are important. The members of a group or a collection of members of different groups will form teams or committees during different phases of the project in order to carry out the operations of that phase, but defined lines of communications within and between the groups should be maintained. Otherwise, confusion and low productivity will result in all areas of the project. Communications during the different phases of the project are discussed in Chapter 2.
The participants listed in Table 1.1 and the process described in Chapter 2 are all characteristic of successful projects. In addition the committee found that in these successful projects a figure emerged with special leadership qualities. Typically this person, called the champion in this report, is important in articulating the need for the project and driving the project continuously from beginning to end. This person commands respect within the community and has a direct line to the administration of the institution responsible for the laboratory. Since any member of the client group can take on this role, the function does not appear in Table 1.1. In academia, it is frequently a member of the group of users; in industrial and government laboratories it may be a staff person.
The champion may not be the same person as the project leader and may not be giving directions to either the design or construction groups. Rather, the champion provides inspiration to the project and, if necessary, uses her or his clout to advance the project. The champion is not part of the formal project structure described below, and the champion's role may actually involve working outside formal organizational lines.
The client group illustrated in Figure 1.1 is entirely internal, although expert consultants can be retained and are placed in this group. This group is composed of a "client team" that will be the core group; financially and administratively responsible persons; and critical auxiliary staff. The decision to undertake the building or renovation of a facility may require the approval of other individuals who are not part of the client team but who are in the client group. These individuals may include representatives from the administration (e.g., president, provost, dean, CEO), business office (e.g., vice president, chief financial officer, treasurer), development office, occasionally representatives from the trustees or scientific board of advisors, or even the shareholders of a company, or the U.S. Congress. While the approval of these executives is required to undertake the project, day-to-day management is normally delegated to the working group that in this report is called the "client team."