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Laboratory Design, Construction, and Renovation: Participants, Process, and Product LABORATORY DESIGN, CONSTRUCTION, AND RENOVATION PARTICIPANTS, PROCESS, AND PRODUCT Committee on Design, Construction, and Renovation of Laboratory Facilities Board on Chemical Sciences and Technology Commission on Physical Sciences, Mathematics, and Applications National Research Council NATIONAL ACADEMY PRESS Washington, D.C.
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Laboratory Design, Construction, and Renovation: Participants, Process, and Product NOTICE: The project that is the subject of this report was approved by the Governing Board of the National Research Council, whose members are drawn from the councils of the National Academy of Sciences, the National Academy of Engineering, and the Institute of Medicine. The members of the committee responsible for the report were chosen for their special competences and with regard for appropriate balance. Support for this project was provided by the National Academy of Sciences, American Chemical Society, Camille and Henry Dreyfus Foundation (Contract No. SG-98-115), Howard Hughes Medical Foundation (Contract No. 79197-500111), U.S. Department of Energy (Contract No. DE-FG02-96ER76043), and the National Institute of Standards and Technology (Contract No. 43NANB80812). Any opinions, findings, conclusions, or recommendations are those of the author(s) and do not necessarily reflect the view of the organizations or agencies that provided support for this project. International Standard Book Number 0-309-06633-6 Library of Congress Catalog Card Number 00-101279 COVER: Image courtesy of Jordan J. Levin. Additional copies of this report are available from: National Academy Press 2101 Constitution Avenue, NW Box 285 Washington, DC 20055 800/624-6242 202/334-3313 (in the Washington Metropolitan Area) http://www.nap.edu Copyright 2000 by the National Academy of Sciences. All rights reserved. Printed in the United States of America
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Laboratory Design, Construction, and Renovation: Participants, Process, and Product THE NATIONAL ACADEMIES National Academy of Sciences National Academy of Engineering Institute of Medicine National Research Council The National Academy of Sciences is a private, nonprofit, self-perpetuating society of distinguished scholars engaged in scientific and engineering research, dedicated to the furtherance of science and technology and to their use for the general welfare. Upon the authority of the charter granted to it by the Congress in 1863, the Academy has a mandate that requires it to advise the federal government on scientific and technical matters. Dr. Bruce M. Alberts is president of the National Academy of Sciences. The National Academy of Engineering was established in 1964, under the charter of the National Academy of Sciences, as a parallel organization of outstanding engineers. It is autonomous in its administration and in the selection of its members, sharing with the National Academy of Sciences the responsibility for advising the federal government. The National Academy of Engineering also sponsors engineering programs aimed at meeting national needs, encourages education and research, and recognizes the superior achievements of engineers. Dr. William A. Wulf is president of the National Academy of Engineering. The Institute of Medicine was established in 1970 by the National Academy of Sciences to secure the services of eminent members of appropriate professions in the examination of policy matters pertaining to the health of the public. The Institute acts under the responsibility given to the National Academy of Sciences by its congressional charter to be an adviser to the federal government and, upon its own initiative, to identify issues of medical care, research, and education. Dr. Kenneth I. Shine is president of the Institute of Medicine. The National Research Council was organized by the National Academy of Sciences in 1916 to associate the broad community of science and technology with the Academy's purposes of furthering knowledge and advising the federal government. Functioning in accordance with general policies determined by the Academy, the Council has become the principal operating agency of both the National Academy of Sciences and the National Academy of Engineering in providing services to the government, the public, and the scientific and engineering communities. The Council is administered jointly by both Academies and the Institute of Medicine. Dr. Bruce M. Alberts and Dr. William A. Wulf are chairman and vice chairman, respectively, of the National Research Council.
