In response to the need for a centralized, easy-to-use, scientifically-sound tool for assessing the appropriateness of stormwater runoff BMPs under various conditions, the Urban Water Resources Research Council of the American Society of Civil Engineers has entered into a cooperative agreement with the EPA to develop a National Stormwater BMP Database (http://www.bmpdatabase.org). The long-term goal of the project is to promote technical design improvements for BMPs and to better match their selection and design to the local stormwater problems being addressed. The database, which was released in late 1999, contains data from BMP evaluations conducted over the past 15 years (ASCE and EPA 1999). Database updates will be made available as additional BMP evaluation data are gathered.
overflow controls can be distributed at critical points throughout the watershed, such as at discharge locations. Another option is to collect nutrient-laden stormwater and control/treat it at a more centralized or downstream location. Such a regional facility may have advantages such as lower capital costs, reduced maintenance, and greater reliability (Stutler et al. 1995). Alternatively, a regional collection system may be better from the standpoint of the location of the receiving water discharge. For instance, the City of San Francisco collects combined sewage in large storage tanks placed along the Bay-side of the city. The combined sewage is then pumped across the dividing hills for treatment and discharge into the Pacific Ocean in the southwest corner of the city. In this way, combined sewer overflow loadings to San Francisco Bay are avoided, except for very high storm events.
The history of human development is one of encroachment upon wetlands and waterways, and loss of wetlands in coastal areas is substantial. An outstanding example is the Kissimmee River system of central Florida, which drains to Lake Okeechobee and ultimately, through the Everglades system to Florida Bay. Although not a coastal system, Lake Okeechobee has reacted to loss of upstream wetlands and attendant nutrient filtering with massive eutrophication problems since flood control facilities that straighten, narrow, and reduce the length of the river were built in the 1960s (Koebel 1995; SFWMD 1998; Koebel et al. 1999). The South Florida Water Management District is now working with the Corps