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Protection of Federal Office Buildings Against Terrorism

Committee on the Protection of Federal Facilities Against Terrorism

Building Research Board

Commission on Engineering and Technical Systems

National Research Council



    NATIONAL ACADEMY PRESS
    Washington, D.C.
1988



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Page i Protection of Federal Office Buildings Against Terrorism Committee on the Protection of Federal Facilities Against Terrorism Building Research Board Commission on Engineering and Technical Systems National Research Council NATIONAL ACADEMY PRESS Washington, D.C. 1988

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Page ii NOTICE: The project that is the subject of this report was approved by the Governing Board of the National Research Council, whose members are drawn from the councils of the National Academy of Sciences, the National Academy of Engineering, and the Institute of Medicine. The members of the committee responsible for the report were chosen for their special competencies and with regard for appropriate balance. This report has been reviewed by a group other than the authors according to procedures approved by a Report Review Committee consisting of members of the National Academy of Sciences, the National Academy of Engineering, and the Institute of Medicine. The National Academy of Sciences is a private, nonprofit, self-perpetuating society of distinguished scholars engaged in scientific and engineering research, dedicated to the furtherance of science and technology and to their use for the general welfare. Upon the authority of the charter granted to it by the Congress in 1863, the Academy has a mandate that requires it to advise the federal government on scientific and technical matters. Dr. Frank Press is president of the National Academy of Sciences. The National Academy of Engineering was established in 1964, under the charter of the National Academy of Sciences, as a parallel organization of outstanding engineers. It is autonomous in its administration and in the selection of its members, sharing with the National Academy of Sciences the responsibility for advising the federal government. The National Academy of Engineering also sponsors engineering programs aimed at meeting national needs, encourages education and research, and recognizes the superior achievements of engineers. Dr. Robert M. White is president of the National Academy of Engineering. The Institute of Medicine was established in 1970 by the National Academy of Sciences to secure the services of eminent members of appropriate professions in the examination of policy matters pertaining to the health of the public. The Institute acts under the responsibility given to the National Academy of Sciences by its congressional charter to be an adviser to the federal government, and upon its own initiative, to identify issues of medical care, research, and education. Dr. Samuel O. Thier is president of the Institute of Medicine. The National Research Council was established by the National Academy of Sciences in 1916 to associate the broad community of science and technology with the Academy's purposes of furthering knowledge and of advising the federal government. Functioning in accordance with general policies determined by the Academy, the Council has become the principal operating agency of both the National Academy of Sciences and the National Academy of Engineering in providing services to the government, the public, and the scientific and engineering communities. The Council is administered jointly by both Academies and the Institute of Medicine. Dr. Frank Press and Dr. Robert M. White are chairman and vice chairman, respectively, of the National Research Council. This report was prepared as part of the technical program of the Federal Construction Council (FCC). The FCC is a continuing activity of the Building Research Board, which is a unit of the Commission on Engineering and Technical Systems of the National Research Council. The purpose of the FCC is to promote cooperation among federal construction agencies and between such agencies and other elements of the building community in addressing technical issues of mutual concern. The FCC program is supported by 14 federal agencies: the Department of the Air Force, the Department of the Army, the Department of Commerce, the Department of Energy, the Department of the Navy, the Department of State, the General Services Administration, the National Aeronautics and Space Administration, the National Endowment for the Arts, the National Science Foundation, the U.S. Postal Service, the U.S. Public Health Service, the Smithsonian Institution, and the Veterans Administration. Funding for the FCC program was provided through the following agreements between the indicated federal agency and the National Academy of Sciences: Department of State Contract No. 1030-621218; National Endowment for the Arts Grant No. 42-4253-0091; National Science Foundation Grant No. MSM-8600676, under master agreement 82-05615; and U.S. Postal Service grant, unnumbered. For information regarding this document, write the Director, Building Research Board, National Research Council, 2101 Constitution Avenue, Washington, DC 20418. Printed in the United States of America

