboratory space appropriate for experiments involving human pathogens. If a requirement such as this arises, the project team will need to become familiar with consensus standards for the design and operation of safe biological laboratories. An authoritative reference on biological safety is Richmond and McKinney (1993). Guidance for facility safeguards is provided according to four levels of risk that are based on the potential for occupationally acquired infection and the severity of disease. Areas that can present unique hazards—such as high-pressure facilities; radiochemistry, x-ray diffraction, nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR), and high-energy laser laboratories; and laboratories for research in which the risk of explosion is high—are likely to be included in the program of requirements for new facilities or major renovation projects. Other potentially hazardous areas include those that contain large volumes of chemicals, such as chemical storage or hazardous waste accumulation areas. Each of these areas will present special hazards for which expert consultation will be required to ensure that appropriate criteria are identified to achieve a safe design. Access Control The concept of controlled access is relevant in all areas that may be hazardous to health. The objective is to protect persons who are not assigned to the laboratory from exposure that may compromise health. The degree of control over access should correspond to the level of risk. For example, in high-risk areas, access should be limited to individuals specifically trained and assigned to work in the area. In low-risk areas, it may be sufficient to design laboratory corridors so that they are not perceived as public thorough fares. The configuration of space so as to control access merits careful consideration, particularly for laboratory areas that require limited access. It is important that both the controlled areas and the access points to these areas be easily recognized as such. There should be a way to inform the visitor of appropriate entry procedures or prohibitions against entry. The location of a controlled access area should be convenient for the laboratory staff. It is equally important that access control measures be no more restrictive than the potential risks require; otherwise, they will be quickly abandoned by the assigned laboratory staff.

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Laboratory Design, Construction, and Renovation: Participants, Process, and Product Safety Issues The Occupational Safety and Health Act of 19702 established two principal duties for each employer covered by the act. The first duty requires that each employer "shall furnish to each of his employees employment and a place of employment which are free from recognized hazards that are causing or are likely to cause death or serious physical harm to his employees." The second duty requires that each employer "shall comply with Occupational Safety and Health Standards promulgated under this Act." These duties underscore the need of an employer to insist that a new or renovated facility promote, rather than hinder, safe occupancy. The initial Occupational Safety and Health Standards promulgated under the act addressed workplace safety hazards that were known to cause physical injury to workers. OSHA continues to emphasize an employer's responsibility to safeguard workers from electrical, mechanical, and fire hazards, as well as from exposure to flammable, corrosive, reactive, and toxic chemicals. All of these physical hazards have relevance to the design, construction, and operation of chemical laboratories. Several safety issues that need to be addressed by the project team are briefly described below. They are intended to highlight the importance of addressing physical hazards that could cause injury to workers as a result of the poor design of chemical laboratories. Emergency Egress The most important safeguard for preventing serious personal injury that a building can provide is a means of egress that will permit the prompt escape of building occupants in case of fire or other emergency. The means of egress consist of three separate and distinct parts: the pathway of exit access, the exit, and the pathway of exit discharge. Local fire codes and OSHA standards require that a means of egress be a continuous and unobstructed route from any point in the building to a public way. In chemical laboratory buildings, the exit access comprises the hallways and corridors that lead directly from a laboratory module or work area to the entrance of a designated exit. This part of the means of egress must provide an unobstructed path of travel both to promote the fast and orderly exit of building occupants and to allow emergency responders to gain safe and efficient access to the emergency scene. These functions can best be preserved if the corridors are designed so that they do not encourage misuse. For example, if a laboratory corridor that serves as an exit access is designed with a greater width than is 2   P.L. 91-596, Occupational Safety and Health Act of 1970 section 5, codified at 29 USC 651 et seq.