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Laboratory Design, Construction, and Renovation: Participants, Process, and Product COMMITTEE ON DESIGN, CONSTRUCTION, AND RENOVATION OF LABORATORY FACILITIES JOHN I. BRAUMAN, Stanford University, Chair JOHN L. ANDERSON, Carnegie Mellon University W. EMMETT BARKLEY, Howard Hughes Medical Institute JANET S. BAUM, Health Education + Research Associates ROBERT H. BECKER, Monsanto Company PETER J. BRUNS, Cornell University CAROL CREUTZ, Brookhaven National Laboratory DANIEL L. HIGHTOWER, University of Kansas DAVID R. PARKER, Santa Clara Fire Department FRANK J. POPPER, Rutgers University CHARLES A. POTTER, Hercules, Inc. MICHAEL REAGAN, Ellenzweig Associates PAUL R. RESNICK, DuPont Fluoroproducts (retired) AMOS B. SMITH III, University of Pennsylvania Staff RUTH MCDIARMID, Senior Program Officer MARIA P. JONES, Senior Project Assistant
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Laboratory Design, Construction, and Renovation: Participants, Process, and Product BOARD ON CHEMICAL SCIENCES AND TECHNOLOGY JOHN L. ANDERSON, Carnegie Mellon University, Co-Chair LARRY E. OVERMAN, University of California, Irvine, Co-Chair BARBARA J. GARRISON, Pennsylvania State University ALICE P. GAST, Stanford University LOUIS C. GLASGOW, DuPont Fluoroproducts KEITH E. GUBBINS, North Carolina State University NANCY B. JACKSON, Sandia National Laboratories JIRI JONAS, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign GEORGE E. KELLER II, Union Carbide Company (retired) RICHARD A. LERNER, Scripps Research Institute GREGORY A. PETSKO, Brandeis University WAYNE H. PITCHER, JR., Genencor International, Inc. KENNETH N. RAYMOND, University of California at Berkeley PAUL J. REIDER, Merck Research Laboratories LYNN F. SCHNEEMEYER, Bell Laboratories MARTIN B. SHERWIN, ChemVen Group, Inc. JEFFREY J. SIIROLA, Eastman Chemical Company CHRISTINE S. SLOANE, General Motors PETER J. STANG, University of Utah JOHN T. YATES, JR., University of Pittsburgh STEVEN W. YATES, University of Kentucky DOUGLAS J. RABER, Director RUTH MCDIARMID, Senior Program Officer CHRISTOPHER K. MURPHY, Program Officer SYBIL A. PAIGE, Administrative Associate MARIA P. JONES, Senior Project Assistant DAVID GRANNIS, Project Assistant (through July 1999)
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Laboratory Design, Construction, and Renovation: Participants, Process, and Product COMMISSION ON PHYSICAL SCIENCES, MATHEMATICS, AND APPLICATIONS PETER M. BANKS, Veridian Corporation/ERIM International, Inc., Co-Chair W. CARL LINEBERGER, University of Colorado, Co-Chair WILLIAM F. BALLHAUS, JR., Lockheed Martin Corporation SHIRLEY CHIANG, University of California at Davis MARSHALL H. COHEN, California Institute of Technology RONALD G. DOUGLAS, Texas A&M University SAMUEL H. FULLER, Analog Devices, Inc. JERRY P. GOLLUB, Haverford College MICHAEL F. GOODCHILD, University of California at Santa Barbara MARTHA P. HAYNES, Cornell University WESLEY T. HUNTRESS, JR., Carnegie Institution CAROL M. JANTZEN, Savannah River Technology Center PAUL G. KAMNSKI, Technovation, Inc. KENNETH H. KELLER, University of Minnesota JOHN R. KREICK, Sanders, a Lockheed Martin Company (retired) MARSHA I. LESTER, University of Pennsylvania DUSA M. MCDUFF, State University of New York at Stony Brook JANET L. NORWOOD, Former U.S. Commissioner of Labor Statistics M. ELISABETH PATÉ-CORNELL, Stanford University NICHOLAS P. SAMIOS, Brookhaven National Laboratory ROBERT J. SPINRAD, Xerox PARC (retired) NORMAN METZGER, Executive Director (through July 1999) MYRON F. UMAN, Acting Executive Director (as of August 1999)
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Laboratory Design, Construction, and Renovation: Participants, Process, and Product Preface In response to concerns of the community of users and administrators of research facilities, the Committee on Design, Construction, and Renovation of Laboratory Facilities (see Appendix A) was appointed by the National Research Council (NRC) to provide guidance on effective approaches for building laboratory facilities in the chemical and biochemical sciences (Appendix B gives the statement of task). The committee members were chosen for their knowledge and experience in aspects of laboratory design, construction, and renovation and included scientist-users, facilities managers, providers of design services (architects and engineers), and experts in the specialized areas of environmental health and safety, hazardous materials, and community relations. All of the members of the committee shared the community's concern about the problems of building laboratory facilities. Committee members' initial responses to the nature of these problems, possible solutions, and the content and style that the report might take were quite diverse. Following public meetings and presentations (Appendix C), however, the committee arrived at a consensus about these issues, deciding as a result to focus on how to have a successful laboratory facility designed and built, not on the details of laboratory construction. The committee based much of its report on testimony presented during its first two meetings by scientist-users, administrators, and design professionals, as well as consultants in the areas of fire protection, compliance with Environmental Protection Agency regulations and the Americans with Disabilities Act, and building code. Committee members also heard a presentation from the entire building team of one project—including a scientist-user, facilities manager, director of
