consideration of all of the above factors. Information on these factors is contained in this report's sections describing the basis for each of the ULs.

REFERENCES

Dourson ML, Stara JF. 1983. Regulatory history and experimental support of uncertainty (safety) factors. Regul Toxicol Pharmacol 3:224–238.

FAO/WHO (Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations/World Health Organization). 1995. The Application of Risk Analysis to Food Standard Issues. Recommendations to the Codex Alimentarius Commission (ALINORM 95/9, Appendix 5). Geneva: World Health Organization.

FAO/WHO (Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations/World Health Organization). 1982. Evaluation of Certain Food Additives and Contaminants. Twenty-sixth report of the Joint FAO/WHO Expert Committee on Food Additives. WHO Technical Report Series No. 683. Geneva: World Health Organization.

Health Canada. 1993. Health Risk Determination—The Challenge of Health Protection. Ottawa: Health Canada, Health Protection Branch.

Hill AB. 1971. Principles of Medical Statistics, 9th edition. New York: Oxford University Press.

Klaassen CD, Amdur MO, Doull J. 1986. Casarett and Doull's Toxicology: The Basic Science of Poisons, 3rd edition. New York: Macmillan.

Mertz W, Abernathy CO, Olin SS. 1994. Risk Assessment of Essential Elements. Washington, DC: ILSI Press.

NRC (National Research Council). 1983. Risk Assessment in the Federal Government: Managing the Process. Washington, DC: National Academy Press.

NRC (National Research Council). 1994. Science and Judgment in Risk Assessment. Washington, DC: National Academy Press.

OTA (Office of Technology Assessment). 1993. Researching Health Risks. Washington, DC: Office of Technology Assessment.

WHO (World Health Organization). 1987. Principles for the Safety Assessment of Food Additives and Contaminants in Food. Environmental Health Criteria 70. Geneva: World Health Organization.

WHO (World Health Organization). 1996. Trace Elements in Human Nutrition and Health. Geneva: World Health Organization.

Zielhuis RL, van der Kreek FW. 1979. The use of a safety factor in setting health-based permissible levels for occupational exposure. Int Arch Occup Environ Hth 42:191–201.



The National Academies | 500 Fifth St. N.W. | Washington, D.C. 20001
Copyright © National Academy of Sciences. All rights reserved.
Terms of Use and Privacy Statement