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Laboratory Design, Construction, and Renovation: Participants, Process, and Product
air intake for the building. Similarly, the location of the building exhaust must be considered to avoid contamination of neighboring buildings via their air intake, windows, or other openings. Equally important, the exhaust stacks must be located so as to prevent exposure of people outside the building to potential exhaust hazards. A more detailed discussion of the design considerations related to the fume hood exhaust system is provided below in this chapter.
In selecting the building site for a laboratory facility, planners should consider desirable campus interactions that should be encouraged and maintained. An academic or research campus is a dynamic environment where researchers in one building routinely interact with colleagues in other buildings. Interdisciplinary research is commonly promoted, encouraging chemists to interact with materials scientists and engineers, biologists to interact with agricultural scientists and environmentalists, and project teams to interact with academic and planning committees. In additional to collegial interactions, researchers interact with individuals who provide campus support services, which vary from campus to campus but may include machine shops, graphic arts, instrument repair shops, libraries, accounting offices, central stores, and many others.
In the predesign phase, a diagram of interactions is commonly developed to rate the relative importance of interactions between laboratory users and individuals or groups outside the laboratory building. The same approach can be used to rate different siting alternatives based on how each promotes or discourages important interactions; the siting of an addition or new building should consider and, if possible, support the interactions identified as most important. The location of entries to a laboratory facility as well as public and private amenities can all affect the interactions between building users and outside parties.
Access to the Building
The site of a laboratory addition or a new laboratory building must allow unrestricted access by people and vehicles. Access to the building itself must comply with the Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA) and other relevant laws and regulations. Because people will arrive by car, by bike, on foot, in wheelchairs, and by public transportation, provisions for dropping off and picking up people by car and requirements for access to public transportation all have to be considered.
Research is a 24-hour-a-day activity, and so the safety implications of providing 24-hour access need to be considered when a building site is selected. For example, a building located on the edge of a campus may be more accessible to visitors from outside the institution, but such access could possibly create a safety risk to building users, particularly at night. A building located in the