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Laboratory Design, Construction, and Renovation: Participants, Process, and Product BOX 3.15 Construction Contingency Considerations Contract method Client's (or design group members') previous experience with a successful contractor and subcontractors Condition of the construction market Complexity and timing of the project price. Since the construction documents are complete at this time, the design phase contingency is no longer required. Based on the factors given in Box 3.15, the client, with assistance from the design group, will set the construction contingency and other project-cost-related contingencies. When the price is determined, the schedule agreed to, and the client's construction contract signed, the bid and negotiation stage is complete. The client releases the contractor to commence construction. Construction Administration Activities. Construction administration refers to the efforts of the design group and client group during construction and before occupancy. Cost control in this phase focuses on reducing the number of change orders and achieving quality construction so work does not have to be torn out and reconstructed. Construction Review. Ideally the client engages an experienced construction inspector to continuously review the construction activities during the entire construction period. During the construction review, the client's inspector inspects building materials and equipment brought to the site and validates labor slips for all construction workers. This individual works diligently to reduce change orders and substitution of inferior materials in the construction, thereby controlling costs. The architects and engineers also employ individuals to review the progress of the construction activities. These construction administrators check shop drawings from vendors and subcontractors, issue responses to requests for information from contractors, recommend acceptance or rejection of change orders to the client, and approve applications for payment to the general or primary contractor. One of the construction administrator' s responsibilities is to help control change orders and control costs. Construction Supervision. Construction supervisors, employed by the general contractor, manage the delivery of materials to the site and supervise the overall work force. The supervisor issues requests for information to the design group,

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Laboratory Design, Construction, and Renovation: Participants, Process, and Product manages the distribution of shop drawings, and provides estimates for change orders. Because this individual typically plays a vital role in the success of a laboratory construction or renovation project, he or she should be carefully selected by the client team and design group if it is possible to do so. Change Orders. "Change order" is a term that refers to both the documentation and the process for approval of modifications to the contract documents during construction. Change orders can be initiated by all three parties to the design and construction contracts—the client, the design architect/engineer, and the contractor or subcontractors. Change orders are used to correct, modify, and add essential materials or details to accomplish the intent of the contract documents. They are a mechanism for correcting errors arising from lack of coordination between subcontractors as well as design errors or omissions; they are also generated when a client changes the scope of a project or modifies previously approved components. In some projects, if the construction documents have not been completed or coordinated prior to the initiation of the construction phase, the architects and engineers continue to complete the construction documents during the construction phase, often creating additional change orders. It is often better to delay the bidding and negotiation period until the client team and the design group are confident that the construction documents are complete and coordinated. Change orders are initially approved by the design group and finally approved by the client. The architect/engineer submits to the client recommendations for the changes requested by the client or required by code or for some other reason. The contractor provides the price of the materials and labor to complete the modification. The contractor may also provide alternatives and recommendations for accomplishing the desired results. The cost of change orders is offset by the client's construction contingency. Change orders not initiated by the client should not exceed 5 percent of the construction cost for a typical laboratory project and should ideally fall below 3 percent. The best way to avoid those change orders not initiated by the client is to verify that the construction documents have been competed, are accurate, and are coordinated. Many architects and engineers perform substantial quality reviews and coordination of documents to reduce the potential for change orders. The design group and, if one is engaged, the construction manager should carefully scrutinize change orders initiated by the contractor or subcontractors, as should the client project manager. Cost control is achieved by controlling contractor-generated costs for all change orders. Public agencies and institutions may be vulnerable to excessive requests for change orders because of low-bid acceptance practices. Government and public construction projects typically experience far higher levels of change orders than do projects that are negotiated with prequalified contractors or those that do not require taking the lowest bid.

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Laboratory Design, Construction, and Renovation: Participants, Process, and Product Project Cost Components Nonbuilding Construction Costs Prior to actual construction, there are many other activities for which the client may have to budget depending on the conditions of the site selected for the laboratory building, Land. The site for the proposed building or campus, if not already owned, must be purchased. Owners should consider the impact of future expansion of the laboratory facility on the site. If adjacent parcels are available, purchase of land for a temporary buffer and long-term site for expansion may make a good investment. Brown-field sites have existing buildings and usually some site utilities. Green-field sites are free of buildings and often free of roads and all utilities. Both categories of sites need careful evaluation regarding the cost to bring construction materials to the site or to move utilities and roads and to deal with other encumbrances such as drainage. Sites for new construction and even major building renovations require site area for construction staging, which includes construction trailers, parking for workers, and secure storage of building materials and heavy equipment. Demolition. Some demolition may be required if the site has existing structures that obstruct the footprint or the immediate construction zone of the proposed building. Demolition is normally required in renovations. The extent of demolition ranges from select limited demolition to total interior demolition of the spaces or building to be renovated and everything in between. Selected limited demolition may remove only certain laboratory building components, such as mechanical systems or laboratory casework. Gut demolition removes everything down to the basic building shell. Often windows and roofing are also removed and replaced. Because laboratories and laboratory buildings contain hazardous materials, preliminary investigations and an industrial hygiene survey should be undertaken well before completion of the design documents for the renovation. If hazardous materials are present, in ducts, pipes, chemical hoods, and so on, they must be properly removed and the building remediated to safe condition prior to demolition. This is an extra cost inherent in laboratory building renovation. When existing structures near or in the immediate construction zone will continue to be occupied during the construction of a laboratory, the foundations, exterior walls, windows facing the construction side, and roof must all be protected—a responsibility of and cost to the client whether or not the client owns the abutting building. Special Foundations. If a laboratory building is constructed as an addition to or

