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Ibe Embassy of the Future: Recommend~ns for the Design of Future U.S. Embassy Buildings

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The Embassy of the Future: Recommendations for the Design of Future U.S. Embassy Buildings Final Report NOTICE TO ACCOMPANY UNCLASSIFIED REPORT September 1986 This is an unclassified version of the original report submit- ted in January 1986 to the U.S. Department of State by the Committee on Research for the Security of Future U.S. Embassy Buildings, of the Building Research Board (BRB), Commission on Engineering and Technical Systems, National Research Council. This summary report does not include certain passages and mate- rials that appeared in the original report transmitted to the State Department, which contained information and recommendations that were deemed by the State Department to be classified. Also, the original committee report transmitted to the State Depart- ment was accompanied by eight technical appendixes that address areas of particular interest and concern. All of these appendixes were deemed by the State Department to contain information of a classified nature, not suitable for publication in an unclassified document. Readers of this report are urged to talce into account the fact that this committee's work spanned a period of nearly 18 months, during a time of substantial and rapid change within the State Department's Office of Foreign Buildings Operations (FBO). This

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report, therefore, reflects conditions and practices that were in a state of transition. By the time of the report's transmittal, many of the situations identified by the committee had been addressed by FBO. At the time this unclassified report was released, many of the committee's recommendations had been implemented; others were under active consideration. Committee on Research for the Security of Future U.S. Embassy Buildings Building Research Board Commission on Engineering and Technical Systems National Research Council NATIONAL ACADEMY PRESS Washington, D.C. 1986

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NOTICE: The project that Is the subject of this report was approved by the Governing Board of the National Research Council, whose members are drawn from the councils of the National Academy of Sciences, the National Academy of Engineering, and the Institute of Medicine. The members of the committee responsible for the report were chosen for their special competences and with regard for appropriate balance. The original report has been reviewed by a group other than the authors according to procedures approved by a Report Review Committee consisting of members of the National Academy of Sciences, the National Academy of Engineering, and the Institute of Medicine. The National Research Council was established by the National Academy of Sciences in 1916 to associate the broad community of science and technol- ogy with the Academy's purposes of furthering knowledge and of advising the federal government. The Council operates in accordance with general policies determined by the Academy under the authority of its congressional charter of 1863, which establishes the Academy as a private, nonprofit, self-governing membership corporation. The Council has become the principal operating agency of both the National Academy of Sciences and the National Academy of Engineering in the conduct of their services to the government, the public, and the scientific and engineering communities. It is administered jointly by both Academies and the Institute of Medicine. The National Academy of Engineering and the Institute of Medicine were established in 1964 and 1970, respectively, under the charter of the National Academy of Sciences. The original report was prepared through the Building Research Board, which is a unit of the Commission on Engineering and Technical Systems of the National Research Council. It wan prepared under Contract No. 1030- 562112 between the National Academy of Sciences and the State Department. For information regarding this document, write to the Director, Building Research Board, National Research Council, 2101 Constitution Avenue, NW, Washington, DC 20418. Printed in the United States of America - ~oAAS ~ationarAca~my Press ~ , The National Academy Press was created by the National Academy of Sciences to publish the reports issued by the Academy and by the National Academy of Engineering, the Institute of Medicine, and the National Research Council, all operating under the charter granted to the National Academy of Sciences by the Congress of the United States.

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BUILDING RESEARCH BOARD 1985-1986 Chairman GEoRGE S. JENKINS, President, Consultation Networks, Inc., Washington, D.C. Members ROSS B. COROTIS, Chairman, Department of Civil Engineering, Johns Hopkins University, Baltunore, Maryland RAY F. DeBRUHL, Director, State Construction, North Carolina Department of Administration, Raleigh, North Carolina RICHARD B. DeMARS, Chairman, Geupel-DeMars, Inc., Indianapolis, Indiana DAVID R. DIBNER, Senior Vice-President, Bernard Johnson, Inc. Bethesda, Maryland ROBERT C. DOBAN, Senior Vice-President, Science and Technology, Owen+Corning Fiberglas Corporation, Toledo, Ohio EZRA D. EHRENKRANTZ, President, The Ehrenkrantz Group, New York, New York DENOS C. GAZIS, Assistant Director, Semiconductor Science and Technology, IBM Research Center, Yorktown Heights, New York JOHN T. JOYCE, President, International Union of Bricklayers and Allied Craftsmen, Washington, D.C. RICHARD H. JUDY, Director, Dade County Aviation Department, Miami, Florida FREDERICK KRIMGOLD, Associate Dean for Research and Extension, Virginia Tech, Alexandria, Virginia ROBERT P. MARSHALL, Turner Construction Company (Retired), Vera Beach, Florida RICHARD L. TUCKER, Director, Construction Industry Institute, The University of Texas, Austin RALPH WIDNER, Executive Director, Greater Philadelphia First, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania v

