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DRI DIETARY REFERENCE INTAKES FOR Vitamin C, Vitamin E, Selenium, and Carotenoids
Wahlqvist ML, Wattanapenpaiboon N, Macrae FA, Lambert JR, MacLennan R, Hsu-Hage BH. 1994. Changes in serum carotenoids in subjects with colorectal adenomas after 24 mo of beta-carotene supplementation. Australian Polyp Prevention Project Investigators. Am J Clin Nutr 60:936–943.
Wang X-D. 1994. Absorption and metabolism of beta-carotene. J Am Coll Nutr 13:314–325.
Wang X-D, Liu C, Bronson RT, Smith DE, Krinsky NI, Russell RM. 1999. Retinoid signaling and activator protein-1 expression in ferrets given beta-carotene supplements and exposed to tobacco smoke. J Natl Cancer Inst 91:60–66.
Wang Y, Ichiba M, Oishi H, Iyadomi M, Shono N, Tomokuni K. 1997. Relationship between plasma concentrations of beta-carotene and alpha-tocopherol and life-style factors and levels of DNA adducts in lymphocytes. Nutr Cancer 27:69–73.
West S, Vitale S, Hallfrisch J, Munoz B, Muller D, Bressler S, Bressler NM. 1994. Are antioxidants or supplements protective for age-related macular degeneration? Arch Ophthalmol 112:222–227.
Weststrate JA, Meijer GW. 1998. Plant sterol-enriched margarines and reduction of plasma total- and LDL-cholesterol concentrations in normocholesterolaemic and mildly hypercholesterolaemic subjects. Eur J Clin Nutr 52:334–343.
Weststrate JA, van her Hof KH. 1995. Sucrose polyester and plasma carotenoid concentrations in healthy subjects. Am J Clin Nutr 62:591–597.
White WS, Stacewicz-Sapuntzakis M, Erdman JW Jr, Bowen PE. 1994. Pharmacok netics of beta-carotene and canthaxanthin after ingestion of individual and combined doses by human subjects. J Am Coll Nutr 13:665–671.
Winklhofer-Roob BM, Puhl H, Khoschsorur G, van't Hof MA, Esterbauer H, Shmerling DH. 1995. Enhanced resistance to oxidation of low density lipopr teins and decreased lipid peroxide formation during beta-carotene supplementation in cystic fibrosis. Free Radic Biol Med 18:849–859.
Witter FR, Blake DA, Baumgardner R, Mellits ED, Niebyl JR. 1982. Folate, carotene, and smoking. Am J Obstet Gynecol 144:857.
WCRF/AICR (World Cancer Research Fund/American Institute for Cancer Research). 1997. Food, Nutrition and the Prevention of Cancer: A Global Perspective. Menasha, WI: BANTA Book Group.
Yong LC, Forman MR, Beecher GR, Graubard BI, Campbell WS, Reichman ME, Taylor PR, Lanza E, Holden JM, Judd JT. 1994. Relationship between dietary intake and plasma concentrations of carotenoids in premenopausal women: Application of the USDA-NCI carotenoid food-composition database. Am J Clin Nutr 60:223–230.
Zhang L-X, Cooney RV, Bertram JS. 1991. Carotenoids enhance gap junctional communication and inhibit lipid peroxidation in C3H/10T1/2 cells: Relationship to their cancer chemopreventive action. Carcinogenesis 12:2109–2114.
Zheng W, Blot WJ, Diamond EL, Norkus EP, Spate V, Morris JS, Comstock GW. 1993. Serum micronutrients and the subsequent risk of oral and pharyngeal cancer. Cancer Res 53:795–798.
Ziegler RG, Colavito EA, Hartge P, McAdams MJ, Schoenberg JB, Mason TJ, Fraumeni JF Jr. 1996a. Importance of alpha-carotene, beta-carotene, and other phytochemicals in the etiology of lung cancer. J Natl Cancer Inst 88:612–615.
Ziegler RG, Mayne ST, Swanson CA. 1996b. Nutrition and lung cancer. Cancer Causes Control 7:157–177.
Zino S, Skeaff M, Williams S, Mann J. 1997. Randomised controlled trial of effect of fruit and vegetable consumption on plasma concentrations of lipids and antioxidants. Br Med J 314:1787–1791.