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Laboratory Design, Construction, and Renovation: Participants, Process, and Product very close to an existing building, underpinning of the existing building's foundations may be required. Underpinning is done when excavation for the new building's foundation extends beneath the existing building's footings or for some other reason that may cause temporary or permanent unstable conditions. Underpinning involves installing structural elements beneath or beside existing foundations to support the existing building. For similar reasons, sheeting may be installed to stabilize and support the earth around the foundation of an existing building next to an excavation. These and other special foundations represent costs borne by the laboratory building owner. Site subsurface investigations and geotechnical surveys are normally conducted very early in the design process, if they have not already been done in a feasibility study or during site selection. Laboratory buildings constructed in regions of documented seismic activity also often have special foundations, structural design, and construction costs associated with them. Laboratories with sensitive analytic equipment may also require special foundations, such as pilings or piers to bedrock, in order to isolate the building from local vibration. Site Utilities. Subsurface site investigations on many developed sites reveal existing campus utility and city service lines. If it is not feasible to relocate these obstructions to construction, then the utilities must be supported and protected during excavation and construction. Temporary shutdown of certain utilities may be necessary during installation of these protective measures. If not considered early during design, this step costs both money and time in a construction schedule. New utilities may have to be brought through or to the site, such as fiber-optic cable. They, too, have to be planned and budgeted. Site Work and Landscaping. An integral part of design is site and landscape design. Landscaping is a small part of the entire construction budget but has a significant and immediate impact on the entire image of the laboratory project, as well as on the environment. Good landscape design and siting can influence the community's acceptance of a laboratory facility. Well-designed sites provide laboratory staff with places for psychological respite and physical recreation. See the section "Sociology" in Chapter 1 for more information. Permits. Permits are usually a direct expense to the client, although the contractor may pull the permits and work with the building department of the municipal government. In some jurisdictions permits are required for services such as water, natural gas, and sewer connections, for exhaust discharge, and for other activities with environmental impacts. These permits are required above and beyond the ordinary building permit. Central utility plants must comply with particular environmental regulations, such as for sulphur dioxide and nitrous oxide emissions.

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Laboratory Design, Construction, and Renovation: Participants, Process, and Product Owner Supervision and Institutional Surcharges. Many institutions and corporations have qualified and experienced in-house staff members who manage program, design, and construction processes, as well as maintenance and operations. The work that these staff members perform may be charged directly to the project on a fixed fee or hourly basis. Some organizations perform actual construction management, holding contracts from the general contractor and subcontractors and scheduling and coordinating construction activities. This is a major responsibility and requires a major commitment of personnel by the organization. The project budget should include the necessary salaries for the full-time staff. Mock-up Construction. A mock-up of a typical laboratory space and even of adjacent areas, such as service corridors or laboratory support cores, is an extremely useful preconstruction tool. Laboratory mock-ups can be constructed as early as the design development phase or, more commonly, during the construction document phase of the design process. Mock-ups can be assembled with the actual full-size casework in the design configuration and finish materials with fittings, fixtures, and even pipes, conduits, and ducts. These are installed within a temporary shell constructed of lightweight enclosure materials, such as painted homosote or plywood. The mock-up can also be assembled in the actual building shell. Major architectural features in full scale, such as windows, doorways, lighting fixtures and ceiling heights, should be simulated to provide as realistic a model as possible. The laboratory mock-up has two major functions. One is to allow early, and the most effective, feedback on the laboratory design, finishes, and material selections from future building occupants, health and safety professionals, and maintenance personnel. As many participants as possible should be encouraged to walk through the mock-up and comment on it. The comments should be used to improve the laboratory design. Mock-ups can be used for training operations and maintenance staff. Some mock-up components can be stored and reinstalled in the actual building. The second function of a laboratory mock-up is to give a preview to construction contractors who will bid on or negotiate the construction cost. Inspection of the major components, materials, and quality of the construction offers important insight regarding the intent of the design and it supplements the design documents. Some clients have achieved measurable savings in bids offered by contractors when a mock-up was made available for investigation. If the laboratory mock-up is delayed until the construction contract is let, very little change can be achieved economically in the original design, because the price is already fixed. Fees. In addition to the actual cost of construction, clients must budget for service fees for design, construction, EH&S, and legal and financial professions, as well as for other nonconstruction costs. Basic architectural design fees do not

