vary, from inadequate modeling or data, to lag times in seeing results, to ineffectual management actions. In general, many of these programs could benefit from independent, objective analysis of the effectiveness of their planning, assessment, and management processes.

The local, state, and federal elements of the proposed National Nutrient Management Strategy could provide information and assistance with the development and implementation of effective management at all levels, and a means for objective independent review. As noted many times in this report, effective management is site-specific and unique for every estuary and coastal water body, with no universal “right answers.” An adaptive management approach, using accessible and emerging tools, knowledge of successful techniques, coupled with and supported by a strong monitoring program, appears to provide the highest probability of long-term success.



The National Academies | 500 Fifth St. N.W. | Washington, D.C. 20001
Copyright © National Academy of Sciences. All rights reserved.
Terms of Use and Privacy Statement