should be examined carefully when planning strategies for nutrient reduction.
The larger the tributary area to the coastal waters, the more important is source control in the control of coastal nutrient over-enrichment. However, managers have options beyond source control. For coastal waters with smaller tributary areas, mitigation strategies such as enhancement of coastal wetlands might be a possibility. Most nutrient management schemes rely on a combination of measures. In all cases, maintenance of natural systems, including water column biota and shellfish, is important. Economic incentives, such as tradable permits, have potential to be used to facilitate the design of comprehensive cost-effective management strategies.