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Laboratory Design, Construction, and Renovation: Participants, Process, and Product normally include any special consultants or any additional services, unless their inclusion is specifically negotiated with the design team. Basic fees also do not include reimbursable expenses, which typically include costs for travel, telecommunications, mail and delivery, and document reproduction, not only for the prime architect and engineer but also for their consultants. Services. Architectural and engineering design consists of basic services for the design of a building or renovation, such as architectural, structural, mechanical, electrical, and fire protection engineering services. The obligations of designers and owners and deliverables from designers are outlined and described in design service contracts such as the American Institute of Architects' B141 Standard Form of Agreement between Owner and Architect. Standard fees are usually expressed as a percentage of the construction costs. While the Brooks Act4 limits such fees to 6 percent for federal projects, fees for new laboratory construction are more commonly in the range of 7 to 9 percent for projects with construction costs of $10 million to $50 million (more for smaller projects, less for larger projects). For renovations the fees are often 25 to 35 percent higher than those for new construction. Additional design-related services include all predesign activities, such as planning and programming, and design studies such as energy audits, architectural models, and mock-up construction documents. Fees are associated with each of these services. Although basic design fees for federal projects are limited by the Brooks Act, total design-related services for such projects are more commonly 10 to 14 percent of the construction costs. Consultants are hired to perform specific design tasks and to offer information for specific requirements of the laboratory design. Either the client or prime architect/engineering firm may enter into a contract with consultants. Consultants who often assist the prime design team for the laboratory building or renovation include a laboratory planner, laboratory safety professional, environmental engineer, code consultant, geotechnical engineer, vibration-control structural engineer, acoustical engineer, lighting engineer, construction cost estimator, information and audiovisual technology specialist, interior designer, and landscape architect. Clients may hire an economist to perform a market analysis or economic feasibility study. Because legal issues are always a consideration for owners during design and construction, legal assistance is highly recommended for contract negotiation. Construction managers are often hired by clients to assist with cost estimating, scheduling, and improving the efficiency of construction of the design dur- 4    P.L. 92-582, the Brooks Act of 1972 to amend the Federal Property and Administrative Service Act of 1949.

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Laboratory Design, Construction, and Renovation: Participants, Process, and Product ing the design process. During the construction phase, construction managers may continue to represent clients by assuming major managerial responsibilities for scheduling and cost control. Construction management fees are a major expense in laboratory projects. Construction supervisors hired by the clients are independent of the contractor. They perform inspection services and directly represent the client at the construction site. In complex construction, such as laboratory buildings or in difficult site conditions, the engagement of dedicated supervisors who are experienced and qualified is recommended. Site and Materials Testing. In construction projects, site and materials testing fees are normal expenses of a client. Concrete, steel welds, soil and subsurface conditions, and curtain wall assemblies (preformed outer walls that are attached to the basic building frame) are typically tested and certified to meet design specifications. Other testing may be performed on other building materials such as driveway paving, brick, or stone. Zoning Amendments, Environmental Impact Studies, and Public Hearings. Zoning amendments and hearings are a source of additional expense for the services of design professionals and legal counsel to prepare documents and present the owners' reasons for amendment to government agencies and, if required, to the public. Similar efforts and considerable expertise are required from design professionals, legal counsel, and a wide array of engineers, biologists, archeologists, and other specialists to perform environmental impact assessments or environmental impact studies. Public hearings are often required for approval of environmental impact assessments. Surveys. A wide variety of surveys may be required to obtain information required for the design of the laboratory building and site. Surveys include land and site utilities, soils, traffic, vibration, and wind conditions. Equipment surveys are highly recommended to inventory existing scientific equipment that will be moved into and reinstalled in the new or renovated laboratories. Equipment surveys can include a listing of new movable, as well as fixed equipment, that will be purchased by the client and installed. The laboratory planner consultant can perform this survey if in-house staff cannot. An industrial hygiene survey is recommended for a major renovation of laboratory buildings and when the presence of hazardous materials is suspected. Owners bear the cost of and responsibility for most surveys, but the architect/engineer can manage the process if this service is included in the contract. Furnishings, Fixtures, and Equipment. Furnishings, fixtures, and equipment, or FF&E as this cost item is called, can be a very large component of the project cost. Furnishings, fixtures, and equipment are not included in the basic design or