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COMMITTEE ON RESEARCH FOR TH lc SECURITY OF FUTURE U.S. EMBASSY BUILDINGS Chairman DAVID R. DIBNER, Bernard Johnson, Inc., Bethesda, Maryland Members RICHARD T. BAUM, Jaros, Baum and Bones, New York, New York SEYMOUR A. BORTZ, IIT Research Institute, Chicago, Illinois ROBERT C. BREWSTER, U.S. Ambassador (Retired), Washington, D.C. RICHARD A. DAY, Severna Park, Maryland CHRISTOPHER DEGENHARDT, EDAW, Inc., San Erancisco, California BRIAN M. JENKINS, Rand Corporation, Santa Monica, California STUART L. KNOOP, Oudens + Knoop, Architects, Washington, D.C. MICHAEL R. MORRIS, Hanscomb Associates, Inc., Chicago, nlinois JOHN C. PIGNATO, Stone and Webster Engineering Corp., Boston, Massachusetts LESLIE E. ROBERTSON, Leslie E. Robertson Associates, New York, New York I,iaison Representatives ROBERT BURKE, The Smithsonian Institution DONALD B. BALDWIN, U.S. Army Corps of Engineers CHARLES CULVER, National Bureau of Standards SAMUEL E. DUNCAN, Veterans Adm~n~tration ROBERT FURLONG, U.S. Air Force RALPH JUSELL, U.S. Postal Service JOHN MOYER, General Services Administration BART RINEHART, The Smithsonian Institution MICHAEL YACHNIS, Naval Facilities Engineering Command State Department Representatives WILLIAM E. BISCHOFF, Acting Chief, Communication Security Division ~1

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DONALD J. BOUCHARD, Assistant Secretary for Administration HARVEY A. BUFFALO, JR., Office of the Inspector General GREGORIE W. BUJAC, Chief, Physical Security Division RICHARD N. DERTADIAN, Deputy Assistant Secretary of Foreign Buildings Operations DAVID C. FIELDS, Deputy Assistant Secretary for Diplomatic Security and Director, Diplomatic Security Service PETER E. GURVIN, Civil Structure Engineer, Office of Foreign Buildings Operations KENNETH C. KIDWELL, Chief, Communications Security Division ROBERT LAMB, Acting Assistant Secretary, Bureau of Diplomatic Security DENNIS LUNDSTEDT, Chief of Fire Protection, Office of Foreign Buildings Operations WILLIAM McCOLLOUGH, Assistant Director for Building Design, Office of Foreign Buildings Operations DAY MOUNT, Deputy Ass~tant Secretary for Information Systems ROBERT C. RIBERA, Deputy Assistant Secretary for Communications RICHARD ROBERTS, Deputy Chief, Standards and Design, Physical Security Division JOHN WOLF, Physical Security Division Consultants and Contractors KATHLEEN ALMAND, Cabin John, Maryland JEANETTE A. BEHRENDS, Daytona Beach, Florida ROLAND M. BINKER, Metcalf and Associates, Washington, D.C. MICHAEL W. DAVIS, The Perimeter Enhancement Group, Alexanciria, Virginia WILMOT ELMES and JOHN MAGLIANO, Syska and Hennessy, New York, New York DAVID B. HATTIS, Building Technology, Inc., Silver Spring, Maryland WILLIAM A. KEENAN, P.E., Naval Civil Engineering I.aboratory, Port Hueneme, California EARLE W. KENNETT, JR., Kensington, Maryland JAMES R. RILEY, Fort Lauderdale, Florida HEINZ R. TRECHSEL, H. R. Troche Associates, Germantown Maryland - V11

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JAMES D. WILLIAMS and DAVID SHEBY, The WLS Group, Albuquerque, New Mexico Building Research Board Stay JOHN P. EBERHARD, Director THOMAS V. VONIER, Project Director PETER H. SMEALLIE, Senior Program Officer PATRICIA M. WHOLEY, Administrative Assistant DONNA F. ALLEN, Senior Secretary SHEILA A. DAVIS, Senior Secretary DELPHINE D. GLAZE, Ad~runistrative Secretary -- V111

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pRli`.FACE In late 1984, the U.S. Congress, responding to growing con- cerns over the security of U.S. Foreign Service personnel and fa- cilities abroad, authorized the State Department to carry out advanced research on the development and application of state-of- the-art security measures. The State Department sought the ad- vice of the National Research Council's Building Research Board (BRB). The BRB established for this purpose in early 1985 the Com- mittee on Research for the Security of Future U.S. Embassy Build- ings. Its members include distinguished persons from a variety of fields, including building design and construction, landscape planning and design, physical and communications security, cost estimation and control, architecture, structural engineering, and mechanical and electrical engineering. The committee also in- cludes an ambassador of the United States (retired), a leading expert on terrorism and terrorist incidents, and liaison representa- tives from other agencies of the U.S. government that have active foreign and domestic construction programs. The committee and staff, aided by consultants and contrac- tors expert in fields related to building design and security, have conducted detailed inquiries into a broad range of subjects that are concerned with the security of personnel and vital information in U.S. embassy buildings. The committee has maintained active contact with many offices within the State Department, as well as with the Secretary of State's Advisory Panel on Overseas Se- curity. Members of the committee and staff traveled to a number of foreign posts and received numerous briefings from the State 1X

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Department and from other U.S. government agencies with related interests. This report summarizes the committee's recommendations after more than a year of work. The recommendations are con- cerned with security-related issues in virtually every aspect of the planning, design, construction, and management of the State Department's overseas buildings. In view of the plans now being implemented by the State Department to build anew, relocate, or substantially modify a large number of foreign posts, and in the face of ever-increasing concern over acts of terrorism and es- pionage directed against U.S. citizens and facilities abroad, the committee's work has taken on added urgency and significance. x