With few exceptions, simulation models sponsored by federal government organizations dominate the non-urban watershed environment.
The model was developed by the U.S. Department of Agriculture’s (USDA) Agricultural Research Service. The primary emphasis of the model is on nutrients, soil erosion, and sediment yield for comparing the effects of various best management practices on agricultural pollutant loadings. The AGNPS model can simulate sediment and nutrient loads from agricultural watersheds for a single storm event or for a continuous simulation. The watershed must be divided into a uniform grid (square cells). The cells are grouped by dividing the basin into subwatersheds. However, water flow and pollutant routing is accomplished by a function of the unit hydrograph type, which is a lumped parameter approach. The model does not simulate pesticides.
AGNPS is also capable of simulating point inputs such as feedlots, wastewater discharges, and stream bank and gully erosion. In the model, pollutants are routed from the top of the watershed to the watershed outlet in a series of steps. The modified universal soil erosion equation is used for predicting soil loss in five different particle sizes (clay, silt, sand, small aggregates, and large aggregates). The pollutant transport portion is subdivided into one part handling soluble pollutants and another part handling sediment absorbed pollutants. The input data requirements are extensive, but most of the data can be retrieved from topographic and soil maps, local meteorological information, field observations, and various publications, tables, and graphs provided in the user manual or references.
The model was developed by the Agricultural Engineering Department of Purdue University. It is a distributed parameter model designed to simulate rainfall-runoff events. Currently the model is maintained and distributed by the Agricultural Engineering Department, University of Georgia, Tifton, Georgia. To use the ANSWERS model, the watershed is divided into a uniform grid (square elements). The element may range from one to four hectares. Within each element the model simulates the