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Laboratory Design, Construction, and Renovation: Participants, Process, and Product typical construction contract. The only items in this category that are covered in both laboratory design fees and construction costs are "fixed" equipment, such as chemical fume hoods or glass washers and autoclaves, fixtures, and "built-in" furnishings, such as fixed work counters or reception desks. Movable FF&E items must be budgeted separately. Movable furnishings in a laboratory building include laboratory chairs and tables, office and guest chairs, conference tables, desks, file cabinets, bookcases, and other standard open-office partitions and furniture. Installation of all other furnishings and fixtures should be an item in the budget. Movable equipment includes scientific equipment that is not permanently installed, such as nuclear magnetic resonance and mass spectrometers, centrifuges, refrigerators, microscope tables, computers, and the like. Installation and recalibration of equipment are discussed in the section "Installation and Calibration of Scientific Equipment," below. Fixtures in a laboratory building may include window coverings and treatment, decorative plants, and artwork. FF&E costs for new laboratory buildings and renovations can range from 10 to 30 percent of the construction budget. Clients need to manage the FF&E selection and budgeting processes carefully or hire consultants such as laboratory planners and interior designers to assist them with this activity. Information Technology. Telecommunications, video, security, and data systems installation are an increasingly critical part of laboratory buildings. Many systems and levels of technological sophistication are available according to the immediate and projected future needs of the building occupants and owners. In laboratory buildings, budgets for information technology normally range from 5 to 15 percent of the construction cost. Again, this is a big ticket and complex item, as is FF&E, and requires careful planning with the assistance of in-house information technology specialists or consultants. There are options for distribution of communications cables, such as cable trays and conduit. Basic design services and typical construction contracts do not include pulling wires or making final connections to terminal outlets and devices. Finance Costs and Bonding. Interim financing may also be required for a laboratory renovation or construction project. Bonding protects the client against some of the financial difficulties and potentially catastrophic failures or delays in the construction process. Bonds that are recommended under normal construction conditions are bid, performance, payment, and price-escalation bonds. Insurance Costs. Insurance is important to protect clients from a wide range of liabilities, such as public liability, vehicle liability, property damage and fire coverage, vandalism, workmen's compensation, and employees' liability. Other insurance may be needed according to the specific conditions of the site, existing building(s) in the case of renovations, and the construction contract. Clients

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Laboratory Design, Construction, and Renovation: Participants, Process, and Product should consult with expert insurance agencies to provide the appropriate scope and level of coverage required for each project. Contingencies Contingencies—funds reserved for unanticipated events—are diverse and cover many aspects of the design and construction process. Owners should structure contingencies sensibly to cover the risk of unknowns and factors that emerge, or that become priorities, during the 2- to 5-year design and construction process. Design Contingency. The most commonly used contingency is the design contingency. During the design process, the estimated construction cost is increased by a carefully determined percentage to account for unknown design components and construction factors, not changes in the scope of the project. (See the section "Program Contingency," below, for information on scope modifications.) As the design is developed and comes to closure during later stages of construction documents, the design contingency can diminish. According to the complexity of the new laboratory project or renovation, the design contingency can be as much as 20 percent in the schematic design stage. It drops to 5 to 10 percent at the end of the construction documents phase. Construction Contingency. After the bidding or price negotiation process is completed, the client's construction contingency should be reconfirmed. This contingency is spent as construction proceeds and modifications to the contract documents (change orders) are requested by the client. At the end of construction the client can apply remaining construction contingency funds to other project cost items or to the organization's general funds. The general contractor will maintain and control his or her own construction contingency during the course of the project to cover unforeseen construction factors. Because laboratory buildings are complex, it is prudent to provide adequate contingencies. Program Contingency. The program contingency, the owner's responsibility, budgets for possible changes in the scope, quantity, or quality of the project. If the nature or size of any of the building components is increased or decreased, the program contingency is used to finance the change and allow continuation of the construction. Consultants Contingency. The consultants contingency is a small fund set aside during the design and construction phases to pay for additional services that are needed or other specialty consultants required to resolve issues or problems that were unforeseen.