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Page iiiBUILDING RESEARCH BOARD 1986-87 Chairman GEORGE S. JENKINS, President, Consultation Networks, Washington, D.C. Members RICHARD T. BAUM, Consultant, Jaros, Baum and Bolles, New York, New York ROSS B. COROTIS, Chairman, Department of Civil Engineering, Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, Maryland RAY F. DeBRUHL, Senior Vice President, Davidson and Jones Corporation, Raleigh, North Carolina C. CHRISTOPHER DEGENHARDT, President, EDAW, Inc., San Francisco, California DAVID R. DIBNER, Senior Vice President, Bernard Johnson, Inc., Bethesda, Maryland ROBERT C. DOBAN, Senior Vice President for Science and Technology, Owens-Corning Fiberglas Corporation, Toledo, Ohio EZRA D. EHRENKRANTZ, President, The Ehrenkrantz Group and Eckstut, New York, New York DENOS C. GAZIS, Assistant Director for Semiconductor Science and Technology, IBM Research Center, Yorktown Heights, New York JOHN T. JOYCE, President, International Union of Bricklayers and Allied Craftsmen, Washington, D.C. RICHARD H. JUDY, Director, Dade County Aviation Department, Miami, Florida FREDERICK KRIMGOLD, Associate Dean for Research and Extension, Virginia Tech, Alexandria KENNETH F. REINSCHMIDT, Vice President, Stone and Webster Engineering Corporation, Boston, Massachusetts RICHARD L. TUCKER, Director, Construction Industry Institute, University of Texas, Austin JAMES E. WOODS, Senior Engineering Manager, Honeywell, Inc., Golden Valley, Minnesota APRIL L. YOUNG, Vice President, N.V.R. Development, McLean, Virginia

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Page ivCOMMITTEE ON THE PROTECTION OF FEDERAL FACILITIES AGAINST TERRORISM Chairman C. CHRISTOPHER DEGENHARDT, EDAW, Inc. San Francisco, California Members ROBERT A. CRIST, Wiss, Janney, Elstner Associates, Inc., Northbrook, Illinois ROBERT A. DIERKER, Smithsonian Institution, Washington, D.C. ROBERT W. MARANS, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor PETER A. MICHEL, President, Brink's Home Security, Dallas, Texas JOHN C. PIGNATO, Security Consultant, Groton, Massachusetts WILLIAM L. PULGRAM, Associated Space Design, Inc., Atlanta, Georgia Liaison Representatives DONALD B. BALDWIN, U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, Washington, D.C. ANTHONY BROWN, Naval Facilities Engineering Command, Alexandria, Virginia MANMOHAN CHAWLA, General Services Administration, Washington, D.C. ROBERT DIKKERS, National Bureau of Standards, Gaithersburg, Maryland ROBERT J. FURLONG, U.S. Air Force, Washington, D.C. TONY D. HINSON, Naval Facilities Engineering Command, Alexandria, Virginia PATRICK LINDSEY, U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, Omaha, Nebraska VINCE McCELLAND, U.S. Department of Energy, Washington, D.C. WILLIAM STRICKLAND, U.S. Air Force, Tyndall AFB, Florida Staff JOHN P. EBERHARD, Director PETER H. SMEALLIE, Project Director DONNA F. ALLEN, Senior Secretary

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Page v Preface By itself, the word terrorism connotes fear, violence, anger and frustration. Taken alone, terrorist attacks seem senseless, sudden, isolated and often, bloody. However, as a form of political warfare involving violence or the threat of violence, terrorism today is a recognized international phenomenon against which governments must institute protective measures. Continued attacks during the 1970s and early 1980s against U.S. embassy buildings and personnel abroad led the U.S. Department of State to propose in 1985 a massive new construction program to build a new generation of secure embassy buildings. The Building Research Board of the National Research Council advised the State Department on new design criteria to integrate state-of-the-art security considerations with the unique design requirements of embassy buildings (National Research Council, 1986). Participating in this year-long study were representatives from many of the 14 federal agencies of the Building Research Board's Federal Construction Council (FCC). Most, if not all, of the FCC agencies have some type of facility security program. By and large, these security programs are designed to protect against theft, vandalism and other types of transgressions. They are not necessarily directed against the occurrence of a terrorist act.

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Page vi Recognizing this, the FCC asked the National Research Council to establish a committee of experts to develop a report that addresses measures and techniques to protect federal buildings, and the people and information within them, against acts of terrorism. A primary purpose of this report is to stimulate and raise the awareness of owners and managers of federal buildings of the necessity for protective measures against terrorism. Addressing security is analogous to addressing the design of buildings to resist the effects of earthquakes where similar levels of risk exist. The risk may appear low or even negligable, but the consequences of even one severe occurence are so great that appropriate mitigating measures must be considered. NOTE National Research Council. 1986. The Embassy of the Future: Recommendations for the Design of Future U.S. Embassy Buildings, Washington, D.C.: National Academy Press.

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Page viiContents Summary 1 1.   Federal Office Buildings and the Threat of Terrorism 3 2.   Guidelines for Security Management 7 3.   Threat Assessment and Vulnerability Analysis 17 4.   Security Guidelines for Sites and Buildings 27 5.   Conclusions and Recommendations 43 Appendix A:   Vulnerability Checklist 47

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