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Laboratory Design, Construction, and Renovation: Participants, Process, and Product physical planning, architect, administrator, and construction manager (see Appendix C). The committee is grateful to the many individuals who provided technical information and insight during these briefings. This information provided a sound foundation on which the committee based its work. In addition, committee members were able to draw on their own experience. This study does not duplicate the numerous other publications on laboratory construction (see the bibliography). It is the committee's hope that scientist-users, institutional administrators, and institutional managers will use this report to become informed users of design services and that the professional design community will use this report to enhance its ability to interact with its clients. This study was conducted under the auspices of the NRC's Board on Chemical Sciences and Technology. The committee acknowledges this support. The chair is particularly grateful to the NRC staff as well as the members of this committee, who worked diligently and effectively on a demanding schedule to produce this report. John I. Brauman, Chair Committee on Design, Construction, and Renovation of Laboratory Facilities
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Laboratory Design, Construction, and Renovation: Participants, Process, and Product Acknowledgment of Reviewers This report has been reviewed by individuals chosen for their diverse perspectives and technical expertise, in accordance with procedures approved by the National Research Council's (NRC's) Report Review Committee. The purpose of this independent review is to provide candid and critical comments that will assist the authors and the NRC in making the published report as sound as possible and to ensure that the report meets institutional standards for objectivity, evidence, and responsiveness to the study charge. The content of the review comments and draft manuscript remain confidential to protect the integrity of the deliberative process. We wish to thank the following individuals for their participation in the review of this report: Gerald D. Begley, Eastman Chemical Company, Jacob Bigeleisen, State University of New York at Stony Brook, F. Peter Boer, Tiger Scientific, Inc., Ronald Breslow, Columbia University, Lawrence D. Brown, University of Pennsylvania, Ira Farber, Brandeis University, Rebekah G. Gladson, University of California at Irvine, Frederick D. Lewis, Northwestern University, Ann Norberg, 3M, Marion C. Thurnauer, Argonne National Laboratory, and K. Peter Walter, Howard Hughes Medical Institute. Although the individuals listed above provided many constructive comments and suggestions, responsibility for the final content of this report rests solely with the authoring committee and the NRC.
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Laboratory Design, Construction, and Renovation: Participants, Process, and Product Contents EXECUTIVE SUMMARY 1 1 HUMAN ISSUES 8 Participants 8 Project Champion 9 Participant Groups 9 Sociology 14 Need for Shared Input 15 Role of the User Representative 16 Final Product Considerations 17 Community Relations 21 Helpful Practices and Resources 22 Practices to Avoid 26 Recommendations 27 2 PROCESS ISSUES 28 Predesign Phase 30 Procedural Guidelines 30 Preliminary Considerations 33 Goals and Objectives 33 Predesign Phase Report Elements 34 Application of Predesign Phase Report 38 Design and Documentation Phase 38 Procedural Guidelines 39 Design and Documentation 41
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Laboratory Design, Construction, and Renovation: Participants, Process, and Product Construction Phase 46 Procedural Guidelines 47 Process Control 50 Special Issues Related to Laboratory Facilities 53 Postconstruction Phase 53 Building Commissioning 54 Postoccupancy Evaluation 55 Postconstruction Interactions 56 Financial Responsibilities of Ownership 56 Recommendations 58 3 TECHNICAL ISSUES 59 Environmental Health and Safety 59 Codes and Regulations 60 Environmental Issues 62 Health Issues 64 Safety Issues 69 Design Considerations 72 Building Design and Site Selection 75 Floor Planning 80 Laboratory Configuration 88 Building Services and Structure 95 Research Laboratory Cost Considerations 103 Budget Formulation 104 Build Versus Renovate 105 Building Construction Cost Considerations 106 Impact of Value-Adding Design Strategies 108 Costs and Cost Control during Design and Construction 110 Project Cost Components 116 Recommendations 124 BIBLIOGRAPHY 125 APPENDIXES A Biographical Sketches of Committee Members 129 B Statement of Task 133 C Committee Meetings 134 D Selection of a Design Professional 137 E Definitions 143 INDEX 149
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Laboratory Design, Construction, and Renovation: Participants, Process, and Product LABORATORY DESIGN CONSTRUCTION AND RENOVATION
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