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Laboratory Design, Construction, and Renovation: Participants, Process, and Product Equipment Contingency. As discussed in ''Furnishings, Fixtures, and Equipment" above, an FF&E budget is difficult to develop and estimate accurately. An equipment contingency is used to fund any shortfall in the estimate or for modifications in quantities or quality of items in the FF&E schedule. Financing Contingency. A financing contingency offers the owner a budgetary cushion for unforeseen circumstances that might affect the funding available for the project. The amount or proportion required for this contingency is based on the amount and nature of risk. Costs of Move-in Activities The moving costs associated with a laboratory construction or renovation project can involve more than the expense of transferring the contents of one building into another. Move coordination—identifying what moves, what stays, and what gets discarded—is a formidable task. A move to a new or renovated laboratory is the ideal time to dispose of old chemicals and establish a department-wide computerized chemical inventory system. The one-time costs associated with these activities need to be budgeted. Moving costs may include those for use of temporary facilities, building commissioning, installation and calibration of scientific equipment, and hazardous materials assessment, transportation, and disposal. Use of Temporary Facilities. Temporary facilities may have to be leased to accommodate phasing of renovations or even with new construction if the schedule for completion does not coincide with the demand for functional laboratory space. Short-term laboratory rentals are generally expensive and hard to find. Office facility rentals are easier to negotiate. Although it would be expensive, manufactured mobile laboratory units can be purchased, transported to an open site, and installed to site utilities. Mobile laboratory units are approximately the same size as mobile homes and construction trailers. Units can be joined to form doublewide units. As a practical matter on a campus or site, only a limited number of scientists can be accommodated in mobile laboratories. Alternately, the feasibility of dispersing laboratory occupants temporarily into other operating laboratories within the organization can be explored if necessary. Commissioning. The objective of commissioning is to have the building systems perform as designed and as specified. This process is described in the section "Postconstruction Phase" in Chapter 2. Building commissioning has received a great deal of attention in the past few years from building owners because new building systems have routinely failed to perform acceptably. Prob-

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Laboratory Design, Construction, and Renovation: Participants, Process, and Product lems with heating, ventilation, and air conditioning systems are particularly frequent upon start-up. Commissioning should be done by an independent agent, not the design engineer, construction manager, or contractor, in order to obtain an objective, unbiased evaluation of building systems. Many institutions strongly believe that commissioning should be part of the design engineers' or general contractors' basic services. This arrangement is the ideal, but complex buildings such as laboratories really deserve a second, objective inspection. Fees for commissioning services range up to 1.5 percent of the construction cost. Installation and Calibration of Scientific Equipment. The budget for a laboratory construction or renovation project should include realistic and adequate costs to provide for installation and calibration of all major scientific equipment moved into any temporary facilities and finally into the completed new building or renovation. Surveys of scientific equipment give clients an indicator of the scope of the installation effort. Some scientific equipment can be installed either by the construction contractor or by the vendor or service agency for the equipment. The installer should be selected according to the value or sensitivity of the equipment, or both, not just according to lowest cost. If some of the instruments are installed by the contractor, most will still require calibration. RECOMMENDATIONS To address the technical issues in a laboratory design, construction, or renovation project, the committee recommends the following actions: Appoint an environmental health and safety technical advisor. An experienced EH&S professional is needed to advise the client team in all phases of a laboratory construction or renovation project. Establish communications with regulatory authorities. Early in the project the institution should develop a working relationship with regulatory authorities whose approvals are necessary for various aspects of the project. Consider design alternatives. Explore alternative solutions for fulfilling needs. Complete predesign before committing to a budget. If possible, defer setting the budget total until completion of the schematic design phase, when the scope, concept, and special conditions of the project are determined. Obtain cost estimates. Construction cost estimates should be obtained from at least two separate, experienced sources, and the estimates should be reconciled at the end of each phase. Develop a list of project cost items as early as possible. Carefully review all bids, and compare them to design-phase estimates.  Set adequate contingencies. Even with the best planning, some changes will be necessary.